Thomas Carlyle, renowned nineteenth-century essayist and social critic, came to be thought of as a secular prophet by many of his readers and as the "undoubted head of English letters" by Ralph Waldo Emerson. _Historical Essays _brings together Carlyle's essays on history and historical subjects in a fully annotated modern edition for the first time. These essays, which were originally collected in _Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, _span Carlyle's career from 1830 to 1875 and represent a major facet of his writings. (...) This edition uses all the extant authoritative versions of the essays to create an accurate critical text and includes a mine of lucidly presented information to enhance readers' understanding of Carlyle's densely allusive prose. The collection includes essays on the French Revolution, Cromwell, Frederick the Great, and medieval Scandinavia. It also includes such essential pieces as "On History," "On History Again," "Count Cagliostro," and "The Diamond Necklace." Together the essays show Carlyle positioning himself in relation to the new Romantic historiography but not yet ready to adopt the strictures of modern scientific history. They also exhibit his talent for analyzing the historical significance of seemingly minor events. He describes a plot to steal a diamond necklace in which Marie Antoinette became implicated, a visit of Whig sympathizers to the National Assembly during the French Revolution, and the kidnapping of two fifteenth-century German princes, one of whose descendents was Carlyle’s contemporary Prince Albert. This volume, the third of the eight-volume Strouse Edition of Carlyle’s works, includes a historical introduction and illustrations along with complete textual apparatus. (shrink)
The Noucentisme was, in the first twenty years of the XX century, the leading movement in the Catalan cultural life. It was characterized by important positivist and pragmatist influences. In this period two interesting philosophical reflections appeared, both characterized by the fundamental role of human being’s biological aspect. One was published by Eugeni d'Ors between 1909 and 1910, while the other is the main contribution to philosophy of the Barcelona-born scientist Ramon Turró. Although the starting point of both theory (...) was the idea that the foundation of existence is essentially biological and that it is necessary to search in the biological itself for the origin and meaning of man's relationship with the external environment, each one of the thinkers developed his own independent theory and came to different conclusions and interpretations of the world, sometimes even opposed. (shrink)
La Jetée is a Chris Marker movie composed by still images, photographs, with the exception of a very short sequence. The paper aims to account for the experience of temporality induced by photography, framing the structural analysis of the movie in a phenomenological horizon, in particular with regard to the Husserlian’s notion of “Living Present”.
The dream of the conversion in Ramon Llull is related with the own author’s vital vicissitudes. Therefore, the Islamic influence in the lulian system is obvious, besides the knowledge of Arab sources on the part of the author. On the other hand, Mohammed’s vision and the Islam that Ramon Llull presents is intimately related with its apologetic plans, inserting it in the Christian tradition of rebuttal, being in to traditional way a topic like the Antichrist.
Parte de un trabajo de investigación post-doctoral realizado en 2005 en la Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (Barcelona) con beca de la Generalitat de Catalunya, este artículo analiza las definiciones y clasificaciones de las siete artes liberales y mecánicas en las siguientes obras del filósofo Ramón Llull: el Libre de contemplació en Déu (1274-1276), la Doctrina pueril (c. 1274) y el Arbre de ciencia (1295-1296).
