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  1. Drugs as Instruments: A New Framework for Non-Addictive Psychoactive Drug Use.Christian P. Müller & Gunter Schumann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):293-310.
    Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states (...)
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  2.  33
    To Use or Not to Use: Expanding the View on Non-Addictive Psychoactive Drug Consumption and its Implications.Christian P. Müller & Gunter Schumann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):328-347.
    Proposing a change to the view on psychoactive drug use in non-addicts touches a sensitive issue because of its potential implications to addiction prevention, therapeutic practice, and drug policy. Commentators raised nine questions that ranged from clarifications, suggested extensions of the model to supporting data previously not regarded, to assumptions on the implications of the model. Here, we take up the suggestions of the commentators to expand the model to behavioral addictions, discuss additional instrumentalization goals, and review the evidence from (...)
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  3.  37
    Gene-Independent Heritability of Behavioural Traits: Don't We Also Need to Rethink the “Environment”?Christian P. Müller, Bernd Lenz & Johannes Kornhuber - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):374-375.
    Behavioural phenotypes have been explained by genetic and environmental factors (E) and their interaction. Here we suggest a rethinking of the E factor. Passively incurred environmental influences (E pass) and actively copied information and behaviour (E act) may be distinguished at shared and non-shared level. We argue that E act underlies mutation and selection and is the base of gene-independent heritability.
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  4.  52
    Drugs' Rapid Payoffs Distort Evaluation of Their Instrumental Uses1.George Ainslie, Christian P. Müller & Gunter Schumann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):311.
    Science has needed a dispassionate valuation of psychoactive drugs, but a motivational analysis should be conducted with respect to long-term reward rather than reproductive fitness. Because of hyperbolic overvaluation of short-term rewards, an individual's valuation depends on the time she forms it and the times she will revisit it, sometimes making her best long-term interest lie in total abstinence.
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  5.  10
    Eyes on the Price: Human Culture and its Teaching.Christian P. Müller - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  6.  9
    Making a Case for Constructive Reductionism.Christian P. Müller - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
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  7.  18
    Winner Takes It All: Addiction as an Example for Selfish Goal Dominance.Christian P. Müller & Davide Amato - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):152-152.
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  8.  54
    Sacramental and Spiritual Use of Hallucinogenic Drugs.Levente Móró, Valdas Noreika, Christian P. Müller & Gunter Schumann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):319.
    Arguably, the religious use of hallucinogenic drugs stems from a human search of metaphysical insight rather than from a direct need for cognitive, emotional, social, physical, or sexual improvement. Therefore, the sacramental and spiritual intake of hallucinogenic drugs goes so far beyond other biopsychosocial functions that it deserves its own category in the drug instrumentalization list.
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  9.  77
    Why Do We Take Drugs? From the Drug-Reinforcement Theory to a Novel Concept of Drug Instrumentalization.Rainer Spanagel, Christian P. Müller & Gunter Schumann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (6):322.
    The drug-reinforcement theory explains why humans get engaged in drug taking behavior. This theory posits that drugs of abuse serve as biological rewards by activating the reinforcement system. Although from a psychological and neurobiological perspective this theory is extremely helpful, it does not tell us about the drug-taking motives and motivation of an individual. The definition of drug instrumentalization goals will improve our understanding of individual drug-taking profiles.
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