Results for 'Chernyakov Maxim'

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  1.  27
    Maximal God: A New Defence of Perfect Being Theism.Yujin Nagasawa - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Yujin Nagasawa presents a new, stronger version of perfect being theism, the conception of God as the greatest possible being. Nagasawa argues that God should be understood, not as omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent, but rather as a being that has the maximal consistent set of knowledge, power, and benevolence.
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  2. Henri germond: Le pasteur dans la cité I Maxime chasta1ng: Une digression philosophique de saint Augustin: La communauté Des esprits voyageurs 11 étuDes critiques. [REVIEW]Maxime Chasta1ng - 1953 - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 3.
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  3.  50
    Crafting Maxims.Tobey Scharding - 2016 - Teaching Ethics 16 (1):37-53.
    To use Kantian ethics in an applied context, decision makers typically try to determine whether the “maxim” of their possible action conforms to Kant’s supreme principle of morality: “I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (4:402). The action’s maxim is a way of expressing the decision maker’s (a) putative action and (b) conditions that prompt the action in a (c) preposition of (...)
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  4. Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function.Michael C. Jensen - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2):235-256.
    Abstract: In this article, I offer a proposal to clarify what I believe is the proper relation between value maximization and stakeholder theory, which I call enlightened value maximization. Enlightened value maximization utilizes much of the structure of stakeholder theory but accepts maximization of the long-run value of the firm as the criterion for making the requisite tradeoffs among its stakeholders, and specifies long-term value maximization or value seeking as the firm’s objective. This proposal therefore solves the problems that arise (...)
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  5.  16
    Van Mazijk, Corijn: Perception and Reality in Kant, Husserl, and McDowell: Routledge, 2020. ISBN 9780367441807, 174 Pp. US-$ 155.Maxime Doyon - 2021 - Husserl Studies 37 (1):93-101.
  6. Lockeans Maximize Expected Accuracy.Kevin Dorst - 2019 - Mind 128 (509):175-211.
    The Lockean Thesis says that you must believe p iff you’re sufficiently confident of it. On some versions, the 'must' asserts a metaphysical connection; on others, it asserts a normative one. On some versions, 'sufficiently confident' refers to a fixed threshold of credence; on others, it varies with proposition and context. Claim: the Lockean Thesis follows from epistemic utility theory—the view that rational requirements are constrained by the norm to promote accuracy. Different versions of this theory generate different versions of (...)
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  7.  44
    Maximization Theory in Behavioral Psychology.Howard Rachlin, Ray Battalio, John Kagel & Leonard Green - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):371-388.
  8. La Pensée Grecque Et les Origines de l'Esprit Scientifique. Nouv. Éd. Avec Une Bibliographie Complémentaiire Par Pierre-Maxime Schuhl. [REVIEW]Léon Robin & Pierre Maxime Schuhl - 1963 - A. Michel.
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  9.  8
    Normativity in Perception.Maxime Doyon & Thiemo Breyer (eds.) - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Human activity is permeated by norms of all sorts: moral norms provide the 'code' for what we ought to do, norms of logic regulate how we ought to reason, scientific norms set the standards for what counts as knowledge, legal norms determine what is lawfully permitted and what isn't, aesthetic norms establish canons of beauty and shape artistic trends and practices, and socio-cultural norms provide criteria for what counts as tolerable, just, praiseworthy, or unacceptable in a community or milieu. Given (...)
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  10. Will, Maxim and the Moral Law.Yusuke Kaneko - 2008 - Tetsugaku-Zasshi 123 (795):227-246.
    Although written in Japanese, 意志・格率・道徳法則(Will, Maxim and the Moral Law)pursues the logical connection of these Kantian tools in ethics. Note: the structure of the uploaded document is not the same as the published one.
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  11. Why Maximize Expected Choice‐Worthiness?1.William MacAskill & Toby Ord - 2020 - Noûs 54 (2):327-353.
    This paper argues in favor of a particular account of decision‐making under normative uncertainty: that, when it is possible to do so, one should maximize expected choice‐worthiness. Though this position has been often suggested in the literature and is often taken to be the ‘default’ view, it has so far received little in the way of positive argument in its favor. After dealing with some preliminaries and giving the basic motivation for taking normative uncertainty into account in our decision‐making, we (...)
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  12. Husserl's "Genealogy of Logic", Space-Constitution, and Noetic Geometry.Alexei Chernyakov - 1997 - Recherches Husserliennes 7:61-86.
  13. Maximality Principles in Set Theory.Luca Incurvati - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (2):159-193.
