It was only recently that people began to refer to God, occasionally, as “she.” Is it now possible to re-imagine divine power as a female force deeply related to the changing world? If so, then we can understand the deeper meaning of female images of divine power including depictions such as “The Goddess.” CarolChrist offers a new look at these female images of God in She Who Changes . She shows how many traditional ideas about divine power (...) reject the female body and connection to the natural world. She looks at the work of female theologians in Judaism, Christianity, and various religions that worship "The Goddess" to explore the way in which they are re-imagining both divine and human power as embodied both in a changing world and deeply related to all beings. (shrink)
L’exhortation à la soumission des esclaves en 1 P 2,18-25 peut-elle être porteuse de sens pour les lecteurs d’aujourd’hui? Une approche narratologique permettra de constater que l’énonciation, par l’agencement de divers indices narratifs, tels les changements d’énonciataires, la spatialisation, la temporalité et l’intertextualité, provoque une identification du lecteur avec les esclaves qui deviennent le paradigme de toute personne souffrant des situations d’injustice et stimule tout lecteur à accepter l’exhortation proposée.
Este artigo tem como propósito reconstituir o sentido conferido por D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida (1930-2006), bispo-auxiliar de São Paulo e arcebispo de Mariana, secretário e presidente da CNBB além de vice-presidente do CELAM, à sua própria trajetória biográfica. Verifica-se que, se cotejada com balizas culturais contemporâneas, tal configuração de si porta contornos aparentemente paradoxais: ao invés de fortalecer uma identidade pessoal, ela pressupõe uma dinâmica antropológico-religiosa de autoesvaziamento, concomitante a uma atuação mediadora em prol de relações ternárias entre Deus, (...) os sujeitos e si mesmo, processo denominado por D. Luciano como “interiorização da figura Jesus Cristo”. Com o suporte teórico provindo da semiótica e da história religiosa, tal interiorização é aqui compreendida como um programa narrativo específico, que adquiriu formas singulares ao longo dos séculos, com destaque à espiritualidade inaciana, mas preservando sua concepção como um agir, pela fé, em nome da competência atribuída a um Outro. Sugere-se ainda que, na atualidade, a interiorização possa ser aproximada do relato de testemunho, face ao engajamento ético por ela suscitado, que reconfigura o sujeito no compartilhar de experiências vividas e postas em discurso. Palavras-chave: D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida. Biografia. Interiorização. Testemunho.: This article aims at reconstructing the meaning given by D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida (1930-2006), to his own biographical trajectory. D. Luciano was auxiliary bishop of Saint-Paul and Archbishop of Mariana, secretary and president of the CNBB, and also vice president of CELAM. The configuration he made of himself appears to be paradoxical: instead of strengthening a personal identity, it assumes a dynamic anthropological and religious self-emptiness and a mediating performance in favor of ternary relations between God and the subject itself, a process called by the Archbishop as the "internalization of the figure Jesus Christ." With a theoretical support coming from semiotics and religious history, this process of internalization is understood in this article as a specific narrative program which has acquired unique forms over the centuries, with emphasis on Ignatians spirituality, while preserving its conception as an act of faith on behalf of the competency given to an Other. The article also suggests that ,nowadays, that internalization of the figure of Jesus Christ approaches the reported testimony, given the ethical engagement raised by it, which reconfigures the subject in the sharing of experiences of life that are brought into discourse. Keywords : D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida. Biography. Internalization. Testimony. (shrink)
