33 found
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  1. Epistemic Vigilance.Dan Sperber, Fabrice Clément, Christophe Heintz, Olivier Mascaro, Hugo Mercier, Gloria Origgi & Deirdre Wilson - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (4):359-393.
    Humans massively depend on communication with others, but this leaves them open to the risk of being accidentally or intentionally misinformed. To ensure that, despite this risk, communication remains advantageous, humans have, we claim, a suite of cognitive mechanisms for epistemic vigilance. Here we outline this claim and consider some of the ways in which epistemic vigilance works in mental and social life by surveying issues, research and theories in different domains of philosophy, linguistics, cognitive psychology and the social sciences.
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  2.  41
    Expression unleashed: The evolutionary and cognitive foundations of human communication.Christophe Heintz & Thom Scott-Phillips - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e1.
    Human expression is open-ended, versatile, and diverse, ranging from ordinary language use to painting, from exaggerated displays of affection to micro-movements that aid coordination. Here we present and defend the claim that this expressive diversity is united by an interrelated suite of cognitive capacities, the evolved functions of which are the expression and recognition of informative intentions. We describe how evolutionary dynamics normally leash communication to narrow domains of statistical mutual benefit, and how expression is unleashed in humans. The relevant (...)
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  3.  65
    Scientists' Argumentative Reasoning.Hugo Mercier & Christophe Heintz - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):513-524.
    Reasoning, defined as the production and evaluation of reasons, is a central process in science. The dominant view of reasoning, both in the psychology of reasoning and in the psychology of science, is of a mechanism with an asocial function: bettering the beliefs of the lone reasoner. Many observations, however, are difficult to reconcile with this view of reasoning; in particular, reasoning systematically searches for reasons that support the reasoner’s initial beliefs, and it only evaluates these reasons cursorily. By contrast, (...)
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  4.  50
    Commitment and communication: Are we committed to what we mean, or what we say?Francesca Bonalumi, Thom Scott-Phillips, Julius Tacha & Christophe Heintz - 2020 - Language and Cognition 12 (2):360-384.
    Are communicators perceived as committed to what they actually say (what is explicit), or to what they mean (including what is implicit)? Some research claims that explicit communication leads to a higher attribution of commitment and more accountability than implicit communication. Here we present theoretical arguments and experimental data to the contrary. We present three studies exploring whether the saying–meaning distinction affects commitment attribution in promises, and, crucially, whether commitment attribution is further modulated by the degree to which the hearer (...)
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  5. Cultural attraction theory.Christophe Heintz - 2018 - In Simon Coleman & Hilarry Callan (eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology.
    Cultural Attraction Theory (CAT), also referred to as cultural epidemiology, is an evolutionary theory of culture. It provides conceptual tools and a theoretical framework for explaining why and how ideas, practices, artifacts and other cultural items spread and persist in a community and its habitat. It states that cultural phenomena result from psychological or ecological factors of attraction.
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  6.  40
    Perceiving commitments: When we both know that you are counting on me.Francesca Bonalumi, John Michael & Christophe Heintz - 2021 - Mind and Language 37 (4):502-524.
    Can commitments be generated without promises, commissive speech acts or gestures that are conventionally interpreted as such? While we remain neutral with respect to the normative answer to this question, we propose a psychological answer. Specifically, we hypothesize that people at least believe that commitments are in place if one agent (the sender) has led a second agent (the recipient) to rely on her to do something, and if this is mutually known by the two agents. Crucially, this situation can (...)
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  7.  20
    The Co-evolution of Honesty and Strategic Vigilance.Christophe Heintz, Mia Karabegovic & Andras Molnar - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  8. Web search engines and distributed assessment systems.Christophe Heintz - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):387-409.
    I analyse the impact of search engines on our cognitive and epistemic practices. For that purpose, I describe the processes of assessment of documents on the Web as relying on distributed cognition. Search engines together with Web users, are distributed assessment systems whose task is to enable efficient allocation of cognitive resources of those who use search engines. Specifying the cognitive function of search engines within these distributed assessment systems allows interpreting anew the changes that have been caused by search (...)