This article intents to analyse the manner with which Ramon Llull dialogues with the muslims of his time. I will base this in his two travels to North Africa in 1293 and 1307. I will develop theme focusing on six points: 1) Historical context of the moments of his two travels and the missionary stra tegies of this time, 2) The Llullian dialogue based in his divines dignities, its similarity to the Sufis Islamic mystics hadrasand his liturgical language, which (...) certifies the meditation and contemplation of God, 3) The desire of martyrdom in his second travel to Africa and his changing of missionary strategies, 4) The three affirmations of Llullian thought that Ramon judges possible of acceptance by Juifs and Muslims, 5) The necessity of rational proof of the existance of the Holiest Trinity and the refusal of islamic doctrine in this catholic viewpoint based in Coranic texts, 6) A short comparison between his real debates in Africa and his proposal to convert the Muslims contained in his Book of Marvels. (shrink)
This article considers a selection of Chris Marker's films in the context of noted differences between Emmanuel Levinas's and Jacques Derrida's positions on the animal as Other, the potential for the animal face. Derrida (2008) himself argues that Levinas ‘did not make the animal anything like a focus of interrogation within his work’ (p. 105). Statements such as this about Levinas's ethics seem to make his position clear. In contrast, Derrida's thinking on the matter of the animal, and in (...) particular human responsibility for them as Other, stands as a thorough and influential body of ethical thought, probing the limited and limiting boundary between human and animal. His autobiographical texts, according to Lynn Turner (2015, p. 135), welcome animal others. Marker's images, I will argue, address an equity between species through what he refers to as the égalité du regard, an equality in the gaze (of the camera). These images speak to a space beyond themselves and it is within this territory, I will argue, that the animal does have a face, that can occur via that of the human. (shrink)
In 'Literature Suspends Death: Sacrifice and Storytelling in Kierkegaard, Kafka and Blanchot' Chris Danta takes Genesis 22 as the starting point for an investigation of the role of literary imagination. His aim is to read the Genesis story from a literary-theoretical perspective in order to show how it can 'illuminate the secular situation of the literary writer.' To do this, Danta stages a fruitful confrontation between Søren Kierkegaard as defender of religion and inwardness and Franz Kafka and Maurice Blanchot (...) as defenders of literature. In this review, three important points in this confrontation are highlighted. 1. The problem of identification. 2. The moment of substitution. 3. The spectrality of the writer. (shrink)
Chris Dragos has recently presented two objections to criticisms I've published against Peter van Inwagen's No-Minimum argument. He also suggests that the best way to criticize the No-Minimum argument is via the concept of divine satisficing. In this article I argue that both of Dragos's objections fail, and I question whether satisficing is relevant to the viability of the No-Minimum argument.
The Philosopher Queen: Feminist Essays on War, Love, and Knowledge. By Chris Cuomo. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2003. The Philosopher Queen is a powerful illustration of what Cherríe Moraga calls a "theory in the flesh." That is, theorizing from a place where "physical realities of our lives—our skin color, the land or concrete we grow up on, our sexual longings—all fuse to create a politic [and, I would add, an ethics, spirituality, and epistemology] born out of (...) necessity" (Moraga 21). Cuomo's theory in the flesh combines standard philosophical essays with personal narratives and invites us to do philosophy from this joyful and witty place. Readers are invited to reframe and reexamine war, science, gender, sexuality, race, ecology, knowledge, and politics in a voice that is fearless, funny, faithful, and feminist—one that disrupts common understandings of how philosophy ought to be done. Instead philosophy should help us to "negotiate a wild, wicked world, and to provide some understanding of being and existence. The best philosophy aims to promote good and to produce knowledge, and therefore enable flourishing" (xi). Accepted philosophical approaches alone are inadequate. Life's challenges resist formulaic solutions. Knowledge is not always produced through neat deductions: truths are partial, power divides, stomachs growl, hearts are broken, and emotions influence... (shrink)
Why would anyone want there to be natural foundations for the social sciences? In a provocative essay exploring precisely that question, historian Chris Renwick uses an interwar debate featuring William Beveridge, Lancelot Hogben, and Friedrich Hayek to begin to imagine what might have been had such a program calling for biological knowledge to form the natural bases of the social sciences been realized at the London School of Economics. Yet perhaps Renwick grants too much attention to differences and “what-ifs” (...) and not enough to the historical question of “what happened” afterward. “Chickens and Eggs” offers an alternative view of this rather vexed question—one grounded in what happened, which suggests that Renwick’s concerns may be somewhat misplaced. (shrink)
This is my response to the papers by Chris Pincock, Lisa Warenski and Jonathan Weinberg, which were presented at the Book Symposium on my Essays on A Priori Knowledge and Justification, American Philosophical Association Pacific Division Meetings, March 16–19, 2014.
