In this article, we describe the influence of violations of community standards of fairness (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler, 1986a) on subsequent ethical decision-making and emotions. Across two studies, we manipulated explanations for a common action, and we find that explanations that violate community standards of fairness (e.g., by taking advantage of an in crease in market power) lead to greater intentions to behave unethically than explanations that are consistent with community standards of fairness (e.g., by passing along a price increase). (...) We find that perceptions of justifiability mediate this relationship. We also find that individuals derive significant psychological benefits (greater satisfaction, greater happiness, and reduced anger) from engaging in unethical behavior following perceived violations of fairness. (shrink)
Il testo riproduce il discorso pronunciato da Schweitzer, nell’aprile 1957, dai microfoni di Radio Oslo. Prendendo l’avvio dai test americani e sovietici con bombe all’idrogeno dei primi anni ’50, Schweitzer ricostruisce brevemente la storia delle scoperte e degli impieghi dell’energia atomica e illustra gli effetti della radioattività esterna e interna sul corpo umano e animale, compresi i presumibili effetti teratogeni sulle generazioni future. L’intento dell’appello è richiamare l’opinione pubblica alla sua responsabilità e alla sua forza: soltanto un’opinione pubblica (...) correttamente informata e fortemente determinata è in grado di ottenere dai governi la messa al bando degli ordigni nucleari.The text reproduces the Schweitzer’s speech in April 1957 from Radio Oslo. Beginning from American and Soviet tests with hydrogen bombs in 1954-1955, Schweitzer reconstructs briefly the history of discoveries and uses atomic energy’s and shows effects of external and internal radioactivity on human and animal body, included presumable teratogenic effects on future generations. The speech’s purpose is to call public opinion to her responsibility and her power: only a public opinion correctly informed and strongly determined can obtain from governments the nuclear device’s exclusion. (shrink)
Many unethical decisions stem from a lack of awareness. In this article, we consider how mindfulness, an individual's awareness of his or her present experience, impacts ethical decision making. In our first study, we demonstrate that compared to individuals low in mindfulness, individuals high in mindfulness report that they are more likely to act ethically, are more likely to value upholding ethical standards (self-importance of moral identity, SMI), and are more likely to use a principled approach to ethical decision making (...) (formalism). In our second study, we test this relationship with a novel behavioral measure of unethical behavior: the carbonless anagram method (CAM). We find that of participants who cheated, compared to individuals low in mindfulness, individuals high in mindfulness cheated less. Taken together, our results demonstrate important connections between mindfulness and ethical decision making. (shrink)
Western and Indian thought -- The historical Jesus -- The kingdom of God -- Religion in modern civilization -- The decay of civilization -- Civilization and ethics -- The optimistic world-view in Kant -- Schopenhauer and Nietzsche's quest for elementary ethics -- Reverence for life -- The ethics of reverence for life -- The problem of ethics in the evolution of human thought -- Bach and aesthetics -- Goethe the philosopher -- Gandhi and the force of nonviolence -- The problem (...) of peace in the world today -- My life is my argument. (shrink)
Resenha do livro WULF, Christoph. Homo pictor : imaginação, ritual e aprendizado mimético no mundo globalizado: São Paulo: Hedra, 2013. ISBN: 978-85-7715-304-6. A resenha explora a contribuição dessa obra da área dos estudos antropológicos para o estudo das linguagens da religião, pela sua exploração das relações entre o ver e a imaginação, a imaginação e a memesis , e a imaginação os ritos e os gestos. Conclui-se que as perspectivas propostas pode ser aplicadas nos estudos da religião não somente (...) no estudos de fenômenos ou formas arcaicas da religião, mas, também de formas contemporâneas, tanto do âmbito. (shrink)
Im ersten Teil des Beitrags wird das Problem der Weltanschauung innerhalb von Schweitzers Ethik der Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben dargestellt, im zweiten Teil werden die Grenzen seines Konzeptes sichtbar gemacht und anschließend die möglichen weltanschaulichen Perspektiven für die Zukunft behandelt. Aufgrund der Philosophiekritik und ihrer Untauglichkeit, eine allgemein praktizierbare Ethik zu erstellen, versucht Schweitzer die traditionelle Philosophie zu einer Weltanschauung zu transformieren, um somit den Prozess einer ethischen Renaissance der Kultur in Bewegung zu setzen. Der Großteil seiner ethischen Bemühungen (...) dient dem Projekt der Begründung und zugleich der möglichen Verwirklichung einer tätigen und bejahenden ethischen Beziehung zur Welt und zum Leben, die nicht nur auf einzelne, hochsensible, oder gar erleuchtete Individuen setzt, sondern womöglich die ganze Gesellschaft zu mobilisieren fähig wäre. Schweitzer versucht die Weltanschauung, nicht wie üblich, aus der Gesellschaft heraus zu begründen, sondern aus einer unmittelbaren Anschauung des Lebens und seiner erkenntnistheoretischen Unergründlichkeit , um damit den gesellschaftlichen Raum für eine unmittelbare, optimistische, alle Lebensformen bejahende Handlungsorientierung zu eröffnen. Das Bemühen um den enthusiastischen Charakter der moralischen Handlungen, der aus dem denkenden Erleben des Willens zum Leben zur ethischen Weltanschauung aufsteigen sollte, war das große Novum Schweitzers.In the first part of this paper we present