Second person social cognition cannot be restricted to dyadic interactions between two persons (the and the ). Many instances of social communication are triadic, and involve a third person (the ), which is the object of the interaction. We discuss neuropsychological and brain imaging data showing that triadic interactions involve dedicated brain networks distinct from those of dyadic interactions.
Charlotte Wolff was born in Riesenburg, West Prussia into a middle-class Jewish family. She studied philosophy and then medicine at several German universities, completing her doctorate in Berlin in 1926. Working in various institutions over the next few years, she was also interested in psychotherapy and had a small private medical and psychotherapeutic practice. In 1933 she was forced to leave Germany because of the Nazi regime, and settled for a few years in Paris. As a German refugee she (...) was unable to practice medicine, so she began her research into the correlation between hand traits and personality. In 1936 she went to London to continue her research work and lived there until her death. An active lesbian from an early age, her later research turned to sexology and her writing on lesbianism and bisexuality were influential early works in the field. This is a great opportunity to rediscover her early work, including her first autobiography. (shrink)
Although nearly 99% of abortions in New Zealand are permitted in order to prevent danger or injury to a woman’s mental health (the ‘mental health exception’), the reasons why mental health considerations should effectively control access to abortion are not altogether clear. This article analyses abortion case law, statutes and debates from New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States to attempt to explain the legal connection between mental health considerations and access to abortion. The article argues that the (...) mental health exception evolved in response to a change in the predominant construction of women seeking abortion from ‘selfish’ to ‘desperate’, coinciding with increasing societal subscription to an expanded view of psychological harm. By conceptually accommodating both constructions of women seeking abortion, the article argues that the mental health exception usefully enabled society generally to proscribe the practice of abortion on the basis that it was unnatural and irrational, while nevertheless permitting it in cases considered to be deserving. (shrink)
L’ouvrage de Charlotte Coulombeau est entrepris en philosophe, et c’est bien en tant que telle que l’auteur s’attache à clarifier chez Lessing les rapports complexes entre philosophie, poésie, critique, métaphysique, religion, histoire et éthique. L’intérêt de cette étude pour le linguistique réside cependant dans la large part accordée au style de Lessing et à ses stratégies de communication (pp. 382-539). Monument de la littérature allemande, l’œuvre de Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a de quoi d..
The High Court ruling that a premature baby should be not be resuscitatedLate in the afternoon of Thursday, 7 October 2004, Mr Justice Hedley ruled in a highly publicised dispute between parents and doctors about the future care of a severely disabled infant.1 With sadness, and some reluctance, the judge held that Charlotte Wyatt should not be subjected to any further invasive or aggressive treatment to prolong her life, despite her parents’ insistence that she be given every chance to (...) survive a little longer. The judgment was limited in scope. The judge did no more than authorise Charlotte’s doctors “in the event of a disagreement between the parents and themselves, not to send the child for artificial ventilation or similar aggressive treatment”.The fate of baby Charlotte attracted massive media coverage. Just a week later another dispute between a mother and her child’s doctors hit the headlines.2 A third dispute about the care of an older child also looks likely to end up in court.3 However, Charlotte’s case is unusual only in that the case was heard in open court and because it attracted such publicity. For at least 23 years,4 the Family Division of the High Court in England has heard a series of cases when parents and professionals have profoundly disagreed about how best to treat, or not to treat, a very sick baby. As happened in Charlotte’s case, the courts have usually,5 in the end, endorsed the professionals’ judgment about the best interests of the infant. The coincidence of three such high profile cases has prompted speculation that parents will …. (shrink)
"Quod habet principium sed caret fine": this idea of the perpetual is expresssed in both the schools and courts of the twelfth-century renaissance. The philosophers conceive the perpetual as intermediate between time and eternity; according to masters of the school of Chartres, moreover, the world itself is perpetual. For the troubadour poets, the perpetual functions rhetorically. The moralist Marcabru treats the personified abstraction as perpetual, continuous in identity yet subject to change, thus achieving a satiric duality of vision. The love (...) poet Bernart de Ventadorn develops a "poetics of perpetuity", using the very tensions and instabilities of fin'amors to fashions ideal and endless courtly worlds. (shrink)