Kant and Education brings together sixteen essays by an international group of scholars. The range of topics covered in the anthology is impressive. Kant's contribution to contemporary theories of education is central, as well as Kant's intellectual debt to Rousseau, the role of education in Kant's normative theories, and the impact of Kant's ideas on subsequent generations. Add to this the relative shortness of each essay (ten to fifteen pages), and one is left with an accessible introduction to a fascinating, (...) but often neglected, topic of Kant's ethical theory. The editors, Klas Roth and Chris W. Surprenant, have done an admirable job. (shrink)
Este artigo reexamina o posto de Ramon Llull na história da pregação da Baixa Idade Média ocidental, tendo em vista as novas abordagens sobre o tema da pregação e sua relação com o espaço do político. Discute-se também o projeto luliano de fundação de uma Ordem militar unificada cuja finalidade era dar suporte à pregação e conversão do infiel consoante a função eclesial da cavalaria cristã. O estudo da concepção luliana de conversão do muçulmano exige uma posição metodológica cuidadosa, (...) uma vez que envolve sentimentos ligados à alteridade, à violência e à intolerância. Diante disso, evitar-se-á qualquer dissociação entre discurso e seus enunciadores, certo de que a violência se origina das relações sociais, não de pensamentos coletivos transistóricos descolados de uma específica situação espaciotemporal. As obras lulianas são apologéticas e polemistas e, por isso, não podem ser tomadas por descrições imediatas de uma suposta mentalidade intolerante ou persecutória, característica de um medievo anárquico, mas, ao contrário, registros, isto é, mediações em que certa retórica está sendo mobilizada para a promoção de interesses de certos sujeitos em detrimento de outros; é um jogo de poder em que alguns sujeitos se autolegitimam enquanto procuram deslegitimar os outros. (shrink)
A proposta deste trabalho é analisar a concepção filosófica depresciência em Santo Tomás de Aquino e Ramon Llull, nas obrasSuma Teológicae O Livro da Contemplação. Para isso, discorremos previamente sobre o conceito deciência, base aristotélica tomista. Por fim, apresentamos a tradução de um extrato doLivro da Contemplação, como base documental para a segunda parte do trabalho. The purpose of this article is to analyze the philosophical conception of prescience in St. Thomas Aquinas in the Summa Theologica and Ramon (...) Llull and the Book of Contemplation. To do so, we first discuss the Aristotelian-Thomist concept of science. We then present a translation of an extract from the Book of Contemplation as a documentary basis for the second part of the article. (shrink)
El presente artículo explora la presencia de un principio dialógico en la configuración de las subjetividades que interactúan en Level Five de Chris Marker con el objetivo de matizar la metáfora crítica que califica de forma consistente el cine del director francés como ejemplo del autorretrato. Mediante el concepto bajtiniano de “devenir ideológico”, el texto presta especial atención a la creciente importancia que juegan las tecnologías de la comunicación en los procesos de reacentuación discursiva que determinan en último término (...) la construcción de subjetividades. La noción de “imagen-red” busca poner de relieve las formas en las que la imagen digital ha propiciado el desarrollo de un nuevo pasaje de la imagen hacia un régimen representativo dominado por las ideas de intercambio autoinscripción cuyos ecos Level Five explora mediante el análisis de aspectos que van desde la dicotomía entre historia y memoria al papel de la imagen documental en la construcción de la realidad. This article analyzes the presence of a dialogic principle in the way subjectivities are constructed within Chris Marker’s Level Five, with a view to critically counteract the notion of Marker’s films as forms of the self-portrait. Through the Bakhtinian concept of “ideological becoming”, special attention is paid to the role played by new technologies of information and communication in the processes of re- accentuation which determine how subjectivities evolve in the context of the film. The concept of an “image-network” attempts to highlight the development of a new passage of the image towards a mode of representation dominated by a principle of exchange, whose importance is echoed in the film through the analysis of issues ranging from the dichotomy between memory and history to the relevance of documentary image for reality construction. (shrink)
