Results for 'Christopher D. Tennenbaum'

999 found
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  1. Explaining the Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Abnormalities in the Awareness of Action.Christopher D. Frith, S. J. Blakemore & D. Wolpert - 2000 - Brain Research Reviews 31 (2):357-363.
  2.  32
    Should Trees Have Standing?: Law, Morality, and the Environment.Christopher D. Stone - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    Originally published in 1972, Should Trees Have Standing? was a rallying point for the then burgeoning environmental movement, launching a worldwide debate on the basic nature of legal rights that reached the U.S. Supreme Court. Now, in the 35th anniversary edition of this remarkably influential book, Christopher D. Stone updates his original thesis and explores the impact his ideas have had on the courts, the academy, and society as a whole. At the heart of the book is an eminently (...)
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  3. 13 Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects.Christopher D. Stone - 1988/1972 - Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
  4.  23
    Promoting the Moral Reasoning of Undergraduate Business Students Through a Deliberate Psychological Education‐Based Classroom Intervention.Christopher D. Schmidt, Charles R. McAdams & Victoria Foster - 2009 - Journal of Moral Education 38 (3):315-334.
    Educating business students for ethical professional practice is a growing concern for both the corporate world and business education. Highly publicised scandals have pushed public trust in business to an all?time low, resulting in losses of customers and high employee turnover. Corporate and business education leaders have begun to press for more effective models for promoting ethical development in business education. This study examined the effectiveness of one such model, Deliberate Psychological Education (DPE), in promoting greater cognitive moral reasoning in (...)
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  5. Attention to Action and Awareness of Other Minds.Christopher D. Frith - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):481-487.
    We have only limited awareness of the system by which we control our actions and this limited awareness does not seem to be concerned with the control of action. Awareness of choosing one action rather than another comes after the choice has been made, while awareness of initiating an action occurs before the movement has begun. These temporal differences bind together in consciousness the intention to act and the consequences of the action. This creates our sense of agency. Activity in (...)
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  6.  61
    An Introduction to Information Retrieval.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    1 Boolean retrieval 1 2 The term vocabulary and postings lists 19 3 Dictionaries and tolerant retrieval 49 4 Index construction 67 5 Index compression 85 6 Scoring, term weighting and the vector space model 109 7 Computing scores in a complete search system 135 8 Evaluation in information retrieval 151 9 Relevance feedback and query expansion 177 10 XML retrieval 195 11 Probabilistic information retrieval 219 12 Language models for information retrieval 237 13 Text classification and Naive Bayes 253 (...)
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  7.  75
    Moral Pluralism and the Course of Environmental Ethics.Christopher D. Stone - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (2):139-154.
    Environmental ethics has reached a certain level of maturity; further significant advances require reexamining its status within the larger realm of moral philosophy. It could aim to extend to nonhumans one of the familiar sets of principles subject to appropriate modifications; or it could seek to break away and put forward its own paradigm or paradigms. Selecting the proper course requires as the most immediate mission exploring the formal requirements of an ethical system. In general, are there constraints against bringing (...)
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  8.  40
    5. Francesc Marbres, A.K.A. Iohannes Canonicus.Christopher D. Schabel - 2014 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 56:195-200.
    The Quaestiones super Physica Aristotelis traditionally attributed to Iohannes Canonicus survive in over 35 manuscripts and at least 8 printings from 1475 to 1520. Yet historians have disagreed about the century, the place of origin, the name and the institutional position of the author. This brief paper combines old and new evidence proving that the text was authored by an Augustinian Canon Regular of the Cathedral of Tortosa named Francesc Marbres, a Catalan from Barcelona, while he was Master of Arts (...)
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  9.  98
    Consciousness, Information Processing and Schizophrenia.Christopher D. Frith - 1979 - British Journal of Psychiatry 134:225-35.
  10. Is the Aim of Perception to Provide Accurate Representations? A Case for the 'No' Side.Christopher D. Viger - 2006 - In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell.