O presente estudo busca compreender a aderência de jovens a um instituto católico – Toca de Assis – que se caracteriza por adotar um estilo de vida configurado por radical pobreza, renúncia a bens e estudos formais, e dependência exclusiva da providência divina, além de desenvolvimento de trabalho com pessoas em situação de rua. Busca entender a opção juvenil por um estilo de vida religiosa rigoroso a partir de propostas de vida contrastivas com a sociedade contemporânea e, de certo modo, (...) com a própria Igreja, visando identidades alternativas e fortes. Assim, o artigo desenvolve o tema Juventude; Toca de Assis, renúncia, pobreza; tem como objetivo verificar as relações entre juventude, comportamento e adesão a estilos de vida radicais; usa, principalmente, da metodologia das ciências sociais; tem por conclusão provisória a compreensão de que os jovens que aderem à Toca de Assis, ao renunciar a bens materiais, estudo, e ao assumirem uma vida de pobreza e solidariedade com os pobres, estão em um movimento de contrastividade e contestação social motivadas por uma identificação com o Cristo sofredor. Palavras-chave : Toca de Assis. Renúncia. Pobreza. Jovens.: The present study aims to understand the adherence of youth people to a Catholic institute called Toca de Assis. This group adopts a lifestyle of radical poverty, wich calls for renunciation of material goods and also to formal studies. Participants in this group also claim rely solely on state of divine providence for their material survival. Young people in this group perform a work of assistance to people marginalized by society and to those who live at risk on the streets. The article seeks to understand the reasons for the choice of young people for a religious lifestyle so strict that contrasts with the lifestyle of contemporary society and in a sense, the Church itself, aiming at the formation of alternate identities. Thus, the article develops the theme “youth”, “Toca de Assis”, “resignation”, and “poverty”. The study aims, in short, to examine relationships between youth behavior and adherence to radical lifestyles; For this purpose, a methodology of social science is used. As in interim conclusion, this discussion indicates the following: youth people who adhere to Toca de Assis, renouncing material possessions, study, and assuming a life of poverty and solidarity with the poor, are in a movement of social protest and are motivated by an identification with the suffering Christ. Keywords : Toca de Assis. Renunciation. Poverty. Youth. (shrink)
Les études sur les élaborations christologiques des premiers siècles ne manquent pas et M. Fédou, dans son introduction, en retient trois afin de définir par contraste l'apport de sa propre approche : celle de L. Capéran, Le Problème du salut des infidèles, d'abord édité à Toulouse en 1912 (nouvelle édition revue et mise à jour en 1934) ; trois œuvres marquantes de J. Daniélou (Théologie du judéo-christianisme, 1958 ; Message évangélique et culture hellénistique aux IIe et IIIe siècles, 1961 ..
According to accounts of the Passion, Christ cries out from the cross, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” The cry, I argue, manifests that Christ lacks a belief that God is with him. Given the standard view of faith—belief that p is required for faith that p—it would follow that Christ lost his faith that God is with him just before he died. In this paper, I challenge the standard view by looking at the (...) cognitive requirement of faith. Although faith that p requires some positive cognitive orientation toward p, that orientation need not be belief. I show that reliance is an alternative stance that fulfills the cognitive requirement of faith. Reliance aims at providing sensible guidance for action that is in accord with one’s values/ends. Thinking of the cognitive component of Christ’s faith in terms of reliance makes sense of the doubt manifested in his cry. (shrink)
Does Christian faith matter in business? If so, how does it affect the way executives handle managerial issues, especially the ones that are ethically controversial? This paper reports a study of Chinese Christian executives in Hong Kong. The researchers followed an approach known as the Critical Incident Technique and conducted in-depth interviews with 119 Chinese Christian executives over a two year period from 1999 to 2001. Each interview covered four broad areas consisting of the interviewee''s description of his or her (...) Christian faith, business experience, reported critical incidents and general remarks on faith and work. For each reported critical incident, the interviewee deliberated on the incident and its background, his or her response, the rationale behind the response and its consequences. Each interview was tape recorded for transcription and analysis. The major contribution of this study is to propose and document a typology of the executives'' responses to ethical challenges in business. The typology is based on earlier work on Christ and culture and styles of negotiation. Preliminary research findings indicate that the proposed typology is an effective paradigm. It has the promise of enabling Christian executives to reflect critically on their ethical behavior and to guide their thought towards more effective responses to ethical challenges. (shrink)
