Results for 'Christopher Hugh Toner'

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  1. Flourishing and Self-Interest in Virtue Ethics.Christopher Hugh Toner - 2003 - Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    Classical virtue ethics offers an attractive alternative to mainstream ethical theories because it sees the moral life as the proper pursuit of happiness. It advocates this principle of action: "My goal is to be and to act in a way that is good for me." This invites the response that it is egoistic. We see in the literature both peremptory dismissals of virtue ethics, and the complacent suggestion that virtue ethics is unobjectionable because only "formally egoistic." My thesis is that, (...)
     
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  2.  19
    Aristotelian well-being: A response to L. W. Sumner's critique.Christopher Hugh Toner - 2006 - Utilitas 18 (3):218-231.
    Aristotle's ethical theory is often seen as instructing agents in the prudent pursuit of their own well-being, and therefore labeled egoistic. Yet it is also subject to the opposing charge of failing to direct agents to their well-being, directing them instead to perfection. I am here concerned chiefly with the second criticism, and proceed as follows: I first articulate Sumner's version of the criticism, and second assess his argument for his own (subjective) account of well-being. Third, I present reasons motivating (...)
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  3.  7
    Locke on Natural Kinds and Essential Properties.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:475-497.
    The two opinions concerning real essences that Locke mentions in III.iii.17 represent competing theories about the way in which naturally occurring objects are divided into species. In this paper I explain what these competing theories amount to, why he denies the theory of kinds that is embodied in the first of these opinions, and how this denial is related to his general critique of essentialism. I argue first, that we cannot meaningfully ask whether Locke accepts the existence of natural kinds, (...)
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  4.  22
    Locke on Natural Kinds and Essential Properties.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:475-497.
    The two opinions concerning real essences that Locke mentions in III.iii.17 represent competing theories about the way in which naturally occurring objects are divided into species. In this paper I explain what these competing theories amount to, why he denies the theory of kinds that is embodied in the first of these opinions, and how this denial is related to his general critique of essentialism. I argue first, that we cannot meaningfully ask whether Locke accepts the existence of natural kinds, (...)
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  5.  14
    Transubstantiation and the Real Presence.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2003 - Philosophy and Theology 15 (2):333-351.
    This paper is concerned with metaphysical issues surrounding the doctrines of transubstantiation and the real presence. In particular, I am concerned with the nature of the eucharistic change, and with the manner in which Christ is believed to be present in the Blessed Sacrament. My primary goal is to give an account of these doctrines (i) which does not involve the thesis that upon consecration one substance has become identical with another, previously existing substance, (ii) which is consistent with a (...)
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  6.  8
    Female genital mutilation and the moral status of abortion.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15 (1):1-15.
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  7. Locke's organismic theory of personal identity.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2002 - Locke Studies 2:105-135.
  8. Susanna Blamire 1747–94.Christopher Hugh Maycock & A. Passionate Poet - forthcoming - Hypatia.
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  9.  9
    The Full Unity of the Virtues.Christopher Toner - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (3):207-227.
    The classical doctrine that the moral virtues are unified is widely rejected. Some argue that the virtues are disunified, or even mutually incompatible. And though others have argued that the virtues form some sort of unity, these recent defenses of unity are always qualified, advocating only a partial unity: the unity of the virtues is limited to certain practical domains, or weak in that one virtue implies only moral decency in the fields of other virtues. I argue that something like (...)
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  10.  11
    The Self-Centredness Objection to Virtue Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2006 - Philosophy 81 (4):595-618.
    Aristotelian virtue ethics is often charged with counseling a self-centred approach to the moral life. Reviewing some influential responses made by defenders of virtue ethics, I argue that none of them goes far enough. I begin my own response by evaluating two common targets of the objection, Aristotle and Aquinas, and based on my findings sketch the outlines of a clearly non-self-centred version of virtue ethics, according to which the ‘center’ is instead located in the agent’s right relation to others (...)
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  11.  12
    The Unity of the Virtues Revisited.Christopher Toner - 2021 - In Christoph Halbig & Felix Timmermann (eds.), Handbuch Tugend Und Tugendethik. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 65-79.
