Results for 'Christopher D. Tennenbaum'

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  1. Should Trees Have Standing?: Law, Morality, and the Environment.Christopher D. Stone - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    Originally published in 1972, Should Trees Have Standing? was a rallying point for the then burgeoning environmental movement, launching a worldwide debate on the basic nature of legal rights that reached the U.S. Supreme Court. Now, in the 35th anniversary edition of this remarkably influential book, Christopher D. Stone updates his original thesis and explores the impact his ideas have had on the courts, the academy, and society as a whole. At the heart of the book is an eminently (...)
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  2. 13 Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects.Christopher D. Stone - 1988/1972 - Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
  3. Explaining the symptoms of schizophrenia: Abnormalities in the awareness of action.Christopher D. Frith, S. J. Blakemore & D. Wolpert - 2000 - Brain Research Reviews 31 (2):357-363.
  4.  92
    An Introduction to Information Retrieval.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    1 Boolean retrieval 1 2 The term vocabulary and postings lists 19 3 Dictionaries and tolerant retrieval 49 4 Index construction 67 5 Index compression 85 6 Scoring, term weighting and the vector space model 109 7 Computing scores in a complete search system 135 8 Evaluation in information retrieval 151 9 Relevance feedback and query expansion 177 10 XML retrieval 195 11 Probabilistic information retrieval 219 12 Language models for information retrieval 237 13 Text classification and Naive Bayes 253 (...)
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  5. Consciousness, information processing and schizophrenia.Christopher D. Frith - 1979 - British Journal of Psychiatry 134:225-35.
  6.  37
    The role of the prefrontal cortex in self-consciousness: The case of auditory hallucinations.Christopher D. Frith - 1996 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:1505-12.
  7. A brief history of the scientific approach to the study of consciousness.Christopher D. Frith & Geraint Rees - 2007 - In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell.
  8.  40
    Natural Logic for Textual Inference.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper presents the first use of a computational model of natural logic—a system of logical inference which operates over natural language—for textual inference. Most current approaches to the PAS- CAL RTE textual inference task achieve robustness by sacrificing semantic precision; while broadly effective, they are easily confounded by ubiquitous inferences involving monotonicity. At the other extreme, systems which rely on first-order logic and theorem proving are precise, but excessively brittle. This work aims at a middle way. Our system finds (...)
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  9.  30
    Ergativity: Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    I wish to present a codi cation of syntactic approaches to dealing with ergative languages and argue for the correctness of one particular approach, which I will call the Inverse Grammatical Relations hypothesis.1 I presume familiarity with the term `ergativity', but, brie y, many languages have ergative case marking, such as Burushaski in (1), in contrast to the accusative case marking of Latin in (2). More generally, if we follow Dixon (1979) and use A to mark the agent-like argument of (...)
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  10.  98
    Models of the pathological mind.Christopher D. Frith & Shaun Gallagher - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4):57-80.
    Christopher Frith is a research professor at the Functional Imaging Laboratory of the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience at University College, London. He explores, experimentally, using the techniques of functional brain imaging, the relationship between human consciousness and the brain. His research focuses on questions pertaining to perception, attention, control of action, free will, and awareness of our own mental states and those of others. As the following discussion makes clear, Frith investigates brain systems involved in the choice of (...)
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  11.  33
    An extended model of natural logic.Christopher D. Manning & Bill MacCartney - unknown
    We propose a model of natural language inference which identifies valid inferences by their lexical and syntactic features, without full semantic interpretation. We extend past work in natural logic, which has focused on semantic containment and monotonicity, by incorporating both semantic exclusion and implicativity. Our model decomposes an inference problem into a sequence of atomic edits linking premise to hypothesis; predicts a lexical semantic relation for each edit; propagates these relations upward through a semantic composition tree according to properties of (...)
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  12.  31
    Learning to distinguish valid textual entailments.Christopher D. Manning & Daniel Cer - unknown
    This paper proposes a new architecture for textual inference in which finding a good alignment is separated from evaluating entailment. Current approaches to semantic inference in question answering and textual entailment have approximated the entailment problem as that of computing the best alignment of the hypothesis to the text, using a locally decomposable matching score. While this formulation is adequate for representing local (word-level) phenomena such as synonymy, it is incapable of representing global interactions, such as that between verb negation (...)
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  13.  12
    Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.Christopher D. Erb, Jeff Moher, David M. Sobel & Joo-Hyun Song - 2016 - Cognition 152 (C):114-126.