     
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  11. Functional Imaging of 'Theory of Mind'.Helen L. Gallagher & Christopher D. Frith - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):77-83.
  12.  32
    The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Self-Consciousness: The Case of Auditory Hallucinations.Christopher D. Frith - 1996 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:1505-12.
  13.  32
    Natural Logic for Textual Inference.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper presents the first use of a computational model of natural logic—a system of logical inference which operates over natural language—for textual inference. Most current approaches to the PAS- CAL RTE textual inference task achieve robustness by sacrificing semantic precision; while broadly effective, they are easily confounded by ubiquitous inferences involving monotonicity. At the other extreme, systems which rely on first-order logic and theorem proving are precise, but excessively brittle. This work aims at a middle way. Our system finds (...)
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  14.  90
    Models of the Pathological Mind.Christopher D. Frith & Shaun Gallagher - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4):57-80.
    Christopher Frith is a research professor at the Functional Imaging Laboratory of the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience at University College, London. He explores, experimentally, using the techniques of functional brain imaging, the relationship between human consciousness and the brain. His research focuses on questions pertaining to perception, attention, control of action, free will, and awareness of our own mental states and those of others. As the following discussion makes clear, Frith investigates brain systems involved in the choice of (...)
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  15.  67
    Lucid Dreaming: The Paradox of Consciousness During Sleep.Christopher D. Green & C. McGreery - 1994 - Routledge.
    Throughout, there are many case histories to illustrate the text.
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  16.  28
    Learning to Distinguish Valid Textual Entailments.Christopher D. Manning & Daniel Cer - unknown
    This paper proposes a new architecture for textual inference in which finding a good alignment is separated from evaluating entailment. Current approaches to semantic inference in question answering and textual entailment have approximated the entailment problem as that of computing the best alignment of the hypothesis to the text, using a locally decomposable matching score. While this formulation is adequate for representing local (word-level) phenomena such as synonymy, it is incapable of representing global interactions, such as that between verb negation (...)
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  17.  46
    Where Do Dennett's Stances Stand? Explaining Our Kinds of Minds.Christopher D. Viger - 2000 - In Andrew Brook, Don Ross & David L. Thompson (eds.), Dennett's Philosophy: A Comprehensive Assessment. MIT Press.
  18.  20
    Ergativity: Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    I wish to present a codi cation of syntactic approaches to dealing with ergative languages and argue for the correctness of one particular approach, which I will call the Inverse Grammatical Relations hypothesis.1 I presume familiarity with the term `ergativity', but, brie y, many languages have ergative case marking, such as Burushaski in (1), in contrast to the accusative case marking of Latin in (2). More generally, if we follow Dixon (1979) and use A to mark the agent-like argument of (...)
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  19. Probabilistic Models of Language Processing and Acquisition.Nick Chater & Christopher D. Manning - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):335-344.
  20.  39
    Scientific Models, Connectionist Networks, and Cognitive Science.Christopher D. Green - 2001 - Theory & Psychology 11:97-117.
    The employment of a particular class of computer programs known as "connectionist networks" to model mental processes is a widespread approach to research in cognitive science these days. Little has been written, however, on the precise connection that is thought to hold between such programs and actual in vivo cognitive processes such that the former can be said to "model" the latter in a scientific sense. What is more, this relation can be shown to be problematic. In this paper I (...)
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  21.  85
    Locking on to the Language of Thought.Christopher D. Viger - 2001 - Philosophical Psychology 14 (2):203-215.
    I demonstrate that locking on, a key notion in Jerry Fodor's most recent theory of content, supplemented informational atomism (SIA), is cashed out in terms of asymmetric dependence, the central notion in his earlier theory of content. I use this result to argue that SIA is incompatible with the language of thought hypothesis because the constraints on the causal relations into which symbols can enter imposed by the theory of content preclude the causal relations needed between symbols for them to (...)
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  22. The Problem of Introspection.Christopher D. Frith & Hakwan C. Lau - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):761-764.