    In set theory, a maximality principle is a principle that asserts some maximality property of the universe of sets or some part thereof. Set theorists have formulated a variety of maximality principles in order to settle statements left undecided by current standard set theory. In addition, philosophers of mathematics have explored maximality principles whilst attempting to prove categoricity theorems for set theory or providing criteria for selecting foundational theories. This article reviews recent work concerned with the formulation, investigation and justification (...)
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  14.  82
    Maximize Presupposition! And Local Contexts.Raj Singh - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (2):149-168.
    Maximize Presupposition! is an economy condition that adjudicates between contextually equivalent competing structures. Building on data discovered by O. Percus, I will argue that the constraint is checked in the local contexts of embedded constituents. I will argue that this architecture leads to a general solution to the problem of antipresupposition projection, and also allows I. Heim’s ‘Novelty/Familiarity Condition’ to be eliminated as a constraint on operations of context change.
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  15. Maximality and Intrinsic Properties.Theodore Sider - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (2):357 - 364.
    A property, F, is maximal iff, roughly, large parts of an F are not themselves Fs.' Maximality makes trouble for a recent analysis of intrinsicality by Rae Langton and David Lewis.
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  16. Satisficing and Maximizing: Moral Theorists on Practical Reason.Michael Byron (ed.) - 2004 - New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    How do we think about what we plan to do? One dominant answer is that we select the best possible option available. However, a growing number of philosophers would offer a different answer: since we are not equipped to maximize we often choose the next best alternative, one that is no more than satisfactory. This strategy choice is called satisficing. This collection of essays explores both these accounts of practical reason, examining the consequences for adopting one or the other for (...)
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  17. Maximality and Microphysical Supervenience.Theodore Sider - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):139-149.
    A property, F, is maximal i?, roughly, large parts of an F are not themselves Fs. Maximal properties are typically extrinsic, for their instantiation by x depends on what larger things x is part of. This makes trouble for a recent argument against microphysical superve- nience by Trenton Merricks. The argument assumes that conscious- ness is an intrinsic property, whereas consciousness is in fact maximal and extrinsic.
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  18.  92
    Maximality, Function, and the Many.Robert Francescotti - 2019 - Metaphysica 20 (2):175-193.
    In the region where some cat sits, there are many very cat-like items that are proper parts of the cat (or otherwise mereologically overlap the cat) , but which we are inclined to think are not themselves cats, e.g. all of Tibbles minus the tail. The question is, how can something be so cat-like without itself being a cat. Some have tried to answer this “Problem of the Many” (a problem that arises for many different kinds of things we regularly (...)
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  19.  15
    Maximal Non-Trivial Sets of Instances of Your Least Favorite Logical Principle.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy 117 (1):30-54.
    The paper generalizes Van McGee's well-known result that there are many maximal consistent sets of instances of Tarski's schema to a number of non-classical theories of truth. It is shown that if a non-classical theory rejects some classically valid principle in order to avoid the truth-theoretic paradoxes, then there will be many maximal non-trivial sets of instances of that principle that the non-classical theorist could in principle endorse. On the basis of this it is argued that the idea of classical (...)
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  20. Zimbabwe's Migrants and South Africa's Border Farms: The Roots of Impermanence.Maxim Bolt - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    During the Zimbabwean crisis, millions crossed through the apartheid-era border fence, searching for ways to make ends meet. Maxim Bolt explores the lives of Zimbabwean migrant labourers, of settled black farm workers and their dependants, and of white farmers and managers, as they intersect on the border between Zimbabwe and South Africa. Focusing on one farm, this book investigates the role of a hub of wage labour in a place of crisis. A close ethnographic study, it addresses the complex, (...)
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  21. Maximize Presupposition and Gricean Reasoning.Philippe Schlenker - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):391-429.
    Recent semantic research has made increasing use of a principle, Maximize Presupposition, which requires that under certain circumstances the strongest possible presupposition be marked. This principle is generally taken to be irreducible to standard Gricean reasoning because the forms that are in competition have the same assertive content. We suggest, however, that Maximize Presupposition might be reducible to the theory of scalar implicatures. (i)First, we consider a special case: the speaker utters a sentence with a presupposition p which is not (...)
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  22. Maximal Specificity and Lawlikeness in Probabilistic Explanation.Carl Gustav Hempel - 1968 - Philosophy of Science 35 (2):116-133.
    The article is a reappraisal of the requirement of maximal specificity (RMS) proposed by the author as a means of avoiding "ambiguity" in probabilistic explanation. The author argues that RMS is not, as he had held in one earlier publication, a rough substitute for the requirement of total evidence, but is independent of it and has quite a different rationale. A group of recent objections to RMS is answered by stressing that the statistical generalizations invoked in probabilistic explanations must be (...)