the problem of worldview within Schweitzer’s ethics of reverence for life, in the second we delineate the limits of his concept, followed by the discussion on possible worldview perspectives for the future. Based on the critique of philosophy and its inability to create a universally practicable ethics, Schweitzer tried to transform the traditional philosophy into a worldview, thus trying to initiate a process of ethical renaissance of culture. Most of his ethical efforts serve for the project of grounding and simultaneously possible realising an active and affirmative ethical relationship toward world and life which focuses not only on particular, highly sensible or even enlightened individuals, but which could also be capable for mobilising the entire society. Schweitzer tried to justify the worldview not according to the society, as it is usual, but from a direct view of life and its epistemological inscrutability , thereby opening the social space for a direct, optimistic action orientation which accepts all forms of life. The effort for the enthusiastic character of moral actions, the character that should rise from the thinking experience of the will to live to the level of ethical worldview, was Schweitzer’s great novum. (shrink)
The 1990 Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA) is a provision of U.S. copyright law that seeks to protect the noneconomic rights of artists, called "moral rights." These rights are due to the "presumed intimate bond between artists and their works."1 In the United States it protects rights of artistic attribution and integrity: the artwork cannot be claimed as the work of another, and it cannot be distorted. In some cases VARA protects artworks from destruction. But what is the nature of (...) this intimate bond? The underlying principle behind the legal construct of artistic moral rights is that the artwork is an extension of its creator such that any harm to the work is a violation of the personhood of the artist.2 Another .. (shrink)
“O mito já é esclarecimento e o esclarecimento acaba por reverter à mitologia”: a famosa e central tese da Dialética do Esclarecimento dotou o que designamos Teoria Crítica de uma especificidade única. Os engendramentos desse entroncamento provocaram guinadas teóricas bastante complexas, que passam não somente pela perspectiva de que o fetichismo pertence a um período muito anterior ao capitalismo, mas também pela ideia de que a dominação social se relaciona estreitamente à dominação da natureza (tanto interna, como externa).
A pergunta pelo ser do homem é a origem da antropologia tanto filosófica quanto pedagógica. Neste horizonte, pode-se resumir a resposta à pergunta dizendo: o ser humano não só é efeito do diálogo, mas humaniza e se humaniza por meio do diálogo. Quando se planeja ambientes orientados a desenvolver as potências anímicas do diálogo em todos, e em cada um dos participantes da cena pedagógica, igualmente se está tanto em meio a uma antropologia pedagógica quanto a uma didática antropológica. Esta (...) foi a tradição que Christoph Wulf, na segunda metade do século XX e no começo do século XXI, sistematizou. Dentro desta corrente de pensamento se enquadra a investigação intitulada Diálogo: condição de formação. Assim, pode-se afirmar que este projeto se baseia na tradição alemã que põe a Bildung no centro, como uma categoria que, ao mesmo tempo, tem uma fundamentação filosófica e alguns efeitos tanto na concepção quanto na ação pedagógica. Palavras-chave: Diálogo. Antropologia pedagógica. Christoph Wulf. Gadamer. (shrink)
Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for many forms of liver disease. Unfortunately, the scarcity of cadaveric donor livers limits the availability of this technique. To improve the availability of liver transplantation, surgeons have developed the capability of removing a portion of liver from a live donor and transplanting it into a recipient. A few liver transplants using living donors have been performed worldwide.Our purpose was to analyze the ethics of liver transplants using living donors and to propose guidelines (...) for the procedure before it was introduced in the United States. We used a process of research ethics consultation that involves a collaboration between clinical investigators and clinical ethicists. We concluded that it was ethically appropriate to perform liver transplantation using living donors in a small series of patients on a trial basis, and we published our ethical guidelines in a medical journal before the procedure was introduced. We recommend this prospective, public approach for the introduction of other innovative therapies in medicine and surgery. (shrink)
A tendency of auditory cortical neurons to respond at the beginning of major transitions in sounds rather than providing a continuously updated spectral-temporal profile may impede the generation of combination-sensitivity for certain classes of stimuli. Potential consequences of the cortical encoding of voiced stop-consonants on representational principles derived from orderly output constraints are discussed.
The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
G. E. Moore's ‘A Defence of Common Sense’ has generated the kind of interest and contrariety which often accompany what is new, provocative, and even important in philosophy. Moore himself reportedly agreed with Wittgenstein's estimate that this was his best article, while C. D. Broad has lamented its very great but largely unfortunate influence. Although the essay inspired Wittgenstein to explore the basis of Moore's claim to know many propositions of common sense to be true, A. J. Ayer judges its (...) enduring value to lie in provoking a more sophisticated conception of the very type of metaphysics which disputes any such unqualified claim of certainty. (shrink)