I thought the paper by Kai-yee Wong and Chris Fraser was fascinating and insightful. Two things I especially appreciated are the clarity with which they summarize my views. I think they are quite fair and accurate. Second, I appreciate their suggestion that the way to deal with the practical problem of weakness of will has much to do with the role of the Background in shaping our actions. I think they are especially on the right track when they say (...) that the improvement of Background skills may actually narrow the range of real options for action, (p. 21) nonetheless, they do not decrease freedom. As they say, “It is a process of strengthening the self, and the agent is likely to experience the concomitant restriction of ‘live’ options not as a limitation but as strength of character.” (p. 21). That seems to me very much on the right track. What they are suggesting, and it is a powerful addition to my own writings, is that we should not just think of the Background as facilitating languages, games and social practices generally, but for morality as well (p. 23). (shrink)
Nurse Kaci Hickox is among the “Ebola Fighters” honored by Time magazine as its 2014 Person of the Year, having treated Ebola patients in Sierra Leone while volunteering with Médecins Sans Frontieres. When she returned to the United States in October 2014, she was quarantined in New Jersey for three days before returning home to Maine under the terms of a negotiated release. A year later, in October 2015, Hickox filed suit in federal court against Governor Chris Christie and (...) New Jersey health officials, claiming that the quarantine violated her civil rights. Her complaint asserts that New Jersey officials lacked the authority to quarantine her because she did not pose a significant risk of transmission. The lawsuit raises important questions about disease-transmission risk, the inability of science to rule out certain theoretical risks, and the state's power to quarantine. It also demonstrates that population health depends on respecting individual liberty and using the best available epidemiological data to set public health policy. (shrink)
The concept of archetypes has received a number of fundamentally different interpretations, and there are numerous additional philosophical concepts which can be characterized as modifications of those interpretations. Chris Nunn’s paper represents an approach to bringing a specific one among those concepts -- Richard Dawkins’ neo-Darwinistic conception of memes -- into contact with the notion of archetypes as it has been mainly popularized by Carl Gustav Jung. Nunn states rightly that Jung’s own understanding of and emphasis on archetypes changed (...) considerably during his lifetime. Therefore the difficulty is not only how to relate memes to archetypes, but also to distinguish that concept of archetypes to which memes relate from those to which they do not. (shrink)
Ramon Llull (1232-1316), born on Majorca, was one of the most remarkable lay intellectuals of the thirteenth century. He devoted much of his life to promoting missions among unbelievers, the reform of Western Christian society, and personal spiritual perfection. He wrote over 200 philosophical and theological works in Catalan, Latin, and Arabic. Many of these expound on his "Great Universal Art of Finding Truth," an idiosyncratic dialectical system that he thought capable of proving Catholic beliefs to non-believers. This study (...) offers the first full-length analysis of his theories about rhetoric and preaching, which were central to his evangelizing activities. It explains how Llull attempted to synthesize commonplace advice about courtly speech and techniques of popular sermons into a single program for secular and sacred eloquence that would necessarily promote love of God and neighbor. Llull's work is remarkable testimony to the diffusion of clerical culture among educated lay-people of his era, and to their enthusiasm for applying that knowledge in the pursuit of learning and piety. This book should find a place on the shelf of every scholar of medieval history, religion, and rhetoric. (shrink)
Se intenta poner de manifiesto, en este artículo, a través de un somero análisis de la biografía y de la obra de Santiago Ramón y Cajal, como su contribución a la historia de la histología no fue un fruto del azar, sino de una profunda investigación propiciada por su deseo de saber.
Ramon Llull was acutely aware of Islamic and Jewish divergences from Christian belief. He undertook a quest for "necessary reasons" to show that, where these belief systems diverged, Christian belief is true. Though largely self-taught, Llull managed three stays at the University of Paris. Encounters between the incandescent Mallorcan and academic orthodoxy contributed hugely to Llull's changing conception of necessary reasons. These changes are abundantly documented in Anthony Bonner's The Art and Logic of Ramon Llull.Llull's understanding of necessary (...) reasons is different in the Ars magna's quaternary phase, its ternary phase, and a post-Art logical phase. In the quaternary phase, necessary reasons are often presented as demonstrative; fully ten works use the term in their title. Although Llull meant 'demonstration' in a sense broader than Aristotle's, Parisian academics objected, mistakenly thinking he was trying to prove dogmas like the Trinity and Incarnation through Aristotelian demonstrations propter quid and quia. As Bonner conjectures, this may be why no work from the ternary phase mentions. (shrink)