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  14. A Comment on 'Criminal Responsibility in Government'.Christopher D. Stone - 1985 - In J. Roland Pennock & John William Chapman (eds.), Criminal Justice. New York University Press. pp. 27.
  15.  39
    Modeling Semantic Containment and Exclusion in Natural Language Inference.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We propose an approach to natural language inference based on a model of natural logic, which identifies valid inferences by their lexical and syntactic features, without full semantic interpretation. We greatly extend past work in natural logic, which has focused solely on semantic containment and monotonicity, to incorporate both semantic exclusion and implicativity. Our system decomposes an inference problem into a sequence of atomic edits linking premise to hypothesis; predicts a lexical entailment relation for each edit using a statistical classifier; (...)
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  16.  11
    Robust Textual Inference via Graph Matching.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We present a system for deciding whether a given sentence can be inferred from text. Each sentence is represented as a directed graph (extracted from a dependency parser) in which the nodes represent words or phrases, and the links represent syntactic and semantic relationships. We develop a learned graph matching model to approximate entailment by the amount of the sentence’s semantic content which is contained in the text. We present results on the Recognizing Textual Entailment dataset (Dagan et al., 2005), (...)
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  17.  70
    Lucid Dreaming: The Paradox of Consciousness During Sleep.Christopher D. Green & C. McGreery - 1994 - Routledge.
    Throughout, there are many case histories to illustrate the text.
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  18. Epistemicism and the Problem of Arbitrariness for Vagueness.Christopher D. Kyle - 2012 - Dialogue: Journal of Phi Sigma Tau 55 (1).
    This paper distinguishes between epistemic and metaphysical problems of arbitrariness for vagueness. It argues that epistemicism can resolve the epistemic problem of arbitrariness but not the metaphysical one.
     
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  19.  58
    Part-of-Speech Tagging from 97% to 100%: Is It Time for Some Linguistics?Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    I examine what would be necessary to move part-of-speech tagging performance from its current level of about 97.3% token accuracy (56% sentence accuracy) to close to 100% accuracy. I suggest that it must still be possible to greatly increase tagging performance and examine some useful improvements that have recently been made to the Stanford Part-of-Speech Tagger. However, an error analysis of some of the remaining errors suggests that there is limited further mileage to be had either from better machine learning (...)
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  20.  15
    Automatic Acquisition of a Large Subcategorization Dictionary From Corpora.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper presents a new method for producing a dictionary of subcategorization frames from unlabelled text corpora. It is shown that statistical filtering of the results of a finite state parser running on the output of a stochastic tagger produces high quality results, despite the error rates of the tagger and the parser. Further, it is argued that this method can be used to learn all subcategorization frames, whereas previous methods are not extensible to a general solution to the problem.
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  21.  83
    Efficient, Feature-based, Conditional Random Field Parsing.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Discriminative feature-based methods are widely used in natural language processing, but sentence parsing is still dominated by generative methods. While prior feature-based dynamic programming parsers have restricted training and evaluation to artificially short sentences, we present the first general, featurerich discriminative parser, based on a conditional random field model, which has been successfully scaled to the full WSJ parsing data. Our efficiency is primarily due to the use of stochastic optimization techniques, as well as parallelization and chart prefiltering. On WSJ15, (...)
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  22.  12
    Soft Constraints Mirror Hard Constraints: Voice and Person in English and Lummi.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    The same categorical phenomena which are attributed to hard grammatical constraints in some languages continue to show up as statistical preferences in other languages, motivating a grammatical model that can account for soft constraints. The effects of a hierarchy of person (1st, 2nd 3rd) on grammar are categorical in some languages, most famously in languages withError: Illegal entry in bfrange block in ToUnicode CMap inverse systems, but also in languages with person restrictions on passivization. In Lummi, for example, the person (...)
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  23.  17
    The Lexical Integrity of Japanese Causatives.Christopher D. Manning & Ivan A. Sag - unknown
    Grammatical theory has long wrestled with the fact that causative constructions exhibit properties of both single words and complex phrases. However, as Paul Kiparsky has observed, the distribution of such properties of causatives is not arbitrary: ‘construal’ phenomena such as honorification, anaphor and pronominal binding, and quantifier ‘floating’ typically behave as they would if causatives were syntactically complex, embedding constructions; whereas case marking, agreement and word order phenomena all point to the analysis of causatives as single lexical items.1 Although an (...)
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  24. Consciousness, information processing, and the brain.Christopher D. Frith - 1992 - Journal of Psychopharmacology 6:436-40.
