We invoke the ideal of tolerance in response to conflict, but what does it mean to answer conflict with a call for tolerance? Is tolerance a way of resolving conflicts or a means of sustaining them? Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization? Wendy Brown and Rainer Forst debate the uses and misuses of tolerance, an exchange (...) that highlights the fundamental differences in their critical practice despite a number of political similarities. Both scholars address the normative premises, limits, and political implications of various conceptions of tolerance. Brown offers a genealogical critique of contemporary discourses on tolerance in Western liberal societies, focusing on their inherent ties to colonialism and imperialism, and Forst reconstructs an intellectual history of tolerance that attempts to redeem its political virtue in democratic societies. Brown and Forst work from different perspectives and traditions, yet they each remain wary of the subjection and abnegation embodied in toleration discourses, among other issues. The result is a dialogue rich in critical and conceptual reflections on power, justice, discourse, rationality, and identity. (shrink)
An intellectual defense of Christianity which argues that contemporary apologetics are much too defensive intellectually. Cleobury contends that the insights of the Christian faith are most compatible with an idealistic world view. This he presents and defends with subtlety.--F. E. B.
This rather discursive study draws upon many sources in maintaining that freedom is the touchstone for an understanding of the human condition, both of man's possibility and his development in a world of chance and change. Kallen argues that mankind can best achieve liberty by adopting a pragmatic view of ideas which neither neglects the actual nor distorts the ideal. -- F. E. B.
In this subtle but laborious exposition and defense of a difficult doctrine of classical Calvinism, Berkouwer interprets both Calvin and certain classical creedal statements. His defense depends upon the contention that most criticisms of the doctrine rest upon misinterpretations. --F. E. B.
This introductory essay sketches the problem of the good life by a brief description of moral experience and discusses some major alternative answers. Freund suggests that the good life has as its final value "the unity of communion, fellowship, and creativeness" and concludes with a plea for a re-examination of our educational procedures.--F. E. B.
This collection of essays is an extended discussion of the relation between religion and culture. Tillich, in defining religion in terms of ultimate concern, cuts across, and at times seems to undercut, traditional views about religion. "Religion is the meaning-giving substance of culture, and culture is the totality of forms in which the basic concern of religion expresses itself." His analyses, although oversimplified in certain respects, point out important inter-relationships and offer suggestive interpretations. --F. E. B.
In this provocative, if puzzling, "treatment of religion on the basis of the methods of empirical and existential philosophy," the author makes common cause with the positivists in rejecting metaphysics as illegitimate system-making. He accepts the conception of philosophy as analysis of languages, but insists that a "situational" or existential analysis must be carried out as well-particularly in the case of the "convictional language" of religion. Precisely what is involved in this "situational" analysis, and how it differs from logical analysis (...) is often hard to tell, and one wishes for a fuller discussion of the cognitive claim of convictional language.--F. E. B. (shrink)
An excellent and succinct historical survey of the major philosophies of law as seen in the leading political philosophers, this work explores the connection between views of law and the philosophical outlooks on which they are based. It also includes a short analysis of some current problems, such as the relation of law to justice, and it suggests the feasibility of international constitutional law.--F. E. B.
The author conceives of his grandiose world view and proposals for biological human selectivity as based on a new scientific philosophy, but the book seems to share little with either organized science or disciplined philosophy.--F. E. B.
McIntyre defines history as "meaningful occurrence, and more particularly occurrence the meaning of which is a construct out of certain categories, namely, Necessity, Providence, Incarnation, Freedom and Memory."--F. E. B.
Melden approaches some important ethical problems by a careful analysis of moral rights in the moral community. A right for him is a moral role or status in the moral community; that community is served and preserved by right action. The discussion, although extremely succinct at times, ranges over a number of important points. -- F. E. B.
An examination of the place and importance accorded to love in the systems representative of the Platonic-Christian, the utilitarian, and humanist world views. By a formal, literary analysis of parts of a major work of each of nine moralists, the author brings out their views on man and love. Despite a rather weak conclusion, and a few somewhat strained interpretations, her argument is clear and her analyses penetrating.--F. E. B.
Two essays in this collection appear to be of special interest. W. K. Frankena presents an acute analysis of the question whether a person can have an obligation without any corresponding motivation, and concludes that the discussion should move to a new level because the arguments on both sides are inconclusive. Gilbert Ryle suggests that it is absurd to talk about forgetting the difference between right and wrong because such "knowledge" is not mere information or technique, but involves appreciation and (...) taking things seriously.--F. E. B. (shrink)
A concise summary of what is known and conjectured about the Roman tragic poet Pacuvius and his works. The author notes, in passing, lines from the fragments of the plays which reveal the contemporary interest in philosophical speculation.--F. E. B.
A popular introduction to ethics, intended to "stimulate thinking" rather than offer a final solution, which discusses thirteen theories in terms of a number of tests of a good theory of right action.--F. E. B.
A good presentation of an exciting "educator, citizen, reformer in Midwestern America before and after the Civil War," active in the abolitionist movement and founder of two American colleges.--F. E. B.
A study of the religion of Jesus in terms of its pagan and Jewish sources, its inner meaning and finally its redevelopment in the pagan world. Larson argues that the religion of the Essene Jesus was a grand "synthesis of human experience drawn from many cultures" and that this religion has been greatly distorted by the ritual of the Church.--F. E. B.
A tentative but suggestive attempt to state "the principles of an historical psychology," this book protests against a static view of man and proposes a dynamic theory of human transformation.--F. E. B.
Meinecke sought in the nation-state the means for harmonizing the need for power and the demands of justice. This sensitive and scholarly intellectual biography may serve as a commentary on the important German political philosophers and on German political history over the last 160 years--F. E. B.
Wind makes abundant references to such classical philosophers as Plato, Plotinus, and Seneca in his elucidation of Renaissance works of art in terms of pagan myths and rites. His study is scholarly and full and is well illustrated with excellent plates.--F. E. B.
The editor's purpose is to introduce Hegel to the modern reader by means of a digest of Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind, The Science of Logic and the Philosophy of History. The selections are too brief to be very useful.--F. E. B.
In this extended examination of the Oxford deontologists' claim that rightness cannot be based upon goodness, Johnson argues that although the deontologists' arguments against the utilitarians are valid, their positive position must be rejected. Because Ross's "ought-can" argument and the "infinite regress" argument break down, the moral goodness of motives must be regarded as a necessary but not sufficient condition for moral rightness. Johnson proposes an alternative axiology theory which includes an "organic" as well as a moral and utilitarian goodness.--F. (...) E. B. (shrink)
A study of Teresa of Avila, Luther, Freud, Heidegger and Barth provides Berthold with a basis for a phenomenological analysis of anxiety. Anxiety is polar in nature, implying both longing and fear, and a desire and threat to its fulfillment. Berthold believes his analysis provides a mediating position between the Thomistic and Calvinistic anthropologies.--F. E. B.
This book, outstanding in its field, presents in a clear, impressively thorough way the philosophical problems concerned with relativity theory and the topology and metrics of space and time. Many of the author's points will be familiar to the readers of his earlier articles, some of which this work is meant to supersede. Unifying all the many discussions is a rigorous and thorough-going empiricism that relies heavily on the results of investigations of physicists and mathematicians and that masterfully clips the (...) wings of those who would take flight from these results into the airy realms of speculative cosmology.—A. E. F. (shrink)