resumo É possível distinguir ao menos três etapas principais nas abordagens filosóficas da noção de sujeito: na etapa metafísica a estrutura do sujeito é pens a da em termos de substância; na etapa transcendental , o sujeito é visto como polarida de unificadora de horizontes; na etapa psic a na l í t ica, o sujeito é de f i n ido como estrutura vazia. O sujeito tra ns c e nde ntal é uma estrutura para o mu ndo, enqua (...) nto o sujeito psicanalítico precisa ter uma estrutura em si me s mo para estruturar sua ausênc ia ontológica. Para Lacan, essa ausênc ia ont o l ó g ica se torna manifesta me d ia nte a ling ua gem. A estrutura do sujeito é concebida como uma estrutura de significação. Este artigo compara esses três pontos de vista sobre o sujeito e discute que relevância a idéia de estrutura pode ter para a compreensão do conceito. palavras-chave Sujeito metafísico; sujeito transcendental; sujeito psic a nalítico; estrutura; Platão; Kant; Fichte; Lacan. (shrink)
After launching his career with the 1947 publication of his dissertation, _Occidental Eschatology_, Jacob Taubes spent the early years of his career as a fellow and then professor at various American institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia. During his American years, he also gathered together a number of prominent thinkers at his weekly seminars on Jewish intellectual history. In the mid-60s, Taubes joined the faculty of the Free University in West Berlin, initially as the city's first Jewish Studies professor of (...) the postwar period. But his work and interest expanded beyond the boundaries of the field of Jewish Studies to broader philosophical questions, particularly in the philosophy of religion. A charismatic speaker and a great polemicist, Taubes had a phenomenal ability to create interdisciplinary conversations in the humanities, engaging scholars from philosophy, literature, theology, and intellectual history. The essays presented here represent the fruit of conversations, conferences, and workshops that he organized over the course of his career. (shrink)
Des droits fondamentaux au fondement du droit, le lien semble non seulement direct, mais évident. Or l'examen des différents discours théoriques sur le droit montre qu'il n'en est rien. Le livre de Charlotte Girard analyse précisément les différences de traitement du rapport entre ces deux termes dans les discours théoriques juridiques, en particulier ceux qui posent la question du fondement du droit. Soit l'étude des droits fondamentaux se distingue de celle du fondement du droit - les droits fondamentaux ne (...) mènent pas naturellement au fondement du droit -, soit on associe les deux notions - les droits fondamentaux sont au fondement même du droit. Or cette distinction renvoie à ce que la théorie du droit différencie traditionnellement : les approches juspositiviste d'une part et jusnaturaliste d'autre part. La confrontation de ces discours théoriques à la question du fondement du droit, qu'elle se traduise ou non par les droits fondamentaux, révèle une certaine fragilité des présupposés respectifs de ces discours. En réalité, le fondement du droit n'est pas seulement un élément de débat juridique et normatif, mais il relève aussi et surtout d'un débat politique et institutionnel. C'est en effet en raison de son caractère normatif que le fondement du droit - quel que soit le discours qui le porte, y compris le discours juridique théorique - appartient pleinement au champ politique. (shrink)
With her older, successful boyfriend, Susannah has the perfect life for a philosophy student, but things become complicated when she begins having an affair with her tutorial partner and becomes pregnant.
Guides you step-by-step through the functions on your new Canon EOS 5D Mark III dSLR camera The Canon EOS 5D Mark III full-frame dSLR camera features an impressive 22.3 megapixels, a 3.2-inch LCD screen, 6 fps continuous shooting, Live View, an ISO range of 50 to 102,400 and full HD 1080 resolution movie shooting. Here to help you get the most out of these remarkable features and offering you more in-depth coverage than the standard manual, this full-color Canon 5D Mark (...) III Digital Field Guide provides you with guidance on how and when to use each button, dial, and menu option. Delivering information in an easy-to-understand format, this portable guide features more than 200 inspirational photos by acclaimed photographer and veteran author Charlotte Lowrie. The handy trim size allows this guide to go where you go, providing you with easy access to information quickly so you can get the exact shot you want when you want it. Helps you make the most of your Canon EOS 5D Mark III and get the shots you want Offers full detailed coverage of when and how to use each and every button, dial, and menu option on this sophisticated new dSLR Provides step-by-step explanations on techniques and tips, all aimed at getting you comfortable and confident with your new Canon 5D Mark III Sized to fit in a camera bag, the book includes a bonus gray and color checker card to help you capture perfect white balance and color every time. Ideal reading for both amateur and professional photographers alike, you'll reference Canon 5D Mark III Digital Field Guide again and again. (shrink)
No-fail formulas for getting great digital photos with the Canon EOS 7D If you want to polish your photography skills, keep your camera bag stocked with the best equipment, like Canon's new EOS 7D camera and this practical, full-color Canon EOS 7D Digital Field Guide. Portable and packed with information, this handy guide helps you get the very most out of the EOS 7D's powerful new features. Discover professional shooting tricks, helpful composition advice, and invaluable tips on exposure, perspective, and (...) more. The book also includes a grey and color checker card, so you can tweak your captured photos for optimal colorization. From menu screens to composition, this book provides no-fail techniques for getting the most out of your Canon EOS 7D digital camera Covers the camera's new features, including the 19-point autofocus, new metering system, integrated Speedlight Transmitter, 8-frames-per-second shooting ratio, and improved HD video capturing Helps you take your photography skills to another