Results for 'Children'

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  1. Encouraging Children to Be Thoughtful Questions and Answers : A Dialogue with Dr. Matthew Lipman.George Ghanotakis, Matthew Lipman & Canadian Institute of Philosophy for Children - 1987 - Canadian Institute of Philosophy for Children.
  2.  50
    Children: Rights and Childhood.David Archard - unknown - Routledge.
    Children: Rights and Childhood is widely regarded as the rst book to offer a detailed philosophical examination of children's rights. David Archard provides a clear and accessible introduction to a topic that has assumed increasing relevance since the book's rst publication. Divided clearly into three parts, it covers key topics such as: John Locke's writings on children Philippe Ariès's Centuries of Childhood children's moral and legal rights a child's right to vote and to sexual choice parental (...)
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  3. The Right of Children to Be Loved.S. Matthew Liao - 2006 - Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (4):420–440.
    A number of international organizations have claimed that children have a right to be loved, but there is a worry that this claim may just be an empty rhetoric. In this paper, I seek to show that there could be such a right by providing a justification for this right in terms of human rights, by demonstrating that love can be an appropriate object of a duty, and by proposing that biological parents should normally be made the primary bearers (...)
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  4.  15
    Children with Specific Language Impairment.Laurence B. Leonard - 2000 - Bradford.
    The book highlights important research strategies in the quest to find thecause of SLI and to develop methods of prevention and treatment.
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  5. Transgender Children and the Right to Transition: Medical Ethics When Parents Mean Well but Cause Harm.Maura Priest - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (2):45-59.
    Published in the American Journal of Bioethics.
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  6. Children's Vulnerability and Legitimate Authority Over Children.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:60-75.
    Children's vulnerability gives rise to duties of justice towards children and determines when authority over them is legitimately exercised. I argue for two claims. First, children's general vulnerability to objectionable dependency on their caregivers entails that they have a right not to be subject to monopolies of care, and therefore determines the structure of legitimate authority over them. Second, children's vulnerability to the loss of some special goods of childhood determines the content of legitimate authority over (...)
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  7.  97
    Is Children’s Wellbeing Different From Adults’ Wellbeing?Andrée-Anne Cormier & Mauro Rossi - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (8):1146-1168.
    Call generalism about children’s and adults’ wellbeing the thesis that the same theory of wellbeing applies to both children and adults. Our goal is to examine whether generalism is true. While this question has not received much attention in the past, it has recently been suggested that generalism is likely to be false and that we need to elaborate different theories of children’s and adults’ wellbeing. In this paper, we defend generalism against the main objections it faces (...)
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  8.  44
    Children's Capacity to Agree to Psychological Research: Knowledge of Risks and Benefits and Voluntariness.Rona Abramovitch, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry & Michelle Van Brunschot - 1995 - Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):25 – 48.
    A series of studies investigated the capacity of children between the ages of 7 and 12 to give free and informed consent to participation in psychological research. Children were reasonably accurate in describing the purpose of studies, but many did not understand the possible benefits or especially the possible risks of participating. In several studies children's consent was not affected by the knowledge that their parents had given their permission or by the parents saying that they would (...)
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  9. The Philosophy for Children Curriculum: Resisting ‘Teacher Proof’ Texts and the Formation of the Ideal Philosopher Child.Karin Murris - 2016 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 35 (1):63-78.
    The philosophy for children curriculum was specially written by Matthew Lipman and colleagues for the teaching of philosophy by non-philosophically educated teachers from foundation phase to further education colleges. In this article I argue that such a curriculum is neither a necessary, not a sufficient condition for the teaching of philosophical thinking. The philosophical knowledge and pedagogical tact of the teacher remains salient, in that the open-ended and unpredictable nature of philosophical enquiry demands of teachers to think in the (...)
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  10.  39
    Children, Religion and the Ethics of Influence.John Tillson - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury.
    In Children, Religion and the Ethics of Influence, John Tillson develops a theory concerning which kinds of formative influence are morally permissible, impermissible or obligatory. Applying this theory to the case of religion, he argues that religious initiation in childhood is morally impermissible whether conducted by parents, teachers or others. Tillson addresses questions such as: how we come to have the ethical responsibilities we do, how we understand religion, how ethical and religious commitments can be justified, and what makes (...)
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  11. The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness: A Vindication of Democracy and a Critique of its Traditional Defense.Reinhold Niebuhr & Gary Dorrien - 2011 - University of Chicago Press.