Sciabarra replies to the seven respondents to his Fall 2002 essay on Rand, Rush, and progressive rock music. He defends the view that Rand's dialectical orientation underlies a fundamentally radical perspective. Rand shared with the counterculture—especially its libertarian progressive rock representatives—a repudiation of authoritarianism, while embracing the "unknown ideal" of capitalism. Her ability to trace the interrelationships among personal, cultural, and structural factors in social analysis and her repudiation of false alternatives is at the heart of that ideal vision, which (...) transcends left and right. (shrink)
The paper focuses on the following points:1. A survey of the characteristics of the philosophic book during the XIIIthcentury, with a special attention to the standard book-format developed for the Scholastic philosophy.2. The innovations introduced by Ramon Llull, going beyond the standard model of the Scholastic book. Llull is a merchant and, because of his education, he is not able to write a book of philosophy; but he has been inspired by God, who asked him to write a book (...) which will be able to convert all the World. This will change his life: the key for the conversion will not be an interpretation of the Bible, but an explaination of the potentials of any human languages. Inside the human language it is possible to find the evidence of the reality of God, and especially of the God of the Christians. The new book will explain this, spreading the inner power of language itself.3. The philosophic book of Llull as a multi-cultural linguistic laboratory; survey of the graphic features enabling this complex interaction among different languages and writing systems.4. The organization of Llull’s scriptorium.5. After the death of Llull: why did his method for global conversion did not work?6. The modern tradition: copying Llull / loving Llull / inventing Llull.7. The transformations of the book designed for the Ars combinatoria and his relationships with modern culture. Philosophy and science. Book and laboratory. Philologists do not like Llull’s friends, but probably he would have loved them. (shrink)
En este artículo se presentan y analizan las citas árabes del Qur'an y el ?adi? escritas en caracteres hebreos y traducidas al latín, que se hallan en el Pugio Fidei (Puñal de la fe) del polemista dominico Ramón Martí (m. después de 1284). Éstas son de gran interés, pues constituyen el único ejemplo de citas en lengua árabe en su obra y nos proporcionan, además, información sobre las fuentes de Martí y sobre la conexión directa entre el uso de lenguas (...) originales y la estrategia retórica de su obra polémica. (shrink)
The central concern of this erudite and lavish work is "to trace that part of the Lullian movement which was centered on Paris." The first part of the book sketches the life and character of Ramon Lull and his relationship to the politics of his age. Lull emerges as a fascinating person and thinker, whose life was intertwined in the thought and politics of the generation following the condemnation of 1277. Lull was a crusading yet irenic missionary to the (...) Arabs. At the same time he was a thinker whose thought was rooted in the traditional currents of Christian thought stemming from Anselm and Neo-Platonism, and quite opposed to Averroism. Yet he was also an impressively original theologian with great confidence in the demonstrative power of theological thought. The second part of Hillgarth’s study begins by showing that Paris was the most influential center for the diffusion of Lull’s thought in the fourteenth century. At Paris Thomas Le Myésier proves to have been a particularly influential Lullist. After chapters devoted to Le Myésier’s patrons and his manuscript collections, the central chapter of the book is devoted to a detailed discussion of Le Myésier’s compilations of Lull’s thought. In an epilogue, the subsequent fortunes of Lullism are traced in such figures as Heimeric van de Velde, Nicholas of Cusa, Ramon Sibiuda, Pier Leoni, Lefèvre d'Etaples and Ivo Salzinger. Considerable attention is given to Lullian manuscripts, both in the above mentioned chapters and in the appendices, which also include the Latin texts of some of Le Myésier’s works. This book, because of its price and its scholarly intent, will be of interest primarily to students with a special interest in Lull. However, the first part on Lull, the chapter on Le Myésier’s compilations, and the epilogue will also be helpful to anyone who wishes to bring himself abreast of recent scholarly study of Lull and his influence.—H. F. (shrink)
Una de las graves dificultades para entender la filosofía de Ramon Llull es fijar las claves hermenéuticas de su pensamiento. Unos han valorado excesivamente sus formación latino-escolástica. Otros han buscado sus raíces arábicas. El presente artículo hace una revisión crítica de la bibliografía al respecto y considera que la formación científica del pensamiento luliano, siempre fuera del marco universitario de su época, es el resultado del contacto con la lengua y la ideología de los musulmanes de la post-conquista de (...) Mallorca, de la lectura directa o indirecta de textos latinos y de su presencia en las escuelas de Medicina de Montpellier. (shrink)
