Results for 'Chisholm paradox'

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  1.  36
    The Paradox of Analysis: A Solution.Richard C. Potter Roderickm Chisholm - 1981 - Metaphilosophy 12 (1):1-6.
  2.  81
    The paradox of analysis: A solution.RoderickM Chisholm & Richard C. Potter - 1981 - Metaphilosophy 12 (1):1-6.
  3.  75
    Chisholm's Modal Paradox(es) and Counterpart Theory 50 Years On.Murali Ramachandran - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    Lewis’s [1968] counterpart theory (LCT for short), motivated by his modal realism, made its appearance within a year of Chisholm’s modal paradox [1967]. We are not modal realists, but we argue that a satisfactory resolution to the paradox calls for a counterpart-theoretic (CT-)semantics. We make our case by showing that the Chandler–Salmon strategy of denying the S4 axiom [◊◊ψ →◊ψ] is inadequate to resolve the paradox – we take on Salmon’s attempts to defend that strategy against (...)
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  4. Chisholm's Paradox and Conditional Oughts.Catharine Saint Croix & Richmond Thomason - 2014 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8554:192-207.
    Since it was presented in 1963, Chisholm’s paradox has attracted constant attention in the deontic logic literature, but without the emergence of any definitive solution. We claim this is due to its having no single solution. The paradox actually presents many challenges to the formalization of deontic statements, including (1) context sensitivity of unconditional oughts, (2) formalizing conditional oughts, and (3) distinguishing generic from nongeneric oughts. Using the practical interpretation of ‘ought’ as a guideline, we propose a (...)
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  5.  72
    On Chisholm's paradox.Peter L. Mott - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (2):197 - 211.
    It has been maintained that we are quite able to express (1*)–(4*) without the introduction of a dyadic deontic operator, provided only that we supply our standard deontic logic with a stronger conditional than material implication. The lesson learned from Chisholm's paradox has been the eminently convincing, indeed obvious, one: that what we ought to do is not determined by what is the case in some perfect world, but by what is the case in the best world we (...)
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  6. A Response to Chisholm’s Paradox.Andrew Dennis Bassford - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (4):1137-1155.
    Essentialists suppose that for every individual, if that individual exists at any possible world, then necessarily that individual exemplifies some non-trivial qualitative property essential to it, as such. Anti-essentialists deny this. One important argument leveled by some anti-essentialists against essentialism takes the form of a thought experiment, one originally introduced by Roderick Chisholm, sometimes referred to as Chisholm's Paradox (CP). In this essay, I defend essentialism against CP. I begin by presenting the argument and showing how it (...)
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  7. Two solutions to Chisholm's paradox.Graeme Forbes - 1984 - Philosophical Studies 46 (2):171 - 187.
  8.  16
    Solution to Chisholm's paradox.Lennart Aqvist - 1991 - In Georg Schurz (ed.), Advances in Scientific Philosophy. pp. 24--127.
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  9.  28
    Some problems with Chisholm and Potter's solution to the paradox of analysis.Neil Thomason - 1992 - Metaphilosophy 23 (1-2):132-138.
  10. Modal Paradox II: Essence and Coherence.Nathan Salmón - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (10):3237-3250.
    Paradoxes of nested modality, like Chisholm’s paradox, rely on S4 or something stronger as the propositional logic of metaphysical modality. Sarah-Jane Leslie’s objection to the resolution of Chisholm’s paradox by means of rejection of S4 modal logic is investigated. A modal notion of essence congenial to Leslie’s objection is clarified. An argument is presented in support of Leslie’s crucial but unsupported assertion that, on pain of inconsistency, an object’s essence is the same in every possible world. (...)
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  11.  39
    Rescuing the counterfactual solution to Chisholm's paradox.Ian Niles - 1997 - Philosophia 25 (1-4):351-371.
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  12.  7
    Modal and Temporal Paradoxes.Timothy Williamson - 1990 - In Identity and Discrimination. Cambridge, Mass., USA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 126–143.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Sorites paradoxes threaten identity across possible worlds, as Roderick Chisholm pointed out some time ago. This chapter develops one such paradox, arguing that it formally resembles the problems of personal identity, and can be resolved by means a modal paradox, which is discussed in the first section. Lest it be thought that the paradox depends on the special nature of possibility, similar paradoxes are sketched for identity over time in the second (...)
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  13.  24
    A Fregean Solution to the Paradox of Analysis.Dale Jacquette - 1990 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 37 (1):59-73.