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  23.  45
    Maximal Cluelessness.Andreas L. Mogensen - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly 71 (1):141-162.
    I argue that many of the priority rankings that have been proposed by effective altruists seem to be in tension with apparently reasonable assumptions about the rational pursuit of our aims in the face of uncertainty. The particular issue on which I focus arises from recognition of the overwhelming importance and inscrutability of the indirect effects of our actions, conjoined with the plausibility of a permissive decision principle governing cases of deep uncertainty, known as the maximality rule. I conclude that (...)
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  24. Against Maximizing Act-Consequentialism (June 30, 2008).Peter Vallentyne - 2006 - In James Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theories. Blackwell. pp. 6--21.
    Maximizing act consequentialism holds that actions are morally permissible if and only if they maximize the value of consequences—if and only if, that is, no alternative action in the given choice situation has more valuable consequences.[i] It is subject to two main objections. One is that it fails to recognize that morality imposes certain constraints on how we may promote value. Maximizing act consequentialism fails to recognize, I shall argue, that the ends do not always justify the means. Actions with (...)
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  25. Maximizing Over Multiple Pattern Databases Speeds Up Heuristic Search.Robert C. Holte, Ariel Felner, Jack Newton, Ram Meshulam & David Furcy - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence 170 (16-17):1123-1136.
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  26.  40
    Pragmatic Maxims and Presumptions in Legal Interpretation.Fabrizio Macagno, Douglas Walton & Giovanni Sartor - 2018 - Law and Philosophy 37 (1):69-115.
    The fields of linguistic pragmatics and legal interpretation are deeply interrelated. The purpose of this paper is to show how pragmatics and the developments in argumentation theory can contribute to the debate on legal interpretation. The relation between the pragmatic maxims and the presumptions underlying the legal canons are brought to light, unveiling the principles that underlie the types of argument usually used to justify a construction. The Gricean maxims and the arguments of legal interpretation are regarded as presumptions subject (...)
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  27.  79
    Utility Maximization and Bounds on Human Information Processing.Andrew Howes, Richard L. Lewis & Satinder Singh - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):198-203.
    Utility maximization is a key element of a number of theoretical approaches to explaining human behavior. Among these approaches are rational analysis, ideal observer theory, and signal detection theory. While some examples of these approaches define the utility maximization problem with little reference to the bounds imposed by the organism, others start with, and emphasize approaches in which bounds imposed by the information processing architecture are considered as an explicit part of the utility maximization problem. These latter approaches are the (...)
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  28. Natural Selection and the Maximization of Fitness.Jonathan Birch - 2016 - Biological Reviews 91 (3):712-727.
    The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the ‘new’ interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem (...)
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  29.  29
    Kant on Maxims and Moral Motivation: A New Interpretation.Peter Herissone-Kelly - 2018 - Springer.
    This book outlines and circumvents two serious problems that appear to attach to Kant’s moral philosophy, or more precisely to the model of rational agency that underlies that moral philosophy: the problem of experiential incongruence and the problem of misdirected moral attention. The book’s central contention is that both these problems can be sidestepped. In order to demonstrate this, it argues for an entirely novel reading of Kant’s views on action and moral motivation. In addressing the two main problems in (...)
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  30. Justifying Conditionalization: Conditionalization Maximizes Expected Epistemic Utility.Hilary Greaves & David Wallace - 2006 - Mind 115 (459):607-632.
    According to Bayesian epistemology, the epistemically rational agent updates her beliefs by conditionalization: that is, her posterior subjective probability after taking account of evidence X, pnew, is to be set equal to her prior conditional probability pold(·|X). Bayesians can be challenged to provide a justification for their claim that conditionalization is recommended by rationality—whence the normative force of the injunction to conditionalize? There are several existing justifications for conditionalization, but none directly addresses the idea that conditionalization will be epistemically rational (...)
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  31.  25
    Maximal and Premaximal Paraconsistency in the Framework of Three-Valued Semantics.Ofer Arieli, Arnon Avron & Anna Zamansky - 2011 - Studia Logica 97 (1):31 - 60.
    Maximality is a desirable property of paraconsistent logics, motivated by the aspiration to tolerate inconsistencies, but at the same time retain from classical logic as much as possible. In this paper we introduce the strongest possible notion of maximal paraconsistency, and investigate it in the context of logics that are based on deterministic or non-deterministic three-valued matrices. We show that all reasonable paraconsistent logics based on three-valued deterministic matrices are maximal in our strong sense. This applies to practically all three-valued (...)