    The classical doctrine of the unity of the virtues is generally rejected today. After arguing that the doctrine is more tenable than is commonly allowed, I consider a new and possibly cogent objection based on the idea that some virtues, in some cultural settings, are of diminished importance, and thus are not necessary for the possession of other virtues. I develop a revised version of the doctrine which maintains that certain central virtues are unified, and that any other virtues are (...)
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  12.  9
    Just war and the supreme emergency exemption.Christopher Toner - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):545-561.
    Recently a number of liberal political theorists, including Rawls and Walzer, have argued for a 'supreme emergency exemption' from the traditional just war principle of discrimination which absolutely prohibits direct attacks against innocent civilians, claiming that a political community threatened with destruction may deliberately target innocents in order to save itself. I argue that this 'supreme emergency exemption' implies that individuals too may kill innocents in supreme emergencies. This is a significant theoretical cost. While it will not constitute a decisive (...)
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  13.  16
    The Logical Structure of Just War Theory.Christopher Toner - 2010 - The Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles are (...)
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  14.  4
    A Philosophical Walking Tour With C. S. Lewis: Why It Did Not Include Rome. By Stewart Goetz.Christopher Toner - 2016 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):154-157.
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  15.  11
    Brian Orend, War and Political Theory.Christopher Toner - 2020 - Ethics 130 (3):465-469.
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  16.  12
    Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism (often lacking in these exchanges) as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics (its subtlety (...)
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  17.  11
    McPherson’s Impiety.Christopher Toner - 2021 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 95 (2):299-308.
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  18.  8
    Sacrifice in Eudaimonistic Virtue Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2019 - In Elisa Grimi, John Haldane, Maria Margarita Mauri Alvarez, Michael Wladika, Marco Damonte, Michael Slote, Randall Curren, Christian B. Miller, Liezl Zyl, Christopher D. Owens, Scott J. Roniger, Michele Mangini, Nancy Snow & Christopher Toner (eds.), Virtue Ethics: Retrospect and Prospect. Springer. pp. 197-207.
    Impartial moral theories must deal with the Problem of the Demandingness of Morality—the worry that impartial moral requirements will be so demanding upon an agent’s time and resources that she will not be able to pursue her own flourishing, a good human life as she conceives it. Proponents of eudaimonistic virtue ethics must confront an inverted form of the demandingness objection, namely that their theory is not demanding enough, does not require that agents ever sacrifice their own good. Of course, (...)
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  19.  4
    Thomas Aquinas on War and Peace. By Gregory Reichberg.Christopher Toner - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):400-404.
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  20.  3
    Just war and the supreme emergency exemption.By Christopher Toner - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):545–561.
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  21.  9
    Home and Our Need For It.Christopher Toner - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Research 44:251-272.
    Aviezer Tucker claims that “home-searching is a basic trait of being human,” yet as a rule the concept of home has not been central in recent Anglophonic ethics. I will argue, though, that giving an important place to the concept of home should be far more common. I begin by showing that ‘home’ is a particular kind of concept, what Daniel Russell calls a model concept. I then turn to the main task of the paper, the construction of a theoretical (...)
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  22.  6
    Fostering Self-Management of Everyday Memory in Older Adults: A New Intervention Approach.Christopher Hertzog, Ann Pearman, Emily Lustig & MacKenzie Hughes - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Traditional memory strategy training interventions improve older adults’ performance on tests of episodic memory, but have limited transfer to episodic memory tasks, let alone to everyday memory. We argue that an alternative approach is needed to assist older adults to compensate for age-related cognitive declines and to maintain functional capacity in their own natural ecologies. We outline a set of principles regarding how interventions can successfully train older adults to increase successful goal pursuit to reduce risks of everyday memory failures. (...)
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  23.  12
    Pascal’s First Wager Reconsidered: A Virtue Theoretic View.Patrick Toner & Christopher Toner - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):75-90.
    There are at least two versions of the famous Wager argument to be found in Pascal’s Pensées. In contemporary work on the Wager, attention is almost always focused on the second. In this paper, we take a look at the first, which is often quickly dismissed as a failure. Indeed, it seems to be generally believed that Pascal himself quickly dismissed it as a failure. We fi rst argue that Pascal himself accepted the argument. Then we argue that those who (...)
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  24.  11
    Military Service as a Practice: Integrating the Sword and Shield Approaches to Military Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (3):183-200.