    The paradox of analysis is the problem of formulating analyses that avoid the metaphilosophical dilemma of uninformativeness where analysandum and analysans are identical in meaning, and incorrectness or unsoundness where analysandum and analysans are nonidentical in meaning. Frege's distinction between sense and reference supports an intentional solution to the paradox, incorporating Roderick M. Chisholm's concept of converse intentional properties. Formal definitions of unrestricted Leibnizian or conceptual identity and referential identity or codesignation are provided, under which analysanda and (...)
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  14.  74
    The paradox of the diffusiveness of power.Xiaoxing Zhang - 2017 - Synthese 194 (7):2489-2500.
    Although the topic of basic act is controversial, theorists of agency normally agree that complex performances are based on comparatively simple ones. To the extent that we can attribute powers to agents over various tasks, it is also plausible to suppose that our powers over complex tasks are based on powers over the simple. Chisholm once formulated this idea in terms of the principle of the diffusiveness of power. In the present paper, however, we shall argue that the principle (...)
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  15.  79
    A Fregean Solution to the Paradox of Analysis.Dale Jacquette - 1990 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 37 (1):59-73.
    The paradox of analysis is the problem of formulating analyses that avoid the metaphilosophical dilemma of uninformativeness where analysandum and analysans are identical in meaning, and incorrectness or unsoundness where analysandum and analysans are nonidentical in meaning. Frege's distinction between sense and reference supports an intentional solution to the paradox, incorporating Roderick M. Chisholm's concept of converse intentional properties. Formal definitions of unrestricted Leibnizian or conceptual identity and referential identity or codesignation are provided, under which analysanda and (...)
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  16.  57
    Two dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [including a detailed analysis of the 1985 Jones–Pörn deontic logic system].Mathijs de Boer, Dov M. Gabbay, Xavier Parent & Marija Slavkovic - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):623-660.
    This paper offers a two dimensional variation of Standard Deontic Logic SDL, which we call 2SDL. Using 2SDL we can show that we can overcome many of the difficulties that SDL has in representing linguistic sets of Contrary-to-Duties (known as paradoxes) including the Chisholm, Ross, Good Samaritan and Forrester paradoxes. We note that many dimensional logics have been around since 1947, and so 2SDL could have been presented already in the 1970s. Better late than never! As a detailed case (...)
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  17.  90
    Two dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [including a detailed analysis of the 1985 Jones–Pörn deontic logic system].Mathijs Boer, Dov M. Gabbay, Xavier Parent & Marija Slavkovic - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):623-660.
    This paper offers a two dimensional variation of Standard Deontic Logic SDL, which we call 2SDL. Using 2SDL we can show that we can overcome many of the difficulties that SDL has in representing linguistic sets of Contrary-to-Duties (known as paradoxes) including the Chisholm, Ross, Good Samaritan and Forrester paradoxes. We note that many dimensional logics have been around since 1947, and so 2SDL could have been presented already in the 1970s. Better late than never! As a detailed case (...)
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  18.  28
    The Robbery Paradox.Mark Vorobej - 1983 - Dialogue 22 (3):433-440.
    James E. Tomberlin [6] has recently argued that the logical systems of conditional obligation proposed by Azizah al-Hibri [1] and Peter Mott [5] are incapable of resolving at least one variant of the notorious contrary to duty imperative paradox, formulated originally by Chisholm [2]. Tomberlin concedes that these systems offer the very best of the' “conditional obligation approach” to deontic logic and concludes his critical discussion with the pessimistic remark that “the best of this approach is simply not (...)
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  19.  47
    Two morals about a modal paradox.Alexander Roberts - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):9873-9896.
    Chisholm’s paradox serves as an important constraint on our modal theorising. For example, one lesson of the paradox is that widely accepted essentialist theses appear incompatible with metaphysical necessity obeying a logic that includes S4. However, this article cautions against treating Chisholm’s paradox in isolation, as a single line of reasoning. To this end, the article outlines two crucial morals about Chisholm’s paradox which situate the paradox within a broad family of paradoxes. (...)
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  20.  21
    Paradoxes of Knowledge. [REVIEW]C. D. - 1978 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (2):375-376.
    This book attacks an assortment of tendencies and assumptions that the author believes endemic to traditional epistemology. Perhaps the main target is what she sees as a tendency to sublimate the concepts of knowledge and belief, whose roles in everyday life are mundane and unsystematic, into rigid abstractions. This tendency is said to show itself in the allegedly false assumptions that propositions are the objects of knowledge and belief, and that there is a definite set of propositions that one knows (...)