O artigo aborda a questão da identidade presbiteral do Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II até hoje. O ponto de partida são dois artigos sobre esse tema. Um foi escrito por Mauro Gagliardi, e publicado pela revista da Congregação para o Clero, e outro por José Maria Hernándes Martínez, CMF, e publicado pela revista Proyección. Apesar de tratarem da mesma questão, eles têm pontos de vista diferentes para compreender a fundamentação do proprium do ministério ordenado: a representação de Cristo ou a da (...) comunidade eclesial. A seguir, o artigo aborda a posição do Vaticano II, de modo especial, na Lumen Gentium 28 e no Decreto Presbyterorum Ordinis ; a crise que seguiu sobre a identidade presbiteral e o surgimento de uma nova posição, indicada pela fundamentação trinitária, além de apontar algumas posições teológicas mais recentes. Por fim, são apontadas algumas perspectivas para o ministério presbiteral nos dias de hoje, de modo particular quanto à identidade do presbítero, a espiritualidade e a formação para a afetividade e o celibato. Palavras - chave : Sacerdócio Ordenado. Presbítero. Vaticano II. Persona Christi Capitis . Persona Ecclesiae .This article addresses the issue of Presbyterial identity on the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council until today. Two articles on this theme are the starting point. One of them was written by Mario Gagliardi and published by the journal of the Congregation for the Clergy, and the other was written by Maria José Hernández Martínez, CMF, and published by the journal Proyección. Although addressing the same issue, they have different points of view in understanding the foundation of the proprium of ordained ministry: the representation of Christ or of the ecclesial community. Next, the article discusses the position of Vatican II, especially in Lumen Gentium 28 and in the Presbyterorum Ordinis Decree; the crisis that followed about the Presbyterial identity and the emergence of a new position, indicated by the Trinitarian foundation, and it also points out some of the latest theological positions. Finally, some perspectives are pointed for the Presbyterial ministry nowadays, in particular as to the Presbyterial identity, spirituality and the training for affectivity and celibacy. Keywords : The Ordained Priesthood. Presbyter. Vatican II. Persona Christi Capitis . Persona Ecclesiae . - DOI: P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1090. (shrink)
Neste texto Claude Lacaille reflete sobre o exercício de seu sacerdócio no contexto do aggiornamento promovido pelo Concílio Vaticano II. Para tanto, o autor busca identificar os maiores feitos da assembléia conciliar, entre eles, especialmente, o novo papel desempenhado pelas Sagradas Escrituras na piedade católica e a redefinição da Igreja como Povo de Deus. Essa realidade produz grande dinamismo com as Comunidades Eclesiais de Base que enfretaram e resistiram à opressão, inspiradas na experiência do Deus do Êxodo. Leónidas Proaño, Oscar (...) Romero e tantas mulheres e homens tornaram-se mártires como os profetas bíblicos, anunciando a liberdade e denunciando a opressão, comprometidos com a causa dos pobres, a serviço da solidariedade e disponíveis a acolher o dom de Deus. Segundo Lacaille, os feitos do concílio estão ocultados e desvirtuados, porém o autor convida à atitude esperançosa frente aos desafios que o Vaticano II foi convocado a responder, firmes na liberdade de Cristo. Palavras-chave: Vaticano II. Bíblia. Povo de Deus. Comunidades Eclesiais de Base.In this paper, Claude Lacaille reflects on the practice of his priesthood within the context of the aggiornamento promoted by Vatican II. For this purpose, the author seeks to identify the greatest achievements of the Council, especially the new role of Scripture in Catholic piety such as the redefinition of the Church as People of God. This reality has produced significant dynamism through the Basic Ecclesial Communities who have faced and resisted oppression, inspired by the experience of God from the Book of Exodus. The text brings up a picture of some characters as Leonidas Proaño, Oscar Romero and other men and women who became martyrs as the prophets. The biblical prophets, as martyrs, announced freedom, denounced oppression, committed themselves to the cause of the poor and solidarity, and became available to the gift of God. According to the author, the achievements of the council are hidden and distorted. Yet despite this distortion, the author urges people to a hopeful attitude to the challenges that Vatican II addressed and sought to answer, grounded in the freedom of Christ. Keywords : Vatican II. Bible. People of God. Christian base communities. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1334. (shrink)