  23.  69
    Efficient, Feature-Based, Conditional Random Field Parsing.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Discriminative feature-based methods are widely used in natural language processing, but sentence parsing is still dominated by generative methods. While prior feature-based dynamic programming parsers have restricted training and evaluation to artificially short sentences, we present the first general, featurerich discriminative parser, based on a conditional random field model, which has been successfully scaled to the full WSJ parsing data. Our efficiency is primarily due to the use of stochastic optimization techniques, as well as parallelization and chart prefiltering. On WSJ15, (...)
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  24.  83
    Neurodisruption of Selective Attention: Insights and Implications.Christopher D. Chambers & Jason B. Mattingley - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (11):542-550.
    Mechanisms of selective attention are vital for coherent perception and action. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have yielded key insights into the relationship between neural mechanisms of attention and eye movements, and the role of frontal and parietal brain regions as sources of attentional control. Here we explore the growing contribution of reversible neurodisruption techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and microelectrode stimulation, to the cognitive neuroscience of spatial attention. These approaches permit unique causal inferences concerning the relationship between neural processes (...)
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  25.  6
    Questioning Intuition Through Reflective Engagement.Christopher D. Schmidt - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):429-446.
    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of intuition in this regard. The findings suggest that reflective engagement enables these participants to become more aware of and therefore access and govern intuitions so that they can be more (...)
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  26.  52
    Part-of-Speech Tagging From 97% to 100%: Is It Time for Some Linguistics?Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    I examine what would be necessary to move part-of-speech tagging performance from its current level of about 97.3% token accuracy (56% sentence accuracy) to close to 100% accuracy. I suggest that it must still be possible to greatly increase tagging performance and examine some useful improvements that have recently been made to the Stanford Part-of-Speech Tagger. However, an error analysis of some of the remaining errors suggests that there is limited further mileage to be had either from better machine learning (...)
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  27.  6
    Robust Textual Inference Via Graph Matching.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We present a system for deciding whether a given sentence can be inferred from text. Each sentence is represented as a directed graph (extracted from a dependency parser) in which the nodes represent words or phrases, and the links represent syntactic and semantic relationships. We develop a learned graph matching model to approximate entailment by the amount of the sentence’s semantic content which is contained in the text. We present results on the Recognizing Textual Entailment dataset (Dagan et al., 2005), (...)
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  28.  33
    Modeling Semantic Containment and Exclusion in Natural Language Inference.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We propose an approach to natural language inference based on a model of natural logic, which identifies valid inferences by their lexical and syntactic features, without full semantic interpretation. We greatly extend past work in natural logic, which has focused solely on semantic containment and monotonicity, to incorporate both semantic exclusion and implicativity. Our system decomposes an inference problem into a sequence of atomic edits linking premise to hypothesis; predicts a lexical entailment relation for each edit using a statistical classifier; (...)
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  29.  41
    Some Questions About Identifying Individuals: Failed Intuitions About Organisms and Species.Christopher D. Horvath - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):654-668.
    Treating species as individuals and not classes has been crucial to the integration of evolutionary theory with modern systematics. Despite the theoretically important role the concept of individuality plays in modern phylogenetic systematics and in evolutionary theory more generally, many have been content to rely on common-sense intuitions about what counts as an individual. One of the most often cited intuitions is that individuals should be defined intrinsically. Unfortunately, common-sense intuitions like this one have proven to be inadequate for identifying (...)
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  30.  73
    Probabilistic Models of Language Processing and Acquisition.Nick Chater & Christopher D. Manning - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):335–344.
    Probabilistic methods are providing new explanatory approaches to fundamental cognitive science questions of how humans structure, process and acquire language. This review examines probabilistic models defined over traditional symbolic structures. Language comprehension and production involve probabilistic inference in such models; and acquisition involves choosing the best model, given innate constraints and linguistic and other input. Probabilistic models can account for the learning and processing of language, while maintaining the sophistication of symbolic models. A recent burgeoning of theoretical developments and online (...)
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  31.  14
    Scientific Objectivity and E. B. Titchener's Experimental Psychology.Christopher D. Green - 2010 - Isis 101 (4):697-721.
