15 found
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  1.  26
    Evaluating Evidence of Mechanisms in Medicine.Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Christian Wallmann, Michael Wilde, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Michael P. Kelly, Charles Norell, Federica Russo, Beth Shaw & Jon Williamson - 2018 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    The use of evidence in medicine is something we should continuously seek to improve. This book seeks to develop our understanding of evidence of mechanism in evaluating evidence in medicine, public health, and social care; and also offers tools to help implement improved assessment of evidence of mechanism in practice. In this way, the book offers a bridge between more theoretical and conceptual insights and worries about evidence of mechanism and practical means to fit the results into evidence assessment procedures.
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  2. The Principal Principle Implies the Principle of Indifference.James Hawthorne, Jürgen Landes, Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1):axv030.
    We argue that David Lewis’s principal principle implies a version of the principle of indifference. The same is true for similar principles that need to appeal to the concept of admissibility. Such principles are thus in accord with objective Bayesianism, but in tension with subjective Bayesianism. 1 The Argument2 Some Objections Met.
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  3.  22
    Admissibility Troubles for Bayesian Direct Inference Principles.Christian Wallmann & James Hawthorne - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-37.
    Direct inferences identify certain probabilistic credences or confirmation-function-likelihoods with values of objective chances or relative frequencies. The best known version of a direct inference principle is David Lewis’s Principal Principle. Certain kinds of statements undermine direct inferences. Lewis calls such statements inadmissible. We show that on any Bayesian account of direct inference several kinds of intuitively innocent statements turn out to be inadmissible. This may pose a significant challenge to Bayesian accounts of direct inference. We suggest some ways in which (...)
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  4.  9
    The Principal Principle and subjective Bayesianism.Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-14.
    This paper poses a problem for Lewis’ Principal Principle in a subjective Bayesian framework: we show that, where chances inform degrees of belief, subjective Bayesianism fails to validate normal informal standards of what is reasonable. This problem points to a tension between the Principal Principle and the claim that conditional degrees of belief are conditional probabilities. However, one version of objective Bayesianism has a straightforward resolution to this problem, because it avoids this latter claim. The problem, then, offers some support (...)
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  5.  5
    Four Approaches to the Reference Class Problem.Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - unknown
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  6.  40
    Probability Propagation in Generalized Inference Forms.Christian Wallmann & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):913-929.
    Probabilistic inference forms lead from point probabilities of the premises to interval probabilities of the conclusion. The probabilistic version of Modus Ponens, for example, licenses the inference from \({P(A) = \alpha}\) and \({P(B|A) = \beta}\) to \({P(B)\in [\alpha\beta, \alpha\beta + 1 - \alpha]}\) . We study generalized inference forms with three or more premises. The generalized Modus Ponens, for example, leads from \({P(A_{1}) = \alpha_{1}, \ldots, P(A_{n})= \alpha_{n}}\) and \({P(B|A_{1} \wedge \cdots \wedge A_{n}) = \beta}\) to an according interval for (...)
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  7.  9
    A Bayesian Solution to the Conflict of Narrowness and Precision in Direct Inference.Christian Wallmann - 2017 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 48 (3):485-500.
    The conflict of narrowness and precision in direct inference occurs if a body of evidence contains estimates for frequencies in a certain reference class and less precise estimates for frequencies in a narrower reference class. To develop a solution to this conflict, I draw on ideas developed by Paul Thorn and John Pollock. First, I argue that Kyburg and Teng’s solution to the conflict of narrowness and precision leads to unreasonable direct inference probabilities. I then show that Thorn’s recent solution (...)
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  8.  10
    Degradation in Probability Logic : When More Information Leads to Less Precise Conclusions.Christian Wallmann & Gernot Kleiter - unknown
    Probability logic studies the properties resulting from the probabilistic interpretation of logical argument forms. Typical examples are probabilistic Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens. Argument forms with two premises usually lead from precise probabilities of the premises to imprecise or interval probabilities of the conclusion. In the contribution, we study generalized inference forms having three or more premises. Recently, Gilio has shown that these generalized forms ``degrade'' -- more premises lead to more imprecise conclusions, i. e., to wider intervals. We distinguish (...)
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  9.  6
    The Principal Principle and subjective Bayesianism.Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-14.
    This paper poses a problem for Lewis’ Principal Principle in a subjective Bayesian framework: we show that, where chances inform degrees of belief, subjective Bayesianism fails to validate normal informal standards of what is reasonable. This problem points to a tension between the Principal Principle and the claim that conditional degrees of belief are conditional probabilities. However, one version of objective Bayesianism has a straightforward resolution to this problem, because it avoids this latter claim. The problem, then, offers some support (...)
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  10.  31
    Scientific Disagreement and Evidential Pluralism: Lessons From the Studies on Hypercholesterolemia.Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Federica Russo & Christian Wallmann - 2017 - Humana Mente 10 (32):75-116.
    Inconsistencies between scientific theories have been studied, by and large, from the perspective of paraconsistent logic. This approach considered the formal properties of theories and the structure of inferences one can legitimately draw from theories. However, inconsistencies can be also analysed from the perspective of modelling practices, in particular how modelling practices may lead scientists to form opinions and attitudes that are different, but not necessarily inconsistent. In such cases, it is preferable to talk about disagreement, rather than inconsistency. Disagreement (...)
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  11.  9
    Beware of Too Much Information.Christian Wallmann & Gernot Kleiter - unknown
  12.  6
    Exchangeability in Probability Logic.Christian Wallmann & Gernot Kleiter - unknown
    The paper investigates exchangeability in the context of probability logic. We study generalizations of basic inference rules and inferences involving cardinalities. We compare the results with those obtained in the case in which only identical probabilities are assumed.
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  13.  20
    Theorie der Konsequenzoperationen Und Grundbegriffe der Logik.Christian Wallmann - 2011 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):64-77.
    We give an elementary introduction into the theory of consequence operations.We proof some elementary results concerning basic notions of logic like tautology, consistency, independence and completeness. We show in particular that every nite axiomatizable set is independent axiomatizable and that every consistent set has relative to a nitary consequence operation a maximal consistent extension. Finally we provide an abstract semantics for consequence operations.
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  14.  40
    A Shared Framework for Consequence Operations and Abstract Model Theory.Christian Wallmann - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (2):125-145.
    In this paper we develop an abstract theory of adequacy. In the same way as the theory of consequence operations is a general theory of logic, this theory of adequacy is a general theory of the interactions and connections between consequence operations and its sound and complete semantics. Addition of axioms for the connectives of propositional logic to the basic axioms of consequence operations yields a unifying framework for different systems of classical propositional logic. We present an abstract model-theoretical semantics (...)
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  15.  6
    Theorie der Konsequenzoperationen Und Logische Unabhängigkeit.Christian Wallmann - 2010 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):5-23.
    This article deals with algebraic logic. In particular, it discusses the theory of consequence operations and the general concept of logical independency. The advantage of this general view is its great applicability: The stated properties of consequence operations hold for almost every logical system. The notion of independency is well known and important in logic, philosophy of science and mathematics. Roughly speaking, a set is independent with respect to a consequence operation, if none of its elements is a consequence of (...)
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