    _The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness_, first published in 1944, is considered one of the most profound and relevant works by the influential theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, and certainly the fullest statement of his political philosophy. Written and first read during the prolonged, tragic world war between totalitarian and democratic forces, Niebuhr’s book took up the timely question of how democracy as a political system could best be defended. Most proponents of democracy, Niebuhr claimed, were “ (...) of light,” who had optimistic but naïve ideas about how society could be rid of evil and governed by enlightened reason. They needed, he believed, to absorb some of the wisdom and strength of the “children of darkness,” whose ruthless cynicism and corrupt, anti-democratic politics should otherwise be repudiated. He argued for a prudent, liberal understanding of human society that took the measure of every group’s self-interest and was chastened by a realistic understanding of the limits of power. It is in the foreword to this book that he wrote, “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” This edition includes a new introduction by the theologian and Niebuhr scholar Gary Dorrien in which he elucidates the work’s significance and places it firmly into the arc of Niebuhr’s career. (shrink)
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  12. Children: Rights and Childhood.David Archard - 1993 - Routledge.
    Whether children have rights is a debate that in recent years has spilled over into all areas of public life. It has never been more topical than now as the assumed rights of parents over their children is challenged on an almost daily basis. David Archard offers the first serious and sustained philosophical examination of children and their rights. Archard reviews arguments for and against according children rights. He concludes that every child has at least the (...)
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  13.  19
    Children with Specific Language Impairment.Laurence B. Leonard - 2014 - Bradford.
    Children with specific language impairment show a significant deficit in spoken language that cannot be attributed to neurological damage, hearing impairment, or intellectual disability. More prevalent than autism and at least as prevalent as dyslexia, SLI affects approximately seven percent of all children; it is longstanding, with adverse effects on academic, social, and economic standing. The first edition of this work established _Children with Specific Language Impairment_ as the landmark reference on this condition, considering not only the disorder's (...)
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  14. The Challenge of Children.Cooperative Parents Group of Palisades Pre-School Division & Mothers' and Children'S. Educational Foundation - 1957
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  15.  9
    Socrates' Children: Thinking and Knowing in the Western Tradition.Trudy Govier - 1997 - Broadview Press.
    How do Humans Think? How should we think? Almost all of philosophy and a great deal else depends in large part on the answers that we provide to such questions. Yet they are almost impossible to deal with in isolation; notions about nature of thought are almost bound to connect with metaphysical notions about where ideas come from, with notions about appropriate arenas for certainty, doubt, and belief, and hence with moral and religious ideas. The Western tradition of thinking about (...)
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  16. Choosing Children: Genes, Disability, and Design.Jonathan Glover - 2008 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Progress in genetic and reproductive technology now offers us the possibility of choosing what kinds of children we do and don't have. Should we welcome this power, or should we fear its implications? There is no ethical question more urgent than this: we may be at a turning-point in the history of humanity. The renowned moral philosopher and best-selling author Jonathan Glover shows us how we might try to answer this question, and other provoking and disturbing questions to which (...)
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  17. Young Children Attribute Normativity to Novel Actions Without Pedagogy or Normative Language.Marco F. H. Schmidt, Hannes Rakoczy & Michael Tomasello - 2011 - Developmental Science 14 (3):530-539.
    Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. ‘this is the way it goes’), along with pedagogical cues signaling culturally important information, and with social-pragmatic marking that this action is a token of a familiar type. In the current experiment, we exposed children to novel (...)
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  18. Children Prioritize Humans Over Animals Less Than Adults Do.Matti Wilks, Lucius Caviola, Guy Kahane & Paul Bloom - 2021 - Psychological Science 1 (32):27-38.
    Is the tendency to morally prioritize humans over animals weaker in children than adults? In two pre-registered studies (N = 622), 5- to 9-year-old children and adults were presented with moral dilemmas pitting varying numbers of humans against varying numbers of either dogs or pigs and were asked who should be saved. In both studies, children had a weaker tendency to prioritize humans over animals than adults. They often chose to save multiple dogs over one human, and (...)
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  19. Young Children Enforce Social Norms.Marco F. H. Schmidt & Michael Tomasello - 2012 - Current Directions in Psychological Science 21 (4):232-236.
    Social norms have played a key role in the evolution of human cooperation, serving to stabilize prosocial and egalitarian behavior despite the self-serving motives of individuals. Young children’s behavior mostly conforms to social norms, as they follow adult behavioral directives and instructions. But it turns out that even preschool children also actively enforce social norms on others, often using generic normative language to do so. This behavior is not easily explained by individualistic motives; it is more likely a (...)