  32.  9
    Reach Tracking Reveals Dissociable Processes Underlying Cognitive Control.Christopher D. Erb, Jeff Moher, David M. Sobel & Joo-Hyun Song - 2016 - Cognition 152:114-126.
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  33.  3
    Inferential Dependencies in Causal Inference: A Comparison of Belief-Distribution and Associative Approaches.Christopher D. Carroll, Patricia W. Cheng & Hongjing Lu - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (3):845-863.
  34.  16
    Of Immortal Mythological Beasts: Operationism in Psychology.Christopher D. Green - unknown
    It is practically an article of faith in psychology that in order to do empirical research one must first operationally define one's variables. However, the 'operational attitude', first advocated by the physicist Percy Bridgman in the 1920s, has since been rejected by virtually every serious philosopher of science as unworkable. Furthermore. 'operationism' -- as developed by psychologists in the 1930s and 1940s -- was based on a misunderstanding of Bridgman's intent from the outset. Nevertheless, contemporary textbooks continue to extol the (...)
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  35.  15
    Evaluating the Inverse Reasoning Account of Object Discovery.Christopher D. Carroll & Charles Kemp - 2015 - Cognition 139:130-153.
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  36.  12
    The Lexical Integrity of Japanese Causatives.Christopher D. Manning & Ivan A. Sag - unknown
    Grammatical theory has long wrestled with the fact that causative constructions exhibit properties of both single words and complex phrases. However, as Paul Kiparsky has observed, the distribution of such properties of causatives is not arbitrary: ‘construal’ phenomena such as honorification, anaphor and pronominal binding, and quantifier ‘floating’ typically behave as they would if causatives were syntactically complex, embedding constructions; whereas case marking, agreement and word order phenomena all point to the analysis of causatives as single lexical items.1 Although an (...)
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  37.  10
    Automatic Acquisition of a Large Subcategorization Dictionary From Corpora.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper presents a new method for producing a dictionary of subcategorization frames from unlabelled text corpora. It is shown that statistical filtering of the results of a finite state parser running on the output of a stochastic tagger produces high quality results, despite the error rates of the tagger and the parser. Further, it is argued that this method can be used to learn all subcategorization frames, whereas previous methods are not extensible to a general solution to the problem.
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  38.  83
    Are Mental Events Preceded by Their Physical Causes?Christopher D. Green & Grant R. Gillett - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (4):333-340.
    Libet's experiments, supported by a strict one-to-one identity thesis between brain events and mental events, have prompted the conclusion that physical events precede the mental events to which they correspond. We examine this claim and conclude that it is suspect for several reasons. First, there is a dual assumption that an intention is the kind of thing that causes an action and that can be accurately introspected. Second, there is a real problem with the method of timing the mental events (...)
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  39.  21
    Are Connectionist Models Theories of Cognition?Christopher D. Green - unknown
    This paper explores the question of whether connectionist models of cognition should be considered to be scientific theories of the cognitive domain. It is argued that in traditional scientific theories, there is a fairly close connection between the theoretical (unobservable) entities postulated and the empirical observations accounted for. In connectionist models, however, hundreds of theoretical terms are postulated -- viz., nodes and connections -- that are far removed from the observable phenomena. As a result, many of the features of any (...)
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  40. Discussion: Phylogenetic Species Concept: Pluralism, Monism, and History. [REVIEW]Christopher D. Horvath - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):225-232.
    Species serve as both the basic units of macroevolutionary studies and as the basic units of taxonomic classification. In this paper I argue that the taxa identified as species by the Phylogenetic Species Concept (Mishler and Brandon 1987) are the units of biological organization most causally relevant to the evolutionary process but that such units exist at multiple levels within the hierarchy of any phylogenetic lineage. The PSC gives us no way of identifying one of these levels as the privileged (...)
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  41. Can Neuroscience Explain Consciousness?Jakob Hohwy & Christopher D. Frith - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (7-8):180-198.