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  9.  68
    Experts and laymen grossly underestimate the benefits of argumentation for reasoning.Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):341-355.
    Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem—the Wason selection task—and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every (...)
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  10.  26
    The importance of epistemic intentions in ascription of responsibility.Katarina M. Kovacevic, Francesca Bonalumi & Christophe Heintz - 2024 - Scientific Reports 14:1183.
    We investigate how people ascribe responsibility to an agent who caused a bad outcome but did not know he would. The psychological processes for making such judgments, we argue, involve finding a counterfactual in which some minimally benevolent intention initiates a course of events that leads to a better outcome than the actual one. We hypothesize that such counterfactuals can include, when relevant, epistemic intentions. With four vignette studies, we show that people consider epistemic intentions when ascribing responsibility for a (...)
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  11.  53
    The ecological rationality of strategic cognition.Christophe Heintz - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):825-826.
    I argue that altruistic behavior and its variation across cultures may be caused by mental cognitive mechanisms that induce cooperative behavior in contract-like situations and adapt that behavior to the kinds of contracts that exist in one's socio-cultural environment. I thus present a cognitive alternative to Henrich et al.'s motivation-based account. Rather than behaving in ways that reveal preferences, subjects interpret the experiment in ways that cue their social heuristics. In order to distinguish the respective roles of preferences and cognitive (...)
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  12.  26
    Institutions as mechanisms of cultural evolution: Prospects of the epidemiological approach.Christophe Heintz - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (3):244-249.
    Studying institutions as part of the research on cultural evolution prompts us to analyze one very important mechanism of cultural evolution: institutions do distribute cultural variants in the population. Also, it enables relating current research on cultural evolution to some more traditional social sciences: institutions, often seen as macro-social entities, are analyzed in terms of their constitutive micro-phenomena. This article presents Sperber’s characterization of institutions, and then gives some hints about the set of phenomena to which it applies.
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  13. Cognitive history and cultural epidemiology.Christophe Heintz - 2011 - In Luther H. Martin & Jesper Sørensen (eds.), Past minds: studies in cognitive historiography. Oakville, CT: Equinox.
    Cultural epidemiology is a theoretical framework that enables historical studies to be informed by cognitive science. It incorporates insights from evolutionary psychology (viz. cultural evolution is constrained by universal properties of the human cognitive apparatus that result from biological evolution) and from Darwinian models of cultural evolution (viz. population thinking: cultural phenomena are distributions of resembling items among a community and its habitat). Its research program includes the study of the multiple cognitive mechanisms that cause the distribution, on a cultural (...)
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  14. Updating evolutionary epistemology.Christophe Heintz - 2018 - In Kris Rutten, Stefaan Blancke & Ronald Soetaert (eds.), Perspectives on Science and Culture. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. pp. 195-222.
    This chapter critically analyzes evolutionary epistemology as a theoretical framework for the study of science as a historical and cultural phenomenon. As spelled out by Campbell in the 1970s, evolutionary epistemology has an ambitious goal: it aims at understanding the complex relations between bio- logical evolution, especially the biological evolution of human cognition, and the cultural evolution of scientific knowledge. It eventually aims at forming an integrated causal theory of the evolution of science, starting with the evo- lution of human (...)
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  15. Integration and the disunity of the social sciences.Christophe Heintz, Mathieu Charbonneau & Jay Fogelman - 2019 - In Attilia Ruzzene Michiru Nagatsu (ed.), Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. pp. 11-28.
    There is a plurality of theoretical approaches, methodological tools, and explanatory strategies in the social sciences. Different fields rely on different methods and explanatory tools even when they study the very same phenomena. We illustrate this plurality of the social sciences with the studies of crowds. We show how three different takes on crowd phenomena—psychology, rational choice theory, and network theory—can complement one another. We conclude that social scientists are better described as researchers endowed with explanatory toolkits than specialists of (...)
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  16. Les fondements psychiques et sociaux de la cognition distribuée.Christophe Heintz - 2011 - In Fabrice Clément & Laurence Kaufmann (eds.), La sociologie cognitive. Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme. pp. 277-298.