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  32.  17
    On ◁∗-Maximality.Mirna Džamonja & Saharon Shelah - 2004 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 125 (1-3):119-158.
    This paper investigates a connection between the semantic notion provided by the ordering * among theories in model theory and the syntactic SOPn hierarchy of Shelah. It introduces two properties which are natural extensions of this hierarchy, called SOP2 and SOP1. It is shown here that SOP3 implies SOP2 implies SOP1. In Shelah's article 229) it was shown that SOP3 implies *-maximality and we prove here that *-maximality in a model of GCH implies a property called SOP2″. It has been (...)
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  33.  6
    The Hyperuniverse Project and Maximality.Carolin Antos, Sy-David Friedman, Radek Honzik & Claudio Ternullo (eds.) - 2018 - Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.
    This collection documents the work of the Hyperuniverse Project which is a new approach to set-theoretic truth based on justifiable principles and which leads to the resolution of many questions independent from ZFC. The contributions give an overview of the program, illustrate its mathematical content and implications, and also discuss its philosophical assumptions. It will thus be of wide appeal among mathematicians and philosophers with an interest in the foundations of set theory. The Hyperuniverse Project was supported by the John (...)
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  34.  83
    The Maximal Linear Extension Theorem in Second Order Arithmetic.Alberto Marcone & Richard A. Shore - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (5-6):543-564.
    We show that the maximal linear extension theorem for well partial orders is equivalent over RCA 0 to ATR 0. Analogously, the maximal chain theorem for well partial orders is equivalent to ATR 0 over RCA 0.
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  35.  5
    Grice and Kant on Maxims and Categories.Christoph Schamberger & Lars Bülow - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (2):703-717.
    Apart from a passing reference to Kant, Grice never explains in his writings how he came to discover his conversational maxims. He simply proclaims them without justification. Yet regardless of how his ingenious invention really came about, one might wonder how the conversational maxims can be detected and distinguished from other sorts of maxims. We argue that the conversational maxims can be identified by the use of a transcendental argument in the spirit of Kant. To this end, we introduce Grice’s (...)
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  36.  19
    On Maximal Intermediate Logics with the Disjunction Property.Larisa L. Maksimova - 1986 - Studia Logica 45 (1):69 - 75.
    For intermediate logics, there is obtained in the paper an algebraic equivalent of the disjunction propertyDP. It is proved that the logic of finite binary trees is not maximal among intermediate logics withDP. Introduced is a logicND, which has the only maximal extension withDP, namely, the logicML of finite problems.
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  37.  19
    Maximization Theory Vindicated.Howard Rachlin, Ray Battalio, John Kagel & Leonard Green - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):405-417.
    Maximization theory, which is borrowed from economics, provides techniques for predicing the behavior of animals - including humans. A theoretical behavioral space is constructed in which each point represents a given combination of various behavioral alternatives. With two alternatives - behavior A and behavior B - each point within the space represents a certain amount of time spent performing behavior A and a certain amount of time spent performing behavior B. A particular environmental situation can be described as a constraint (...)
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  38.  16
    Closed Maximality Principles: Implications, Separations and Combinations.Gunter Fuchs - 2008 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (1):276-308.
    l investigate versions of the Maximality Principles for the classes of forcings which are <κ-closed. <κ-directed-closed, or of the form Col (κ. <Λ). These principles come in many variants, depending on the parameters which are allowed. I shall write MPΓ(A) for the maximality principle for forcings in Γ, with parameters from A. The main results of this paper are: • The principles have many consequences, such as <κ-closed-generic $\Sigma _{2}^{1}(H_{\kappa})$ absoluteness, and imply. e.g., that ◇κ holds. I give an application (...)
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  39. Maximal Beable Subalgebras of Quantum-Mechanical Observables.Hans Halvorson & Rob Clifton - 1999 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics 38:2441-2484.
    The centerpiece of Jeffrey Bub's book Interpreting the Quantum World is a theorem (Bub and Clifton 1996) which correlates each member of a large class of no-collapse interpretations with some 'privileged observable'. In particular, the Bub-Clifton theorem determines the unique maximal sublattice L(R,e) of propositions such that (a) elements of L(R,e) can be simultaneously determinate in state e, (b) L(R,e) contains the spectral projections of the privileged observable R, and (c) L(R,e) is picked out by R and e alone. In (...)
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  40.  17
    Conversational Maxims as Social Norms.Megan Henricks Stotts - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    I argue that although Paul Grice’s picture of conversational maxims and conversational implicature is an immensely useful theoretical tool, his view about the nature of the maxims is misguided. Grice portrays conversational maxims as tenets of rationality, but I will contend that they are best seen as social norms. I develop this proposal in connection to Philip Pettit’s account of social norms, with the result that conversational maxims are seen as grounded in practices of social approval and disapproval within a (...)