  25. Attention to action and awareness of other minds.Christopher D. Frith - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):481-487.
    We have only limited awareness of the system by which we control our actions and this limited awareness does not seem to be concerned with the control of action. Awareness of choosing one action rather than another comes after the choice has been made, while awareness of initiating an action occurs before the movement has begun. These temporal differences bind together in consciousness the intention to act and the consequences of the action. This creates our sense of agency. Activity in (...)
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  26.  40
    Uncertainty in perception and the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter.Christoph D. Mathys, Ekaterina I. Lomakina, Jean Daunizeau, Sandra Iglesias, Kay H. Brodersen, Karl J. Friston & Klaas E. Stephan - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  27.  10
    Commentary on Revonsuo's Can Functional Brain Imaging Discover Consciousness in the Brain?.Christopher D. Frith - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):30.
    Antti Revonsuo has given us an engaging and deliberately provocative paper discussing the value of brain imaging in the search for the neural basis of consciousness. In some places, however, his enthusiasm for the controversial nature of the topic has led him to overstate or misdirect his case.
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  28.  7
    Studying brain function with neuroimaging.Christopher D. Frith & Karl J. Friston - 1997 - In M. D. Rugg (ed.), Cognitive Neuroscience. MIT Press. pp. 169--195.
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  29. The scientific study of consciousness.Christopher D. Frith - 2003 - In Maria A. Ron & Trevor W. Robbins (eds.), Disorders of Brain and Mind 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 197-222.
  30.  14
    Distributive justice and the Nash bargaining solution.Christopher D. Proulx - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Skyrms has pointed out differences between the results of rational choice theory and evolutionary game theory. This commentary argues that there is a great deal of agreement on the Nash Bargaining Solution, which maximizes the product of player payoffs, in both rational-choice-based and evolution-based theories of equilibrium selection. While evolutionary game theory has the potential to explain how we arrive at the behavioural rules that govern what we do, realistic models will require calibration through laboratory experiments. Indeed, experimental evidence strongly (...)
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  31.  88
    Moral pluralism and the course of environmental ethics.Christopher D. Stone - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (2):139-154.
    Environmental ethics has reached a certain level of maturity; further significant advances require reexamining its status within the larger realm of moral philosophy. It could aim to extend to nonhumans one of the familiar sets of principles subject to appropriate modifications; or it could seek to break away and put forward its own paradigm or paradigms. Selecting the proper course requires as the most immediate mission exploring the formal requirements of an ethical system. In general, are there constraints against bringing (...)
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  32.  5
    Spacing Repetitions Over Long Timescales: A Review and a Reconsolidation Explanation.Christopher D. Smith & Damian Scarf - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  33. Beyond Retribution: A New Testament Vision for Justice, Crime, and Punishment.Christopher D. Marshall - 2001
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  34. The induction of hidden causes: Causal mediation and violations of independent causal influence.Christopher D. Carroll & Patricia W. Cheng - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 913--918.
     
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  35. Uncertainty in causal inference: The case of retrospective revaluation.Christopher D. Carroll, Patricia W. Cheng & Hongjing Lu - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
  36.  11
    Putting the premotor theory to the test.Christopher D. Chambers & Jason B. Mattingley - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (11):542-550.
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  37.  1
    Tantra illuminated: the philosophy, history, and practice of a timeless tradition.Christopher D. Wallis - 2013 - Petaluma, CA: Mattamayūra Press.
    This book takes readers on a fascinating journey to the very heart of Tantra: its key teachings, foundational lineages, and transformative practices. Since the West's discovery of Tantra 100 years ago, there has been considerable fascination, speculation, and more than a little misinformation about this spiritual movement. Now, for the first time in the English language, Tantra Illuminated presents an accessible introduction to this sacred tradition that began 1,500 years ago, in the far north of India. The book uses translations (...)
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  38. Is the aim of perception to provide accurate representations? A case for the 'no' side.Christopher D. Viger - 2006 - In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell.
     
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  39.  47
    Disambiguating “DE” for Chinese-English Machine Translation.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Linking constructions involving dሇ (DE) are ubiquitous in Chinese, and can be translated into English in many different ways. This is a major source of machine translation error, even when syntaxsensitive translation models are used. This paper explores how getting more information about the syntactic, semantic, and discourse context of uses of dሇ (DE) can facilitate producing an appropriate English translation strategy. We describe a finergrained classification of dሇ (DE) constructions in Chinese NPs, construct a corpus of annotated examples, and (...)