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  20.  2
    Her Majesty’s Other Children: Sketches of Racism From a Neocolonial Age.Lewis Ricardo Gordon - 1997 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Her Majesty's Children reveals not only a deeply personal account of the experience of racism but is also a revolutionary work that asks us to reconsider our ordinary practices and lives to recognize and resist the traces of a colonial age of racism that so many claim is only part of our past.
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  21.  44
    When Children Are More Logical Than Adults: Experimental Investigations of Scalar Implicature.Ira A. Noveck - 2001 - Cognition 78 (2):165-188.
    A conversational implicature is an inference that consists in attributing to a speaker an implicit meaning that goes beyond the explicit linguistic meaning of an utterance. This paper experimentallyinvestigates scalar implicature, a paradigmatic case of implicature in which a speaker's use of a term like Some indicates that the speaker had reasons not to use a more informative one from the samescale, e.g. All; thus, Some implicates Not all. Pragmatic theorists like Grice would predict that a pragmatic interpretation is determined (...)
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  22.  11
    Children and Adults as Intuitive Scientists.Deanna Kuhn - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (4):674-689.
  23.  41
    Involving Children in Non-Therapeutic Research: On the Development Argument. [REVIEW]Linus Broström & Mats Johansson - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):53-60.
    Non-therapeutic research on children raises ethical concerns. Such research is not only conducted on individuals who are incapable of providing informed consent. It also typically involves some degree of risk or discomfort, without prospects of medically benefiting the participating children. Therefore, these children seem to be instrumentalized. Some ethicists, however, have tried to sidestep this problem by arguing that the children may indirectly benefit from participating in such research, in ways not related to the medical intervention (...)
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  24.  56
    Children and Testimonial Injustice: A Response to Burroughs and Tollefsen.Gary Bartlett - 2020 - Episteme 17 (2):178-194.
    Michael Burroughs and Deborah Tollefsen (2016) claim that children are subject to widespread testimonial injustice. They argue that empirical data shows that children are prejudicially accorded less epistemic credibility in forensic contexts, and that this in turn shows that the same is true in broader contexts. While I agree that there is indeed testimonial injustice against children, I argue that Burroughs and Tollefsen exaggerate its severity and extent, by exaggerating children’s testimonial reliability. Firstly, the empirical data (...)
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  25.  12
    Children on the Reef.Douglas W. Bird & Rebecca Bliege Bird - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (2):269-297.
    Meriam children are active reef-flat collectors. We demonstrate that while foraging on the reef, children are significantly less selective than adults. This difference and the precise nature of children’s selectivity while reef-flat collecting are consistent with a hypothesis that both children and adults attempt to maximize their rate of return while foraging, but in so doing they face different constraints relative to differences in walking speeds while searching. Implications of these results for general arguments about factors (...)
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  26. Are Children Moral Objectivists? Children's Judgments About Moral and Response-Dependent Properties.Shaun Nichols & Trisha Folds-Bennett - 2003 - Cognition 90 (2):23-32.
    Researchers working on children's moral understanding maintain that the child's capacity to distinguish morality from convention shows that children regard moral violations as objectively wrong. Education in the moral domain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). However, one traditional way to cast the issue of objectivism is to focus not on conventionality, but on whether moral properties depend on our responses, as with properties like icky and fun. This paper argues that the moral/conventional task is inadequate for assessing whether (...) regard moral properties as response-dependent. Unfortunately, children's understanding of response-dependent properties has been neglected in recent research. Two experiments are reported showing that children are more likely to treat properties like fun and icky as response-dependent than moral properties like good and bad. Hence, this helps support the claim that children are moral objectivists. (shrink)
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  27. Young Children's Understanding of Pretense.Paul L. Harris & Robert D. Kavanaugh - 1935
  28.  61
    Young Children Treat Robots as Informants.Cynthia Breazeal, Paul L. Harris, David DeSteno, Jacqueline M. Kory Westlund, Leah Dickens & Sooyeon Jeong - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):481-491.
    Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the (...)
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  29.  33
    Children Interpret Disjunction as Conjunction: Consequences for Theories of Implicature and Child Development.Raj Singh, Ken Wexler, Andrea Astle-Rahim, Deepthi Kamawar & Danny Fox - 2016 - Natural Language Semantics 24 (4):305-352.
    We present evidence that preschool children oftentimes understand disjunctive sentences as if they were conjunctive. The result holds for matrix disjunctions as well as disjunctions embedded under every. At the same time, there is evidence in the literature that children understand or as inclusive disjunction in downward-entailing contexts. We propose to explain this seemingly conflicting pattern of results by assuming that the child knows the inclusive disjunction semantics of or, and that the conjunctive inference is a scalar implicature. (...)