    Après avoir présenté et expliqué la notion de cognition distribuée, je situerai l'analyse qu'elle permet au sein des sciences cognitives et de la sociologie. Mes buts sont de montrer en quoi la théorie de la cognition distribuée contribue aux théories de la psychologie et de la sociologie, et réciproquement comment les théories de la sociologie et de la psychologie peuvent être recrutées pour expliquer l'existence de systèmes de cognition distribuée. La troisième section de ce chapitre est centrée sur les relations (...)
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  17. Institutions of Epistemic Vigilance: The Case of the Newspaper Press.Ákos Szegőfi & Christophe Heintz - 2022 - Social Epistemology 36 (5):613-628.
    Can people efficiently navigate the modern communication environment, and if yes, how? We hypothesize that in addition to psychological capacities of epistemic vigilance, which evaluate the epistemic value of communicated information, some social institutions have evolved for the same function. Certain newspapers for instance, implement processes, distributed among several experts and tools, whose function is to curate information. We analyze how information curation is done at the institutional level and what challenges it meets. We also investigate what factors favor the (...)
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  18. Ethnographic cognition and writing culture.Christophe Heintz - 2010 - In Olaf Zenker & Karsten Kumoll (eds.), Beyond Writing Culture: Current Intersections of Epistemologies and Representational Practices. Berghahn Books.
    One of the best ways to pursue and go beyond the programme of Writing Culture (Clifford and Marcus 1986), I suggest, takes as its point of departure the cognitive anthropology of anthropology. Situating Writing Culture with regard to this field of research can contribute to its further development. It is, after all, sensible to start the anthropological study of anthropology with an analysis of its own cultural productions: ethnographic texts. The analyst can then identify the relevant properties of such cultural (...)
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  19.  26
    How Evolutionary is Evolutionary Economics?Christophe Heintz, Werner Callebaut & Luigi Marengo - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):291-292.
  20.  29
    Presuming placeholders are relevant enables conceptual change.Christophe Heintz - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):131-132.
    Placeholders enable conceptual change only if presumed to be relevant (e.g., lead to the formation of true beliefs) even though their meaning is not yet fully understood and their cognitive function not yet specified. Humans are predisposed to make such presumptions in a communicative context. Specifying the role of the presumption of relevance in conceptual change would provide a more comprehensive account of Quinian bootstrapping.
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  21.  18
    Introduction: Why There Should Be a Cognitive Anthropology of Science.Christophe Heintz - 2004 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 4 (3-4):391-408.
    I argue that questions, methods and theories drawn from cognitive anthropology are particularly appropriate for the study of science. I also emphasize the role of cognitive anthropology of science for the integration of cognitive and social studies of science. Finally, I briefly introduce the papers and attempt to draw the main directions of research.
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  22. Editorial: Folk Epistemology. The Cognitive Bases of Epistemic Evaluation.Christophe Heintz & Dario Taraborelli - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (4):477-482.
    Editorial: Folk Epistemology. The Cognitive Bases of Epistemic Evaluation Content Type Journal Article Pages 477-482 DOI 10.1007/s13164-010-0046-8 Authors Christophe Heintz, Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary Dario Taraborelli, Centre for Research in Social Simulation, Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Journal Review of Philosophy and Psychology Online ISSN 1878-5166 Print ISSN 1878-5158 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 4.
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  23.  18
    Being ostensive (reply to commentaries on “Expression unleashed”).Christophe Heintz & Thom Scott-Phillips - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e20.
    One of our main goals with “Expression unleashed” was to highlight the distinctive, ostensive nature of human communication, and the many roles that ostension can play in human behavior and society. The commentaries we received forced us to be more precise about several aspects of this thesis. At the same time, no commentary challenged the central idea that the manifest diversity of human expression is underpinned by a common cognitive unity. Our reply is organized around six issues: (1) languages and (...)
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  24.  11
    If you presume relevance, you don't need a bifocal lens.Nazlı Altınok, Denis Tatone, Ildikó Király, Christophe Heintz & György Gergely - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e250.
    We argue for a relevance-guided learning mechanism to account for both innovative reproduction and faithful imitation by focusing on the role of communication in knowledge transmission. Unlike bifocal stance theory, this mechanism does not require a strict divide between instrumental and ritual-like actions, and the goals they respectively fulfill (material vs. social/affiliative), to account for flexibility in action interpretation and reproduction.