En este trabajo ofrecemos la traducción del latín al español del Liber de convenientia fidei et intellectus in obiecto de Ramón Llull, con introducción y notas. Se trata de una obra en la que el filósofo mallorquín efectúa una síntesis de su pensamiento en torno de las relaciones entre fe y razón, así como de su posición respecto de la defensa de la fe católica y la conversión de los no cristianos. El opúsculo, que se muestra como un trabajo definitivo (...) en cuanto al establecimiento de la relación mencionada, hecha mano de los elementos fundamentales de su sistema, el Ars magna, pero aun así es una rara avis dentro de la opus luliana: está pleno de citas bíblicas y alusiones a las auctoritates eclesiásticas más renombradas, unas y otras ausentes en la mayoría de las obras lulianas. In this paper we offer the translation from Latin to Spanish of Ramón Llull´s Liber de convenientia fidei et intellectus in obiecto with introduction and notes. This is a work where the mallorcan philosopher makes a synthetic framework of his thinking on the relationship between faith and reason, as well as of his position towards the defense of catholic faith and conversion of non-christian people. The text, which is shown as a definitive work in the setting of this relationship, uses the most characteristic principles of his system, Ars magna, but still is a rara avis inside the opus lulliana: is full of biblical quotations and allusions to the most renowned ecclesiastical auctoritates, all these absents in most lullian woks. (shrink)
Los nombres de José Martí, Eugenio María de Hostos, Gregorio Luperón y Ramón Emeterio Betances sintetizan las luchas llevadas adelante, durante el siglo XIX, para conquistar la independencia y las libertades en la región del Caribe colonizada por España. Reconstruimos algunos de los episodios de esa lucha a través de los escritos de Ramón Emeterio Betances, "El Antillano". Tras una breve introducción biográfica y contextual, la exposición se ordena en torno a dos pares de ideas centrales de su pensamiento: las (...) de independencia y confederación antillana, por una parte, y las de defensa de la raza negra y abolición de la esclavitud, por otra. Aunque las presentamos separadamente, ellas resultan inescindibles en el conjunto de su producción.The names of José Martí, Eugenio María Hostos, Gregorio Luperón, and Ramón Emeterio Betances summarize in themselves the XIXth Century struggles for the freedom and the independence of the Caribbean countries colonized by Spain. In this paper we reconstruct some of the episodes of such struggles through the writings of Ramón Emeterio Betances, "El Antillano" . Following a short biographical and contextual introduction, this work is developed around two pairs of central ideas of his thought: those of Antillean independence and confederation, on the one hand, and those of the defense of the black people and the abolition of slavery on the other. Though presented separately, these ideas are inseparable in the bulk of Betances's production. (shrink)
La originalidad del sistema luliano de no argumentar mediante autoridades incluye en dicha perspectiva la Biblia, pues en la Edad Media cristiana la autoridad más importante proviene de las sagradas escrituras. En este punto de vista, Ramon Llulí adopta una peculiar visión respecto a la Biblia: si el Ars luliana es un sistema que va más allá de la Biblia, la Biblia es uno de los argumentos para ir más allá de Ella misma. En este caso; la Biblia y, (...) especialmente, algunas citas bíblicas son la estructura básica del concepto apostólico del sistema luliano. (shrink)
Durante el segundo viaje de Colón, Ramón Pané llegó a la isla de La Española donde convivió entre los nativos y escribió un tratado sobre sus creencias y rituales. Su Relación acerca de las antigüedades de los indios terminada en 1498 es de gran valor histórico y por su labor el autor ha sido celebrado como el primer etnógrafo y etnólogo de América. Sin embargo, Pané ha sido insuficientemente explicado por la mayor parte de los académicos y no ha sido (...) reconocido por lo que más fue, un extirpador de idolatrías. El presente trabajo analiza los rasgos de extirpador que el autor ostenta en esta Relación y que, a su vez, hace de su obra una muestra inaugural de las campañas antiidolátricas en el Nuevo Mundo. During the second voyage of Columbus, Ramón Pané arrived to the island of Hispaniola where he lived among the natives and wrote a treatise on their beliefs and rituals. His Relación acerca de las antigüedades de los indios, completed in 1498, is of great historical value and the author has been celebrated as the first American anthropologist and ethnologist. However, Pané has been insufficiently explained by the majority of scholars. The friar has not been recognized for what he most was, an extirpator of idolatry. This paper analyzes the characteristics of extirpator which the author shows in his Relación which, in turn, makes his work an innaugural sample of the anti-idolatry campaigns in the New World. (shrink)