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  21.  28
    Priority Structures in Deontic Logic.Johan van Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu - 2014 - Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
    This article proposes a systematic application of recent developments in the logic of preference to a number of topics in deontic logic. The key junction is the well‐known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures. The resulting two‐level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary‐to‐duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger‐Anderson reduction of deontic logic. Next, the priority framework is applied to model (...)
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  22. Priority Structures in Deontic Logic.Johan Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu - 2013 - Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
    This article proposes a systematic application of recent developments in the logic of preference to a number of topics in deontic logic. The key junction is the well-known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures. The resulting two-level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary-to-duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger-Anderson reduction of deontic logic. Next, the priority framework is applied to model (...)
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  23.  15
    Two dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [including a detailed analysis of the 1985 Jones–Pörn deontic logic system].M. de Boer, D. Gabbay, X. Parent & M. Slavkova - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):623-660.
    This paper offers a two dimensional variation of Standard Deontic Logic SDL, which we call 2SDL. Using 2SDL we can show that we can overcome many of the difficulties that SDL has in representing linguistic sets of Contrary-to-Duties (known as paradoxes) including the Chisholm, Ross, Good Samaritan and Forrester paradoxes. We note that many dimensional logics have been around since 1947, and so 2SDL could have been presented already in the 1970s. Better late than never! As a detailed case (...)
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  24. Detaching if-clauses from should.Ana Arregui - 2010 - Natural Language Semantics 18 (3):241-293.
    This paper investigates some aspects of the semantics of deontic should-conditionals. The main objective is to understand which actual world facts make deontic statements true. The starting point for the investigation is a famous puzzle known as Chisholm’s Paradox. It is important because making sense of the data in Chisholm-style examples involves arriving at some conclusion regarding the interaction between what we consider ideal and what is actually true. I give an account of how facts affect the (...)
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  25. Self-presentation, representation, and the self.Keith Lehrer - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):412-430.
    Chisholm held that some states of ourselves are self-presenting and provide a stopping place in the quest for justification. The justification we have for accepting that we are in those states is transparent to us in a way that enables us to answer questions about justification. Representation enables us to apprehend such self-presenting states through themselves in a representational loop. It is a loop of exemplarization wherein the state is used as an exemplar to represent the kind of state (...)
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  26. Dynamic Thoughts on Ifs and Oughts.Malte Willer - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-30.
    A dynamic semantics for iffy oughts offers an attractive alternative to the folklore that Chisholm's paradox enforces an unhappy choice between the intuitive inference rules of factual and deontic detachment. The first part of the story told here shows how a dynamic theory about ifs and oughts gives rise to a nonmonotonic perspective on deontic discourse and reasoning that elegantly removes the air of paradox from Chisholm's puzzle without sacrificing any of the two detachment principles. The (...)
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  27.  3
    Logical Analysis and Contemporary Theism.John Donnelly - 1972 - New York, NY, USA: Fordham University Press.
    In theology, by W.L. Rowe.--Divine foreknowledge and human freedom, by A. Kenny.--Some puzzles concerning omnipotence, by G.I. Mavrodes.--The paradox of the stone, by C.W. Savage.--Creation ex nihilo, by J. Donnelly.--The miraculous, by R.F. Holland.--On miracles, by P.J. Dietl.--The tacit structure of religious knowing, by J.H. Gill.--On the observability of the self, by R.M. Chisholm.--Re-examining Kierkegaard's "Teleological suspension of the ethical," by J. Donnelly.
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  28. Relativized metaphysical modality: Index and context.Benj Hellie, Adam Russell Murray & Jessica Wilson - 2018 - In Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. New York: Routledge.
    Relativized Metaphysical Modality (RMM: Murray and Wilson, 'Relativized metaphysical modality', Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, 2012; Murray, Perspectives on Modal Metaphysics, 2017) exploits 'two-dimensionalist' resources to metaphysical, rather than epistemological, ends: the second dimension offers perspective-dependence without contingency, diverting attacks on 'Classical' analyses of modals (in effect, analyses validating S5 and the Barcan Formulae). Here, we extend the RMM program in two directions. First, we harvest resources for RMM from Lewis's 1980 'Context--Index' (CI) framework: (a) the ban in CI on binding (...)
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  29.  88
    Intentionality: A Study Of Mental Acts.Richard E. Aquila - 1976 - Penn St University Press.