    The military's purpose centrally includes fighting its nation's wars, serving as the nation's sword. The dominant approach to military ethics today, which I will call the ?sword approach?, focuses on this purpose and builds an ethic out of the requirements the purpose imposes on soldiers. Yet recently philosophers such as Shannon French and Nancy Sherman have developed an alternative that I will call the ?shield approach?, which focuses on articulating a warrior code as a moral shield that can safeguard soldiers? (...)
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  25.  14
    Jane Austen on Practical Wisdom, Constancy, and Unreserve.Christopher Toner - 2017 - Philosophy and Literature 41 (1A):178-194.
    A central, if controversial, Aristotelian claim is that the virtues are connected—that practical wisdom depends upon moral virtue, and moral virtue upon practical wisdom. If those who see Jane Austen's portrayal of the moral life as broadly Aristotelian1 are right, we should expect to see such a dependence shown in Austen's novels. I will argue that we can indeed find portrayed a dependence of wisdom upon character, and in particular upon the virtues Austen calls constancy and unreserve. These two are (...)
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  26.  5
    Sorts of naturalism: Requirements for a successful theory.Christopher Toner - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (2):220–250.
    In this article I investigate several "sorts of naturalism" that have been advanced in recent years as possible foundations for virtue ethics: those of Michael Thompson, Philippa Foot, Rosalind Hursthouse, John McDowell, and Larry Arnhart. Each of these impressive attempts fails in illuminatingly different ways, and in the opening sections I analyze what has gone variously wrong. I next use this analysis to articulate four criteria that any successful Aristotelian naturalism must meet (my goal is to show what naturalism must (...)
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  27.  9
    Moral Issues in Military Decision Making.Christopher Toner - 2005 - Journal of Military Ethics 4 (2):149-152.
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  28.  3
    Militia vel Malitia.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 13 (4):121-132.
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  29.  4
    ACPQ Editor’s Report.Christopher Toner - 2012 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 86:319-325.
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  30.  6
    Eudaimonic Ethics: The Philosophy and Psychology of Living Well. By Lorraine Besser-Jones.Christopher Toner - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (4):719-723.
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  31. Aquinas on the Nature and Implications of Divine Simplicity.Christopher Hughes - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):1-22.
    I discuss what Aquinas’ doctrine of divine simplicity is, and what he takes to be its implications. I also discuss the extent to which Aquinas succeeds in motivating and defending those implications.
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  32.  9
    The self-centredness objection to virtue ethics.Christopher Toner - 2006 - Philosophy 81 (4):595-618.
    Aristotelian virtue ethics is often charged with counseling a self-centred approach to the moral life. Reviewing some influential responses made by defenders of virtue ethics, I argue that none of them goes far enough. I begin my own response by evaluating two common targets of the objection, Aristotle and Aquinas, and based on my findings sketch the outlines of a clearly non-self-centred version of virtue ethics, according to which the ‘center’ is instead located in the agent’s right relation to others (...)
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  33.  28
    Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism (often lacking in these exchanges) as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics (its subtlety (...)
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  34.  7
    Critical Management Studies:A Reader: A Reader.Christopher Grey & Hugh Willmott (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    'Critical Management Studies', or 'CMS', describes a diverse group of work that has adopted a critical or questioning approach to the traditional concerns of Management Studies, and the growing interest in CMS has produced a vibrant and exciting body of research. Christopher Grey and Hugh Willmott, leading authorities in this area, introduce seventeen readings which reflect these developments, and show CMS' importance. As an assessment of CMS, the Reader will be of interest to academics, researchers, and students of (...)
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  35.  7
    Just Cause and Proper Authority in the Just War Tradition: From Salamanca to Konigsberg... and Back?Christopher Toner - 2007 - Modern Schoolman 85 (1):1-19.
  36.  4
    Aquinas and Central Problems of Philosophy: Mind, Metaphysics, and Philosophical Theology.Christopher Hughes - 2005 - New York: Routledge.
    Thomas Aquinas was the most influential philosopher of the Middle Ages, and one of the most famous Christian theologians of all time. His philosophy is a powerful synthesis of Aristotle and Plato presented within a Christian framework. His "five ways" to prove the existence of God are studied by undergraduates on many theology and philosophy of religion courses. Apart from his specifically theological works, he spent much of his time writing about metaphysics, all of which was to have important ramifications (...)