level with photography tips and tricks from professional photographer and author Charlotte Lowrie Teaches you photography essentials such as composition, exposure, perspective, and more Includes a grey and color card checker and full instructions with the book Take memorable photographs with your new Canon EOS 7D and the Canon EOS 7D Digital Field Guide! (shrink)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a prominent and effective figure for social change in her prime, yet, despite her prodigious literary output, she had little direct influence on the generations immediately following her. Even before her death, all of her works were out of print. She has been the subject of increasingly widespread attention since her rediscovery, yet, although she was a stalwart advocate for women's rights, many of Gilman's views make hers a problematic revival. That Gilman has a place (...) in the history of feminism is undeniable, but how to situate her, and especially Herland, in relation to contemporary feminist thought remains a matter of debate. Feminist scholars have long been engaged in the question... (shrink)
Eric Cassell famously defined suffering as a person’s severe distress at a threat to their personal integrity. This article draws attention to some problems with the concept of distress in this theory. In particular, I argue that Cassell’s theory turns on distress but does not define it which, in light of the complexity of distress, problematizes suffering in three ways: first, suffering becomes too equivocal to apply in at least some cases that Cassell nevertheless identifies as suffering; second, Cassell’s account (...) does not explain what sort of experience suffering is, resulting in theoretical and practical difficulties in distinguishing it from other medical conditions; third, there is good reason to believe that in medical contexts, ‘distress’ just means ‘suffering’ or some cognate concept not yet distinguished from it, rendering Cassell’s theory circular. I consider a rebuttal to my objections and reply, concluding that Cassell’s theory of suffering needs a definition of distress to settle what the nature of suffering really is. (shrink)
Charlotte Sabourin | : Cet article se penche sur la contribution de Gabrielle Suchon à la célèbre « querelle des femmes ». J’y démontre que, quoique Suchon défende l’égalité des deux sexes en ce qui a trait à leurs capacités à la liberté, à la science et à l’autorité, elle vise ultimement à montrer que les femmes peuvent se rendre supérieures aux hommes. Je montrerai que son projet d’élévation des femmes ne peut être accompli qu’en soustrayant les femmes à (...) l’influence des hommes, les relations entre les deux sexes étant foncièrement préjudiciables aux premières. | : This paper examines Gabrielle Suchon’s contribution to the famous “querelle des femmes”. I argue that although Suchon is a proponent of the equality of the sexes with respect to their capacities for freedom, science and authority, she ultimately suggests that there is a way in which women can make themselves superior to men. I will show that her project for the elevation of women can be accomplished only by isolating women from men, given that the relationships between the sexes will always be detrimental to women. (shrink)
Charlotte Sabourin | : Cet article vise à souligner l’importance du rôle joué par la conception kantienne des Lumières dans la Critique de la raison pure. On verra en effet que la connaissance de soi au coeur du projet critique gagne à être comprise en relation avec l’idée de penser par soi-même. Cette connaissance de soi dévoile cependant certaines erreurs tenaces commises par la raison, qui doivent précisément être rectifiées sous peine de compromettre la liberté de penser. La conception (...) kantienne des Lumières nous permettra ainsi de faire sens de la nature réflexive de l’entreprise critique. | : The aim of this paper is to show that the Kantian conception of enlightenment plays an important role in the Critique of Pure Reason. I will show that the self-knowledge central to Kant’s critical philosophy can be better understood by considering it in relation with the idea of thinking for oneself. Moreover, this self-knowledge reveals some deep-rooted errors made by pure reason that must be rectified in order not to compromise freedom of thought. I will thus use Kant’s conception of enlightenment to make sense of the reflexive nature of the critical project. (shrink)
This article looks at the way the Brazilian writer and educator Nísia Floresta addresses issues of race and class within her construction of nationhood. This is achieved through a consideration of the specific subject of maternal breast-feeding as discussed by Floresta in two texts, written in Brazil and France, respectively. A comparison of these works reveals a very different engagement with race and class factors in determining women's claim to citizenship. Floresta, in common with early 19th-century European feminism, believed this (...) claim to lie within the domestic sphere, primarily in the role of mother and educator. The article considers how, as a vital aspect of that role, she portrays maternal breast-feeding as both natural and patriotic. It also highlights the extent to which Floresta was influenced by the prevailing concerns of her contemporaries regarding the risks of wet nursing and the threat posed by household slaves, before going on to consider how this discourse leads Floresta to exclude black slave women from her vision of patriotic motherhood, while acknowledging the maternity of women of all classes in a European context. Patriotic concerns, shaped by racial prejudices, overshadow Floresta's feminism, prohibiting the kind of unifying discourse of motherhood, which she claimed to profess. (shrink)