In the First Dialogue of Doctor and Student, Christopher St. German addressed an audience of lawyers and judges for whom he sought to clarify the relation between Chancery and courts of common law. By the time he turned to the Second Dialogue, St. German was directing his attention to a more general public, and shifting his interest to the role of conscience in chancery law. Comparing the use of that principle in secular and ecclesiastical courts, he concluded that the former (...) offered better legal remedies, but acknowledged that the jurisdiction of secular courts could not be enlarged effectively unless English law was changed. St. German contributed to Henry VIII’s anti-clerical campaign in a third dialogue, titled New Additions, which outlined new parliamentary measures aimed at limiting the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts. (shrink)
As a discipline of its own, the philosophy of science can be traced back to the founding of its academic journals, some of which go back to the first half of the twentieth century. While the discipline has been the object of many historical studies, notably focusing on specific schools or major figures of the field, little work has focused on the journals themselves. Here, we investigate contemporary philosophy of science by means of computational text-mining approaches: we apply topic-modeling algorithms (...) to eight major philosophy of science journals, from the 1930s up until 2017. Based on the full-text content of some 15,897 articles, we identified 25 research themes and 8 thematic clusters that show how the research agenda of the philosophy of science has changed in its content over the course of the last eight decades, up to the philosophy of science we now know. We also show how each one of the journals contributed in its own way to this thematic evolution. (shrink)
We introduce a new type system called “System ST” , based on subtyping, and prove the basic property of the system. We show the extraordinary expressive power of the system which leads us to think that it could be a good candidate for doing both proof and extraction of programs.
Certain scholars wish to acquit St. Thomas Aquinas of the “illicit inference from facts to norms” commonly referred to as the naturalistic fallacy. Seeing in certain passages his awareness of illegitimate ways to derive morality from natural ends, many have come to read Aquinas as agreeing with the view that knowledge of the moral order does not derive from knowledge of human nature and of the natural ends of its parts and powers. This paper aims to expose the deficiencies of (...) this reading as a way of bringing more fully into view the whole thought of Aquinas on the question. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13.4 : 637–661. (shrink)
Business ethics and leadership play an increasingly important role for contemporary organizations as employers and employees search for new ways to cope with ongoing changes in organizational environments. Research attention to date has focused upon how to improve process and structural configurations, while there has been scant attention devoted to an examination of the ethical and leadership perspective. This article breaks new ground by exploring the applicability of the Rule of St. Benedict (RSB) to modern employment relationships. A significant proportion (...) of the RSB is directly relevant for today's leaders, as it contains crucial lessons dealing with leadership issues such as ethics, cultivating a consultative climate, encouraging the virtues of humility, obedience ("servant" leadership), justice, discretion, prudence, discernment, and personnel-related issues such as discipline and termination. (shrink)
This is a useful little work, the first comprehensive analysis of Thomas' Expositio to be based on the modern critical edition of the Latin text. Decently organized and frequently insightful, it should appeal to a wide range of Thomist philosophers and scholars and serve to reacquaint us with the rich and multithematic character of this early work of the saint. The core of Hall's study involves an integration of three central thematics in twentieth-century Thomistic studies. The human agent intellect is (...) a participation in Intellect Itself. Because of this participation all knowledge of God is analogical. Because the agent intellect is a participation in Intellect Itself and the human subject is made in the image of God, the natural dynamic of the mind, by reason of its depth and created status, is to tend toward the Pure and Infinite esse as toward the creating exemplar Cause. (shrink)
This article address the ways in which contemporary psychologists might usefully engage in a dialogue with Catholic philosophers and theologians influenced by the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas. The specific point of common agreement and vision between these diverse approaches lies in the general notion that human action is directed toward an end which the individual judges to be good in some sense. Despite the considerable differences in foundational issues, boththe clinical psychologist and Thomist are perhaps able to come to (...) a constructive, common vision around the notion that all human action is directed toward the achievement of some good. (shrink)
Peer review is a widely accepted instrument for raising the quality of science. Peer review limits the enormous unstructured influx of information and the sheer amount of dubious data, which in its absence would plunge science into chaos. In particular, peer review offers the benefit of eliminating papers that suffer from poor craftsmanship or methodological shortcomings, especially in the experimental sciences. However, we believe that peer review is not always appropriate for the evaluation of controversial hypothetical science. We argue that (...) the process of peer review can be prone to bias towards ideas that affirm the prior convictions of reviewers and against innovation and radical new ideas. Innovative hypotheses are thus highly vulnerable to being “filtered out” or made to accord with conventional wisdom by the peer review process. Consequently, having introduced peer review, the Elsevier journal Medical Hypotheses may be unable to continue its tradition as a radical journal allowing discussion of improbable or unconventional ideas. Hence we conclude by asking the publisher to consider re-introducing the system of editorial review to Medical Hypotheses. (shrink)