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  41.  34
    Obligatory Actions, Obligatory Maxims.Samuel Kahn - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):1-25.
    In this paper, I confront Parfit’s Mixed Maxims Objection. I argue that recent attempts to respond to this objection fail, and I argue that their failure is compounded by the failure of recent attempts to show how the Formula of Universal Law can be used to demarcate the category of obligatory maxims. I then set out my own response to the objection, drawing on remarks from Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals for inspiration and developing a novel account of how the Formula (...)
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  42. Maximal Consistent Sets of Instances of Tarski’s Schema.Vann McGee - 1992 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 21 (3):235 - 241.
  43.  30
    Maximization Theory and Plato's Concept of the Good.Howard Rachlin - 1985 - Behaviorism 13 (1):3-20.
    Plato's dialogues may be interpreted in a number of ways. One interpretation sees Plato's concept of The Good as a precursor of maximization theory, a modern behavioral theory. Plato identifies goodness with an ideal pattern of people's overt choices under the constraints of everyday life. Correspondingly, maximization theory sees goodness (in terms of "value") as a quantifiable function of overt, constrained choices of an animal. In both conceptions goodness may be increased by expanding the temporal extent over which a behavioral (...)
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  44.  68
    Rage Inside the Machine: Defending the Place of Anger in Democratic Speech.Maxime Lepoutre - 2018 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 17 (4):398-426.
    According to an influential objection, which Martha Nussbaum has powerfully restated, expressing anger in democratic public discourse is counterproductive from the standpoint of justice. To resist this challenge, this article articulates a crucial yet underappreciated sense in which angry discourse is epistemically productive. Drawing on recent developments in the philosophy of emotion, which emphasize the distinctive phenomenology of emotion, I argue that conveying anger to one’s listeners is epistemically valuable in two respects: first, it can direct listeners’ attention to elusive (...)
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  45.  83
    Maxims and Thick Ethical Concepts.A. W. Moore - 2006 - Ratio 19 (2):129–147.
    I begin with Kant's notion of a maxim and consider the role which this notion plays in Kant's formulations of the fundamental categorical imperative. This raises the question of what a maxim is, and why there is not the same requirement for resolutions of other kinds to be universalizable. Drawing on Bernard Williams' notion of a thick ethical concept, I proffer an answer to this question which is intended neither in a spirit of simple exegesis nor as a (...)
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  46.  8
    Ethical Maxims for a Marginally Inhabitable Planet.David Schenck & Larry R. Churchill - 2021 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 64 (4):494-510.
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  47.  40
    Maximal and Perimaximal Contraction.Sven Ove Hansson - 2013 - Synthese 190 (16):3325-3348.
    Generalizations of partial meet contraction are introduced that start out from the observation that only some of the logically closed subsets of the original belief set are at all viable as contraction outcomes. Belief contraction should proceed by selection among these viable options. Several contraction operators that are based on such selection mechanisms are introduced and then axiomatically characterized. These constructions are more general than the belief base approach. It is shown that partial meet contraction is exactly characterized by adding (...)
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  48.  9
    Logos, Logic and Maximal Infinity.A. C. Paseau - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (2):420-435.
    Recent developments in the philosophy of logic suggest that the correct foundational logic is like God in that both are maximally infinite and only partially graspable by finite beings. This opens the door to a new argument for the existence of God, exploiting the link between God and logic through the intermediary of the Logos. This article explores the argument from the nature of God to the nature of logic, and sketches the converse argument from the nature of logic to (...)
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  49. Profit Maximization: The Ethical Mandate of Business. [REVIEW]Patrick Primeaux & John Stieber - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (4):287 - 294.
    The authors propose a model for business ethics which arises directly from business practice. This model is based on a behavioral definition of the economic theory of profit maximization and situates business ethics within opportunity costs. Within that context, they argue that good business and good ethics are synonymous, that ethics is at the heart and center of business, that profits and ethics are intrinsically related.
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  50. Deontic Constraints Are Maximizing Rules.Matthew Hammerton - 2020 - Journal of Value Inquiry 54 (4):571-588.
    Deontic constraints prohibit an agent performing acts of a certain type even when doing so will prevent more instances of that act being performed by others. In this article I show how deontic constraints can be interpreted as either maximizing or non-maximizing rules. I then argue that they should be interpreted as maximizing rules because interpreting them as non-maximizing rules results in a problem with moral advice. Given this conclusion, a strong case can be made that consequentialism provides the best (...)
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