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  40.  13
    Cognitive control in action: Tracking the dynamics of rule switching in 5- to 8-year-olds and adults.Christopher D. Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song & David M. Sobel - 2017 - Cognition 164 (C):163-173.
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  41.  56
    Where do Dennett's stances stand? Explaining our kinds of minds.Christopher D. Viger - 2000 - In Andrew Brook, Don Ross & David L. Thompson (eds.), Dennett's Philosophy: A Comprehensive Assessment. MIT Press.
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  42.  30
    Argument structure as a locus for binding theory.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    The correct locus (or loci) of binding theory has been a matter of much discussion. Theories can be seen as varying along at least two dimensions. The rst is whether binding theory is con gurationally determined (that is, the theory exploits the geometry of a phrase marker, appealing to such purely structural notions as c-command and government) or whether the theory depends rather on examining the relations between items selected by a predicate (where by selection I am intending to cover (...)
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  43.  12
    Children’s developing understanding of the relation between variable causal efficacy and mechanistic complexity.Christopher D. Erb, David W. Buchanan & David M. Sobel - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):494-500.
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  44.  18
    Ethics and Neurodiversity.Christopher D. Herrera & Alexandra Perry (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge Scholars University.
    Increasingly, voices in the growing neurodiversity movement are alleging that individuals who are neurologically divergent, such as those with conditions related to bipolar disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and depression, must struggle for their civil rights. This movement therefore raises questions of interest to scholars in the humanities and social sciences, as well as to concerned members of the general public. These questions have to do with such matters as the accessibility of knowledge about mental health; autonomy and community within the realm (...)
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  45. Nested Named Entity Recognition.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Many named entities contain other named entities inside them. Despite this fact, the field of named entity recognition has almost entirely ignored nested named entity recognition, but due to technological, rather than ideological reasons. In this paper, we present a new technique for recognizing nested named entities, by using a discriminative constituency parser. To train the model, we transform each sentence into a tree, with constituents for each named entity (and no other syntactic structure). We present results on both newspaper (...)
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  46.  33
    An Effective Two-Stage Model for Exploiting Non-Local Dependencies in Named Entity Recognition.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper shows that a simple two-stage approach to handle non-local dependencies in Named Entity Recognition (NER) can outperform existing approaches that handle non-local dependencies, while being much more computationally efficient. NER systems typically use sequence models for tractable inference, but this makes them unable to capture the long distance structure present in text. We use a Conbel.
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  47. A Phrase-Based Alignment Model for Natural Language Inference.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    The alignment problem—establishing links between corresponding phrases in two related sentences—is as important in natural language inference (NLI) as it is in machine translation (MT). But the tools and techniques of MT alignment do not readily transfer to NLI, where one cannot assume semantic equivalence, and for which large volumes of bitext are lacking. We present a new NLI aligner, the MANLI system, designed to address these challenges. It uses a phrase-based alignment representation, exploits external lexical resources, and capitalizes on (...)
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  48.  47
    A Simple and Effective Hierarchical Phrase Reordering Model.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    adjacent phrases, but they typically lack the ability to perform the kind of long-distance reorderings possible with syntax-based systems. In this paper, we present a novel hierarchical phrase reordering model aimed at improving non-local reorderings, which seamlessly integrates with a standard phrase-based system with little loss of computational efficiency. We show that this model can successfully handle the key examples often used to motivate syntax-based systems, such as the rotation of a prepositional phrase around a noun phrase. We contrast our (...)
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  49.  2
    Computations.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We present a novel algorithm for the fast computation of PageRank, a hyperlink-based estimate of the “importance” of Web pages. The original PageRank algorithm uses the Power Method to compute successive iterates that converge to the principal eigenvector of the Markov matrix representing the Web link graph. The algorithm presented here, called Quadratic Extrapolation, accelerates the convergence of the Power Method by periodically subtracting off estimates of the nonprincipal eigenvectors from the current iterate of the Power Method. In Quadratic Extrapolation, (...)
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  50.  55
    Clustering the Tagged Web.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Automatically clustering web pages into semantic groups promises improved search and browsing on the web. In this paper, we demonstrate how user-generated tags from largescale social bookmarking websites such as del.icio.us can be used as a complementary data source to page text and anchor text for improving automatic clustering of web pages. This paper explores the use of tags in 1) K-means clustering in an extended vector space model that includes tags as well as page text and 2) a novel (...)
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