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  30.  3
    Children's Early Understanding of Mind: Origins and Development.Charlie Lewis & Peter Mitchell - 1994 - Psychology Press.
    A major feature of human intelligence is that it allows us to contemplate mental life. Such an understanding is vital in enabling us to function effectively in social groups. This book examines the origins of this aspect of human intelligence. The five sections attempt firstly, to place human development within an evolutionary context, focusing on the possibility of innate components of understanding. The second aim of the book is to examine the roles of early perception, pretence and communication as precursor (...)
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  31.  49
    Children’s Interpretation of Facial Expressions: The Long Path From Valence-Based to Specific Discrete Categories.Sherri C. Widen - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):72-77.
    According to a common sense theory, facial expressions signal specific emotions to people of all ages and therefore provide children easy access to the emotions of those around them. The evidence, however, does not support that account. Instead, children’s understanding of facial expressions is poor and changes qualitatively and slowly over the course of development. Initially, children divide facial expressions into two simple categories (feels good, feels bad). These broad categories are then gradually differentiated until an adult (...)
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  32.  56
    Children's Understanding of Counting.Karen Wynn - 1990 - Cognition 36 (2):155-193.
  33. Children's Well-Being: A Philosophical Analysis.Anthony Skelton - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-being. London. pp. 366-377.
    A philosophical discussion of children's well-being in which various existing views of well-being are discussed to determine their implications for children's well-being and a variety of views of children's well-being are considered and evaluated.
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  34.  4
    American Children in Chronic Poverty: Complex Risks, Benefit-Cost Analyses, and Untangling the Knot.Cynthia Esposito Lamy - 2012 - Lexington Books.
    A growing body of research informs us that an effective, efficient fight against chronic American poverty, producing benefits far exceeding costs, is possible. It begins by protecting children from developmental risks. This book describes those risks, along with the programs and policies we know protect children and families. A policy framework for the pursuit of an intrepid new goal – the purposeful protection of America’s most vulnerable children on a large scale – would end chronic poverty as (...)
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  35. Children and Added Sugar: The Case for Restriction.Theodore Bach - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (S1):105-120.
    It is increasingly clear that children's excessive consumption of products high in added sugar causes obesity and obesity-related health problems like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Less clear is how best to address this problem through public health policy. In contrast to policies that might conflict with adult's right to self-determination — for example sugar taxes and soda bans — this article proposes that children's access to products high in added sugars should be restricted in (...)
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  36. Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well (...)
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  37.  26
    Young Children's Conceptions of Knowledge.Rachel Dudley - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (6):e12494.
    How should knowledge be analyzed? Compositionally, as having constituents like belief and justification, or as an atomic concept? In making arguments for or against these perspectives, epistemologists have begun to use experimental evidence from developmental psychology and developmental linguistics. If we were to conclude that knowledge were developmentally prior to belief, then we might have a good basis to claim that belief is not a constituent of knowledge. In this review, I present a broad range of developmental evidence from the (...)
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  38. Children, Paternalism and the Development of Autonomy.Amy Mullin - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):413-426.
    This paper addresses the issue of paternalism in child-rearing. Since the parent–child relationship seems to be the linguistic source of the concept, one may be tempted to assume that raising a child represents a particularly appropriate sphere for paternalism. The parent–child relationship is generally understood as a relationship that is supposed to promote the development and autonomy-formation of the child, so that the apparent source of the concept is a form of autonomy-oriented paternalism. Far from taking paternalism to be overtly (...)
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  39.  32
    Children's Causal Inferences From Indirect Evidence: Backwards Blocking and Bayesian Reasoning in Preschoolers.Alison Gopnik - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):303-333.
    Previous research suggests that children can infer causal relations from patterns of events. However, what appear to be cases of causal inference may simply reduce to children recognizing relevant associations among events, and responding based on those associations. To examine this claim, in Experiments 1 and 2, children were introduced to a “blicket detector”, a machine that lit up and played music when certain objects were placed upon it. Children observed patterns of contingency between objects and (...)
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  40. Feral Children: Settler Colonialism, Progress, and the Figure of the Child.Toby Rollo - 2018 - Settler Colonial Studies 8 (1):60-79.
    Settler colonialism is structured in part according to the principle of civilizational progress yet the roots of this doctrine are not well understood. Disparate ideas of progress and practices related to colonial dispossession and domination can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and as far back as ancient Greece, but there remain unexplored logics and continuities. I argue that civilizational progress and settler colonialism are structured according to the opposition between politics governed by reason or faith and the figure of (...)