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  25.  6
    Not by intuitions alone: Institutions shape our ownership behaviour.Reka Blazsek & Christophe Heintz - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e329.
    Every day, people make decisions about who owns what. What cognitive processes produce this? The target article emphasises the role of biologically evolved intuitions about competition and cooperation. We elaborate the role of cultural evolutionary processes for solving coordination problems. A model based fully on biological evolution misses important insights for explaining the arbitrariness and historical contingency in ownership beliefs.
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  26. Communication and deniability: Moral and epistemic reactions to denials.Francesca Bonalumi, Feride Belma Bumin, Thom Scott-Phillips & Christophe Heintz - 2023 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:1073213.
    People often deny having meant what the audience understood. Such denials occur in both interpersonal and institutional contexts, such as in political discourse, the interpretation of laws and the perception of lies. In practice, denials have a wide range of possible effects on the audience, such as conversational repair, reinterpretation of the original utterance, moral judgements about the speaker, and rejection of the denial. When are these different reactions triggered? What factors make denials credible? There are surprisingly few experimental studies (...)
     
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  27.  57
    On Sousa's Epidemiological Approach.Christophe Heintz - 2003 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 3 (4):322-328.
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  28.  47
    Psychologism and the Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics.Christophe Heintz - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae 9 (2):41-59.
  29.  21
    Psychologism and the Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics.Christophe Heintz - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae 9:41-59.
  30.  29
    Special issue on “experimental economics and the social embedding of economic behaviour and cognition”: Introductory article: the implication of social cognition for experimental economics.Christophe Heintz & Nicholas Bardsley - 2010 - Mind and Society 9 (2):113-118.
    Can human social cognitive processes and social motives be grasped by the methods of experimental economics? Experimental studies of strategic cognition and social preferences contribute to our understanding of the social aspects of economic decisions making. Yet, papers in this issue argue that the social aspects of decision-making introduce several difficulties for interpreting the results of economic experiments. In particular, the laboratory is itself a social context, and in many respects a rather distinctive one, which raises questions of external validity.
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  31.  38
    "the implication of social cognition for experimental economics From the issue entitled" Special issue on Experimental economics and the social embedding of economic behavior and cognition".Christophe Heintz & Nicholas Bardsley - 2010 - Mind and Society 9 (2):119-138.
    It is sometimes argued that experimental economists do not have to worry about external validity so long as the design sticks closely to a theoretical model. This position mistakes the model for the theory. As a result, applied economics designs often study phenomena distinct from their stated objects of inquiry. Because the implemented models are abstract, they may provide improbable analogues to their stated subject matter. This problem is exacerbated by the relational character of the social world, which also sets (...)
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  32.  21
    Sociality and external validity in experimental economics.Christophe Heintz & Nicholas Bardsley - 2010 - Mind and Society 9 (2):119-138.
    It is sometimes argued that experimental economists do not have to worry about external validity so long as the design sticks closely to a theoretical model. This position mistakes the model for the theory. As a result, applied economics designs often study phenomena distinct from their stated objects of inquiry. Because the implemented models are abstract, they may provide improbable analogues to their stated subject matter. This problem is exacerbated by the relational character of the social world, which also sets (...)
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  33.  70
    Preface: The review of philosophy and psychology.Dario Taraborelli, Roberto Casati, Paul Egré & Christophe Heintz - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):1-3.
    Preface: The Review of Philosophy and Psychology Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s13164-010-0024-1 Authors Dario Taraborelli, University of Surrey Centre for Research in Social Simulation Guilford GU2 7XH United Kingdom Roberto Casati, Institut Jean Nicod, Ecole Normale Supérieure 29 rue d’Ulm 75005 Paris France Paul Egré, Institut Jean Nicod, Ecole Normale Supérieure 29 rue d’Ulm 75005 Paris France Christophe Heintz, Central European University Budapest Hungary Journal Review of Philosophy and Psychology Online ISSN 1878-5166 Print ISSN 1878-5158 Journal Volume (...)
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