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  37. Aquinas on Being, Goodness, and God.Christopher Hughes - 2005 - New York: Routledge.
    Thomas Aquinas is one of the most important figures in the history of philosophy and philosophical theology. Relying on a deep understanding of Aristotle, Aquinas developed a metaphysical framework that is comprehensive, detailed, and flexible. Within that framework, he formulated a range of strikingly original and carefully explicated views in areas including natural theology, philosophy of mind, philosophical psychology, and ethics. In this book_, _Christopher Hughes focuses on Aquinas’s thought from an analytic philosophical perspective. After an overview of Aquinas’s life (...)
     
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  38. Aquinas on Mind, Metaphysics and Theology.Christopher Hughes - 2005 - New York: Routledge.
    Thomas Aquinas was the most influential philosopher of the Middle Ages, and one of the most famous Christian theologians of all time. His philosophy is a powerful synthesis of Aristotle and Plato presented within a Christian framework. His "five ways" to prove the existence of God are studied by undergraduates on many theology and philosophy of religion courses. Apart from his specifically theological works, he spent much of his time writing about metaphysics, all of which was to have important ramifications (...)
     
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  39. Kripke: Names, Necessity, and Identity.Christopher Hughes - 2004 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 66 (3):605-605.
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  40.  8
    Evolution, naturalism, and the worthwhile: A critique of Richard Joyce's evolutionary debunking of morality.Christopher Toner - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (4):520-546.
    Abstract: In The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce argues there is good reason to think that the “moral sense” is a biological adaptation, and that this provides a genealogy of the moral sense that has a debunking effect, driving us to the conclusion that “our moral beliefs are products of a process that is entirely independent of their truth, … we have no grounds one way or the other for maintaining these beliefs.” I argue that Joyce's skeptical conclusion is not (...)
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  41.  53
    Openness, Privilege, and Omniscience.Christopher Hughes - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):35--64.
    According to egalitarians, there is no privileged now-possible history. Egalitarianism seems to provide an attractive way to reconcile openness and omniscience, but, I argue, it does not.
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  42.  11
    Kripke: names, necessity, and identity.Christopher Hughes - 2004 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Saul Kripke, in a series of classic writings of the 1960s and 1970s, changed the face of metaphysics and philosophy of language. Christopher Hughes offers a careful exposition and critical analysis of Kripke's central ideas about names, necessity, and identity. He clears up some common misunderstandings of Kripke's views on rigid designation, causality and reference, and the necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori. Through his engagement with Kripke's ideas Hughes makes a significant contribution to ongoing debates on, inter (...)
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  43.  4
    XII*—Is A Thing Just The Sum Of Its Parts?Christopher Hughes - 1986 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86:213-234.
    Christopher Hughes; XII*—Is A Thing Just The Sum Of Its Parts?, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 86, Issue 1, 1 June 1986, Pages 213–234, https:/.
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  44.  8
    Just War and Graduated Discrimination.Christopher H. Toner - 2004 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):649-665.
    Th is paper investigates the question of legitimate targets in war and the traditional jus in bello principle of discrimination, which is generally interpreted to mean that a bright line must be drawn between combatants and noncombatants, and that only the former may be attacked directly.Michael Walzer and John Rawls have proposed a “supreme emergency exemption” to this principle, which permits the targeting of innocent people in emergencies such as that of Britain in late 1940. Rejecting this, the paper offers (...)
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  45. Angelic sin in Aquinas and Scotus and the genesis of some central objections to contemporary virtue ethics.Christopher Toner - 2005 - The Thomist 69 (1):79-125.
     
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  46.  10
    Is a thing just the sum of its parts?Christopher Hughes - 1986 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86:213-234.
    Christopher Hughes; XII*—Is A Thing Just The Sum Of Its Parts?, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 86, Issue 1, 1 June 1986, Pages 213–234, https:/.
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  47.  14
    Denying Privilege.Christopher Hughes - 2015 - Analytic Philosophy 56 (3):210-228.
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  48. Was Aquinas an Egoist?Christopher Toner - 2007 - The Thomist 71 (4):577-608.
  49.  12
    Akrasia Revisited: An Interpretation and Defense of Aristotle.Christopher Toner - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
  50.  6
    Akrasia Revisited: An Interpretation and Defense of Aristotle.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
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