Literary scholars are generally suspicious of the concept of universals: there are presently no candidates for literary universals that a high proportion of literary scholars would accept as valid. This paper reports results from a content analysis of patterns of characterization in folktales from 48 culture areas, aimed at identifying patterns of characterization that apply across regions of the world and levels of cultural complexity. The search for these patterns was guided by evolutionary theory and the findings are consistent with (...) previous research on patterns of altruism, sex differences in mate preferences, sex differences in reproductive strategy, and differing emphases on male and female physical attractiveness. World literature, especially originally oral literature, represents a vast and neglected repository of information that researchers can use to more precisely map the contours of human nature. (shrink)
Modern petrophysical software has broad capabilities for the display and manipulation of subsurface digital log data and for its integration with core data. Color and scale are two of the most important display attributes that can be used to enhance the visualization and interpretation of rock properties. The gamma-ray log, the most important log used in subsurface interpretation, is conventionally displayed on a linear scale of American Petroleum Institute units. This makes it difficult to interpret in very clean lithologies with (...) low API values or where the range of values is very large. We determine how displaying GR values on a logarithmic scale enhances the recognition of cyclicity in lithofacies with low GR values concurrently with rocks with very high API values. We further enhance the GR curve with a color-fill pattern that is intuitive and suggests the lithofacies. We calibrate the core-derived lithofacies data to the color-fill pattern, interactively “tuning” it to match lithofacies boundaries, further increasing the value of the methodology. Because of the many factors that cause variation in recorded API values, we normalized the GR curves, either by bulk shifts or statistical means, so that they display the same colors for equivalent lithologies in all wells in a cross section. We have developed two integrated studies demonstrating techniques to improve the display and interpretation of borehole logs, specifically those of Mesozoic carbonates and evaporites of the Middle East and Cenozoic siliciclastic fluvial and marginal marine systems of the Llanos Foothills of Colombia. Many examples of custom color-fill patterns for petrophysical logs could be suggested, the possibilities being limited only by the data available and the interpretation being presented. (shrink)
Christianity began as a little-known Jewish sect, but rose within 300 years to dominate the civilised world. It owed its rise in part to inspired moral leadership, but also to its success in assimilating, criticising and developing the philosophies of the day, which offered rationally approved life-styles and moral directives. Without abandoning their allegiance to their founder and to Holy Scripture, Christians could therefore present their faith as a 'new philosophy'. This book, which is written for non-specialist readers, provides a (...) concise conspectus of the emergence of philosophy among the Greeks; an account of its continuance in early Christian times, and its influence on early Christian thought, especially in formulating the doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation; and finally a brief critical assessment of the philosophy of St Augustine - arguably the greatest philosopher of the first millennium. (shrink)
Standard decision theory has trouble handling cases involving acts without finite expected values. This paper has two aims. First, building on earlier work by Colyvan (2008), Easwaran (2014), and Lauwers and Vallentyne (2016), it develops a proposal for dealing with such cases, Difference Minimizing Theory. Difference Minimizing Theory provides satisfactory verdicts in a broader range of cases than its predecessors. And it vindicates two highly plausible principles of standard decision theory, Stochastic Equivalence and Stochastic Dominance. The second aim is to (...) assess some recent arguments against Stochastic Equivalence and Stochastic Dominance. If successful, these arguments refute Difference Minimizing Theory. This paper contends that these arguments are not successful. (shrink)
In his dispute with Christopher St German, Thomas More sought to defend practices used in the canon law courts, particularly in heresy trials. The unusual importance More attached to the use of suits ex officio, separating this matter from other issues raised by St German and in some instances seeming to misrepresent St German’s position, indicates he felt the reform movement in parliament portended fundamental and disabling changes in the procedural methods used in the prosecution of heresy.
In a recent paper, “Incompatiblism, Sin, and Free Will in Heaven,” Timothy Pawl and Kevin Timpe discuss and propose a novel solution to a problem posed for traditional Christian theism that they call the Problem of Heavenly Freedom. In short, Christian tradition contains what seems to be a contradiction, namely, the redeemed in heaven are free but nonetheless can’t sin. Pawl and Timpe’s solution to the Problem of Heavenly Freedom is particularly attractive for two reasons: it shows great respect for (...) the Christian tradition’s teaching on heaven, and it entails that the redeemed in heaven act with morally weighty libertarian free will. Nonetheless, I think their solution can be improved upon. By drawing on some of the teachings of the Catholic tradition on heaven, particularly those of St. Thomas Aquinas, I raise three objections to Pawl and Timpe’s solution and introduce a modified version of their solution. In doing so, I have attempted to make their “best” solution to the Problem of Heavenly Freedom even better. (shrink)