The relation between morality and religion has often been discussed. However, it is not always recognized that the relation varies greatly according to the variety of religions. I shall here be concerned solely with Christian theism in its traditional form. I take the latter to signify, essentially, belief in a morally perfect Creator who exists in the threefold form of Father, Son and Holy Spirit and who, in the person of the Son, became man in Christ for our salvation. (...) I thus exclude from consideration all non-theistic accounts of God or the Absolute. Also I shall consider, not simply bare theism of the kind that Christians share with Jews and Muslims, but also the distinctively Christian form of theism that is generated by distinctively Christian revelation. Many otherwise sound descriptions of the relation between morality and theism are defective because they fail to consider the distinctively Christian contribution to the theistic concept of God and of his relation to the world. (shrink)
The Chalcedonian Definition states that the incarnate Christ is both fully human and fully divine. But spelling out what the Chalcedonian Definition entails continues to be a subject of intense controversy among philosophers and theologians alike. One of these controversies concerns what I call the problem of the bearer question. At the heart of this question lies whether or not the two natures of Christ require two distinct bearers. In section I, I will explain the problem of the (...) bearer question and how it arises directly due to the Chalcedonian Definition. In section II, I will propose a solution to the problem of the bearer question within the framework of what I call, a ‘Multi–Track Disposition Model of the Incarnation’. At the heart of this model lies the notion that the manifestation of properties is multi–directional in the sense that there is a reciprocal partnership among property manifestations. In section III, I will contrast the solution proposed to the bearer question by the Multi–Track Model to that of a ‘Kenotic Model of the Incarnation’. I will argue that the Multi–Track Model provides us with better conceptual resources to make sense of the bearer question. Finally, in section IV, I will briefly point out why ultimately a conclusive answer to the bearer question may still prove to be elusive because the bearer question gives rise to a host of other unresolved questions. (shrink)
It is a widely held belief that one can will to believe, disbelieve, and withhold belief concerning propositions. It is sometimes said that we have a duty to believe certain propositions. These theses have had a long and respected history. In one form or another they receive the support of a large number of philosophers and theologians who have written on the relationship of the will to believing. In the New Testament Jesus holds his disciples responsible for their beliefs, reprimands (...) them for doubting, and speaks of the ability to believe as if it were optional. Paul makes it clear that he thinks propositional belief is a necessary condition for salvation. If a man confesses Christ as Lord with his lips and believes in his heart that God has raised him from the dead, he shall be saved . The writer of Hebrews implies that unless we have certain propositional beliefs we cannot please God . In the New Testament most cases of pistis involve more than a propositional attitude. They involve the idea of trust and faithfulness. Nevertheless, a prima facie case for saying that the volitional theses can be found in the New Testament can be made. Forms of volitionalism can be found stated more explicitly in the writings of the early Church, in the writings of Irenaeus, in the Athanasian Creed, and in Augustine. Acquinas describes faith as an act of the intellect moved by the will. Descartes is perhaps the classic example of a volitionalist, holding that if we were not responsible for our beliefs , then God would be - which is tantamount to blasphemy in that it makes God into a deceiver. (shrink)
Christianity affirms, with Judaism and Islam, that God is the omnipotent Creator of all things. But it diverges from them in also affirming that the Creator assumed a human nature in one figure of history, Jesus of Nazareth. Christ thus differs from other men in kind, not merely in degree; he is absolutely, not just relatively, unique. Admittedly many Christian theologians have held that the difference between Christ and other men is only one of degree. Yet the Church's (...) traditional claim, as expressed in the Chalcedonian Definition, is that Jesus was both creature and Creator, both fully man and fully God. (shrink)