    This book is a critical and analytical survey of the major attempts, in modern philosophy, to deal with the phenomenon of intentionality—those of Descartes, Brentano, Meinong, Husserl, Frege, Russell, Bergmann, Chisholm, and Sellars. By coordinating the semantical approaches to the phenomenon, Dr. Aquila undertakes to provide a basis for dialogue among philosophers of different persuasions. "Intentionality" has become, since Franz Brentano revived its original medieval use, the standard term describing the mind's apparently paradoxical capacity to relate itself to objects (...)
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  30. An adverbial meinongian theory.William J. Rapaport - 1979 - Analysis 39 (March):75-81.
    A fundamental assumption of Alexius Meinong's 1904 Theory of Objects is the act-content-object analysis of psychological experiences. I suggest that Meinong's theory need not be based on this analysis, but that an adverbial theory might suffice. I then defend the adverbial alternative against an objection raised by Roderick Chisholm, and conclude by presenting an apparently more serious objection based on a paradox discovered by Romane Clark.
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  31.  34
    On Being and Saying: Essays for Richard Cartwright.Judith Jarvis Thomson (ed.) - 1987 - MIT Press.
    Richard Cartwright's impact on other philosophers has been as much a product of his own personal contact with students and colleagues as the result of his written work. The essays in this book demonstrate the deep influence he has had, not only by his thinking but equally by his style and manner and, above all, by his clarity and purity of intention. All of the essays are concerned with the questions of logic, language, and metaphysics that have been at the (...)
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  32. Introduction to: Norms, Logics and Information Systems: New Studies on Deontic Logic and Computer Science.Paul McNamara & Henry Prakken - 1999 - In Henry Prakken & Paul McNamara (eds.), Norms, Logics and Information Systems: New Studies on Deontic Logic and Computer Science. Amsterdam/Oxford/Tokyo/Washington DC: IOS Press. pp. 1-14.
    (See also the separate entry for the volume itself.) This introduction has three parts. The first providing an overview of some main lines of research in deontic logic: the emergence of SDL, Chisholm's paradox and the development of dyadic deontic logics, various other puzzles/challenges and areas of development, along with philosophical applications. The second part focus on some actual and potential fruitful interactions between deontic logic, computer science and artificial intelligence. These include applications of deontic logic to AI (...)
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  33. Souls.Eric T. Olson - 2007 - In What are we? Oxford University Press.
    This chapter is about the view that we are simple immaterial substances–immaterialism–and related views. It is claimed to be best supported by the difficulty of saying what material things we could be. For instance, the paradox of increase threatens to show that nothing can have different parts at different times, and materialists can solve it only at considerable cost. Immaterialism is then shown to face grave problems concerning the relation of souls to material things. Compound dualism, Swinburne's view that (...)
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  34. Introduction to philosophy: classical and contemporary readings.John Perry, Michael Bratman & John Martin Fischer (eds.) - 1986 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Introduction to Philosophy, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Building on the exceptionally successful tradition of previous editions, this edition for the first time incorporates the insights of a new coeditor, John Martin Fischer, and has been updated and revised to make it more accessible. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the text includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, knowledge and reality, the philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, (...)
  35. Skepticism About de Re Modality: Three Papers on Essentialism.Teresa Robertson - 1999 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    This is a three paper dissertation. ;for paper 1. Quine held that quantifying into modal contexts is illegitimate. It is sometimes thought that if he is right about this, then essentialist claims make no sense. Perhaps as a consequence of this thought together with the current prominence of essentialist views, there have been two good fairly recent attacks on Quine's argument against quantifying into modal contexts: Neale's revival of Smullyan's points and Kaplan's paper "Opacity". I first argue that Quine's view (...)
     
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  36. Contrary-to-Duty Scenarios, Deontic Dilemmas, and Transmission Principles.Benjamin Kiesewetter - 2018 - Ethics 129 (1):98-115.
    Actualists hold that contrary-to-duty scenarios give rise to deontic dilemmas and provide counterexamples to the transmission principle, according to which we ought to take the necessary means to actions we ought to perform. In an earlier article, I have argued, contrary to actualism, that the notion of ‘ought’ that figures in conclusions of practical deliberation does not allow for deontic dilemmas and validates the transmission principle. Here I defend these claims, together with my possibilist account of contrary-to-duty scenarios, against Stephen (...)
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  37.  30
    Contrary-to-Duty Reasoning: A Categorical Approach.Clayton Peterson - 2015 - Logica Universalis 9 (1):47-92.