    Cognitive neuroscience aspires to explain how the brain produces conscious states. Many people think this aspiration is threatened by the subjective nature of introspective reports, as well as by certain philosophical arguments. We propose that good neuroscientific explanations of conscious states can consolidate an interpretation of introspective reports, in spite of their subjective nature. This is because the relative quality of explanations can be evaluated on independent, methodological grounds. To illustrate, we review studies that suggest that aspects of the feeling (...)
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  42.  28
    Accurate Unlexicalized Parsing.Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We demonstrate that an unlexicalized PCFG can parse much more accurately than previously shown, by making use of simple, linguistically motivated state splits, which break down false independence assumptions latent in a vanilla treebank grammar. Indeed, its performance of 86.36% (LP/LR F1) is better than that of early lexicalized PCFG models, and surprisingly close to the current state-of-theart. This result has potential uses beyond establishing a strong lower bound on the maximum possible accuracy of unlexicalized models: an unlexicalized PCFG is (...)
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  43. Epistemicism and the Problem of Arbitrariness for Vagueness.Christopher D. Kyle - 2012 - Dialogue: Journal of Phi Sigma Tau 55 (1).
    This paper distinguishes between epistemic and metaphysical problems of arbitrariness for vagueness. It argues that epistemicism can resolve the epistemic problem of arbitrariness but not the metaphysical one.
     
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  44.  39
    The Possibility of Subisomorphic Experiential Differences.Christopher D. Viger - 1999 - Brain and Behavioral Sciences 22 (6):975-975.
    Palmer=s main intuition pump, the Acolor machine, @ greatly underestimates the complexity of a system isomorphic in color experience to humans. The neuroscientific picture of this complexity makes clear that the brain actively produces our experiences by processes that science can investigate, thereby supporting functionalism and leaving no (color) room for a passive observer to witness subisomorphic experiential differences.
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  45.  48
    Measuring Gender.Christopher D. Horvath - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (4):505-519.
    Over the past several years, various operational definitions of gender have been used in studies of gender conformity in homosexual males. The goal of these studies is to demonstrate that childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) is either the proximate cause of adult homosexuality or an intermediate step in a biologically mediated process. The hypothesis of a causal connection between the development of gender and sexual orientation is embedded within the context of a biological (evolutionary) understanding of human behavior. Thus, testing the (...)
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  46.  42
    A Simple and Effective Hierarchical Phrase Reordering Model.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    adjacent phrases, but they typically lack the ability to perform the kind of long-distance reorderings possible with syntax-based systems. In this paper, we present a novel hierarchical phrase reordering model aimed at improving non-local reorderings, which seamlessly integrates with a standard phrase-based system with little loss of computational efficiency. We show that this model can successfully handle the key examples often used to motivate syntax-based systems, such as the rotation of a prepositional phrase around a noun phrase. We contrast our (...)
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  47.  40
    Clustering the Tagged Web.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Automatically clustering web pages into semantic groups promises improved search and browsing on the web. In this paper, we demonstrate how user-generated tags from largescale social bookmarking websites such as del.icio.us can be used as a complementary data source to page text and anchor text for improving automatic clustering of web pages. This paper explores the use of tags in 1) K-means clustering in an extended vector space model that includes tags as well as page text and 2) a novel (...)
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  48.  2
    Verifiable Agent Dialogues.Christopher D. Walton - 2007 - Journal of Applied Logic 5 (2):197-213.
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  49.  8
    Children’s Developing Understanding of the Relation Between Variable Causal Efficacy and Mechanistic Complexity.Christopher D. Erb, David W. Buchanan & David M. Sobel - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):494-500.
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  50.  27
    The Stanford Typed Dependencies Representation.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper examines the Stanford typed dependencies representation, which was designed to provide a straightforward description of grammatical relations for any user who could benefit from automatic text understanding. For such purposes, we argue that dependency schemes must follow a simple design and provide semantically contentful information, as well as offer an automatic procedure to extract the relations. We consider the underlying design principles of the Stanford scheme from this perspective, and compare it to the GR and PARC representations. Finally, (...)
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