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  41.  5
    Shaping Children: The Pursuit of Normalcy in Pediatric Cognitive Neuro-Enhancement.Jenny Krutzinna - 2019 - In Saskia K. Nagel (ed.), Shaping Children: Ethical and Social Questions That Arise When Enhancing the Young. Springer Verlag. pp. 11-24.
    Within the broad field of human enhancement, pediatric cognitive neuro-enhancement appears to arouse particular interest. The increasing importance of cognitive capacities in our contemporary and cultural context appears to be the main reason for the focus on cognition as the preferred trait of enhancement, while the choice of pharmacological means is based on factors of feasibility, accessibility, and cost. While the ethical issues arising in the adult context have already been extensively covered in the literature, pediatric neuro-enhancement brings with it (...)
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  42. Young Children's Knowledge About Thinking.John H. Flavell, Janet W. Astington, Paul L. Harris, Eleanor R. Flavell & Frances L. Green - 1995
     
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  43.  77
    Children’s Application of Theory of Mind in Reasoning and Language.Liesbeth Flobbe, Rineke Verbrugge, Petra Hendriks & Irene Krämer - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):417-442.
    Many social situations require a mental model of the knowledge, beliefs, goals, and intentions of others: a Theory of Mind (ToM). If a person can reason about other people’s beliefs about his own beliefs or intentions, he is demonstrating second-order ToM reasoning. A standard task to test second-order ToM reasoning is the second-order false belief task. A different approach to investigating ToM reasoning is through its application in a strategic game. Another task that is believed to involve the application of (...)
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  44.  30
    Children.David Archard - 2005 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Whether children have rights is a debate that in recent years has spilled over into all areas of public life. It has never been more topical than now as the assumed rights of parents over their children is challenged on an almost daily basis. David Archard offers the first serious and sustained philosophical examination of children and their rights. Archard reviews arguments for and against according children rights. He concludes that every child has at least the (...)
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  45.  37
    Should Children Decide Whether They Are Enrolled in Nonbeneficial Research?David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):1 – 7.
    The U.S. federal regulations require investigators conducting nonbeneficial research to obtain the assent of children who are capable of providing it. Unfortunately, there has been no analysis of which children are capable of assent or even what abilities ground the capacity to give assent. Why should investigators be required to obtain the positive agreement of some children, but not others, before enrolling them in research that does not offer a compensating potential for direct benefit? We argue that (...)
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  46. Children and Well-Being.Anthony Skelton - 2018 - In Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder & Jurgen De Wispelaere (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Childhood and Children. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 90-100.
    Children are routinely treated paternalistically. There are good reasons for this. Children are quite vulnerable. They are ill-equipped to meet their most basic needs, due, in part, to deficiencies in practical and theoretical reasoning and in executing their wishes. Children’s motivations and perceptions are often not congruent with their best interests. Consequently, raising children involves facilitating their best interests synchronically and diachronically. In practice, this requires caregivers to (in some sense) manage a child’s daily life. If (...)
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  47.  18
    Teaching Children to Ignore Alternatives is—Sometimes—Necessary: Indoctrination as a Dispensable Term.José Ariso - 2019 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 38 (4):397-410.
    Literature on indoctrination has focused on imparting and revising beliefs, but it has hardly considered the way of teaching and acquiring certainties—in Wittgenstein’s sense. Therefore, the role played by rationality in the acquisition of our linguistic practices has been overestimated. Furthermore, analyses of the relationship between certainty and indoctrination contain major errors. In this paper, the clarification of the aforementioned issues leads me to suggest the avoidance of the term ‘indoctrination’ so as to avoid focusing on the suitability of the (...)
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  48.  38
    Children’s Developing Metaethical Judgments.Marco F. H. Schmidt, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera & Michael Tomasello - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 164:163-177.
    Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N = 136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children’s metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (...)
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  49. Young Children Understand and Defend the Entitlements of Others.Marco F. H. Schmidt, Hannes Rakoczy & Michael Tomasello - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.
    Human social life is structured by social norms creating both obligations and entitlements. Recent research has found that young children enforce simple obligations against norm violators by protesting. It is not known, however, whether they understand entitlements in the sense that they will actively object to a second party attempting to interfere in something that a third party is entitled to do — what we call counter-protest. In two studies, we found that 3-year-old children understand when a person (...)
     
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  50.  16
    Constraints Children Place on Word Meanings.Ellen M. Markman - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):57-77.
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