    This paper provides an analysis of contrary-to-duty reasoning from the proof-theoretical perspective of category theory. While Chisholm’s paradox hints at the need of dyadic deontic logic by showing that monadic deontic logics are not able to adequately model conditional obligations and contrary-to-duties, other arguments can be objected to dyadic approaches in favor of non-monotonic foundations. We show that all these objections can be answered at one fell swoop by modeling conditional obligations within a deductive system defined as an (...)
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  38. contextualism And Virtue Perspectivism: How To Preserve Our Intuitions About Knowledge And 'knows'.Blake Roeber - 2009 - Florida Philosophical Review 9 (1):56-66.
    Contextualism is a linguistic thesis; it is a theory not about knowledge but about the word "knows." Almost invariably, contextualists defend their position as necessary for preserving our intuitions in the face of the so-called "skeptical paradox." In this paper, I undermine the case for contextualism by showing how a properly Chisholmed theory of knowledge might preserve our intuitions more successfully than the linguistic thesis forwarded by contextualism. My aim is not to demonstrate that contextualism is false. Rather, I (...)
     
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  39. Givenness and explanatory coherence.Wilfrid Sellars - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (October):612-624.
  40. The Irreducibility of Personal Obligation.Jacob Ross - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (3):307 - 323.
    It is argued that claims about personal obligation (of the form "s ought to 0") cannot be reduced to claims about impersonal obligation (of the form "it ought to be the case that p"). The most common attempts at such a reduction are shown to have unacceptable implications in cases involving a plurality of agents. It is then argued that similar problems will face any attempt to reduce personal obligation to impersonal obligation.
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  41. Deontic Logic and Natural Language.Fabrizio Cariani - forthcoming - In Dov Gabbay, Ron van der Meyden, John Horty, Xavier Parent & Leandert van der Torre (eds.), The Handbook of Deontic Logic (Vol. II). College Publications.
    There has been a recent surge of work on deontic modality within philosophy of language. This work has put the deontic logic tradition in contact with natural language semantics, resulting in significant increase in sophistication on both ends. This chapter surveys the main motivations, achievements, and prospects of this work.
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  42.  11
    The evolutionary ecology of attachment organization.James S. Chisholm - 1996 - Human Nature 7 (1):1-37.
    Life history theory’s principle of allocation suggests that because immature organisms cannot expend reproductive effort, the major trade-off facing juveniles will be the one between survival, on one hand, and growth and development, on the other. As a consequence, infants and children might be expected to possess psychobiological mechanisms for optimizing this trade-off. The main argument of this paper is that the attachment process serves this function and that individual differences in attachment organization (secure, insecure, and possibly others) may represent (...)
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  43. Regulation of Regenerative Medicines in Australia and New Zealand.Orin Chisholm - 2022 - In William Sietsema & Jocelyn Jennings (eds.), Regulation of regenerative medicines: a global perspective. Rockville: Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society.
     
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  44.  4
    The wisdom of not-knowing: essays on psychotherapy, Buddhism and life experience.Bob Chisholm & Jeff Harrison (eds.) - 2016 - Axminster, England: Triarchy Press.
    "We often find that the state of not-knowing can be a precursor to moments of rich discovery which possess a dynamic, transformative power that exceeds any prior expectation." From the Introduction In daily life, when we see, hear or touch something that we don't recognise, we are instantly at our most alert. In that condition of 'not-knowing' we are in a state of alive, lithe awareness: asking questions, inviting input, open to learning, looking for significance and meaning... These essays, most (...)
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  45.  26
    Meinong's Theory of Objects and Values.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1967 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (3):448-449.
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  46.  11
    Lewin's Topological and Vector Psychology. A Digest and a Critique.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1943 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4 (1):110-113.
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  47.  14
    Back to 'Things in Themselves': A Phenomenological Foundation for Classical Realism.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1987 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (3):569-570.
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  48.  20
    Philosophy: By Roderick M. Chisholm and Others.Roderick M. Chisholm, Herbert Feigl, William K. Frankena, John Passmore & Manley Thompson (eds.) - 1964 - Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall.
  49.  6
    George Katkov as Philosopher.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25-26 (1):601-602.
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  50.  1
    On the Positive and Negative States of Things.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25-26 (1):97-106.
    Following Bolzano, I suggest that there are two types of entity: those that are states of other things and those that are not. The second type includes, not only substances, in the traditional sense, but also such abstract objects as numbers, attributes and propositions. It is argued that the theory of states, when combined with an intentional account of negative attributes, will yield a theory of negative entities and of events.
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