Results for 'Christopher Hugh Toner'

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  1.  87
    Aristotelian Well-Being: A Response to L. W. Sumner's Critique.Christopher Hugh Toner - 2006 - Utilitas 18 (3):218-231.
    Aristotle's ethical theory is often seen as instructing agents in the prudent pursuit of their own well-being, and therefore labeled egoistic. Yet it is also subject to the opposing charge of failing to direct agents to their well-being, directing them instead to perfection. I am here concerned chiefly with the second criticism, and proceed as follows: I first articulate Sumner's version of the criticism, and second assess his argument for his own (subjective) account of well-being. Third, I present reasons motivating (...)
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  2.  82
    Thomas Versus Tibbles: A Critical Study of Christopher Brown's Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus.Patrick Toner - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (4):639-653.
    In his recent book, Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus, Christopher Brown has argued that the metaphysics of St. Thomas is preferable to contemporary analyticviews because it can solve the “problem of material constitution” (PMC) without requiring us to relinquish any of the common-sense beliefs that generate that problem. In this critical study, I show that in the case of both substances and aggregates, Brown’s Aquinas endorses views that are extremely implausible. Consequently, even if it is granted that the (...)
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  3. Thomas Versus Tibbles: A Critical Study of Christopher Brown’s Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus.Patrick Toner - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (4):639-653.
    In his recent book, Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus, Christopher Brown has argued that the metaphysics of St. Thomas is preferable to contemporary analyticviews because it can solve the “problem of material constitution” without requiring us to relinquish any of the common-sense beliefs that generate that problem. In this critical study, I show that in the case of both substances and aggregates, Brown’s Aquinas endorses views that are extremely implausible. Consequently, even if it is granted that the solutions (...)
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  4.  10
    Beauty and Being: Thomistic Perspectives. By Piotr Jaroszyński. Translated by Hugh McDonald.Patrick Toner - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):786 - 788.
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  5.  50
    Sorts of Naturalism: Requirements for a Successful Theory.Christopher Toner - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (2):220–250.
    In this article I investigate several "sorts of naturalism" that have been advanced in recent years as possible foundations for virtue ethics: those of Michael Thompson, Philippa Foot, Rosalind Hursthouse, John McDowell, and Larry Arnhart. Each of these impressive attempts fails in illuminatingly different ways, and in the opening sections I analyze what has gone variously wrong. I next use this analysis to articulate four criteria that any successful Aristotelian naturalism must meet (my goal is to show what naturalism must (...)
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  6. The Logical Structure of Just War Theory.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles are (...)
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  7.  56
    The Self-Centredness Objection to Virtue Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2006 - Philosophy 81 (4):595-618.
    Aristotelian virtue ethics is often charged with counseling a self-centred approach to the moral life. Reviewing some influential responses made by defenders of virtue ethics, I argue that none of them goes far enough. I begin my own response by evaluating two common targets of the objection, Aristotle and Aquinas, and based on my findings sketch the outlines of a clearly non-self-centred version of virtue ethics, according to which the ‘center’ is instead located in the agent’s right relation to others (...)
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  8.  76
    Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism (often lacking in these exchanges) as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics (its subtlety (...)
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  9. Evolution, Naturalism, and the Worthwhile: A Critique of Richard Joyce's Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.Christopher Toner - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (4):520-546.
    Abstract: In The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce argues there is good reason to think that the “moral sense” is a biological adaptation, and that this provides a genealogy of the moral sense that has a debunking effect, driving us to the conclusion that “our moral beliefs are products of a process that is entirely independent of their truth, … we have no grounds one way or the other for maintaining these beliefs.” I argue that Joyce's skeptical conclusion is not (...)
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  10. Was Aquinas an Egoist?Christopher Toner - 2007 - The Thomist 71 (4):577-608.
     
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  11.  12
    Just War and Graduated Discrimination.Christopher H. Toner - 2004 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):649-665.
    Th is paper investigates the question of legitimate targets in war and the traditional jus in bello principle of discrimination, which is generally interpreted to mean that a bright line must be drawn between combatants and noncombatants, and that only the former may be attacked directly.Michael Walzer and John Rawls have proposed a “supreme emergency exemption” to this principle, which permits the targeting of innocent people in emergencies such as that of Britain in late 1940. Rejecting this, the paper offers (...)
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  12.  46
    The Dependence of Welfare Upon Virtue.Christopher Toner - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):161-169.
    In this article, I articulate a modest form of welfare perfectionism, according to which (1) the virtuous person’s welfare is an aspect of her virtuous activity, and (2) the virtuous person will never be in position to choose to attain welfare at the expense of acting virtuously. I then defend these claims against a range of objections.
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  13.  31
    The Full Unity of the Virtues.Christopher Toner - 2014 - Journal of Ethics 18 (3):207-227.
    The classical doctrine that the moral virtues are unified is widely rejected. Some argue that the virtues are disunified, or even mutually incompatible. And though others have argued that the virtues form some sort of unity, these recent defenses of unity are always qualified, advocating only a partial unity: the unity of the virtues is limited to certain practical domains, or weak in that one virtue implies only moral decency in the fields of other virtues. I argue that something like (...)
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  14.  35
    The Virtues (and a Few Vices) of Daniel Russell's Practical Intelligence and the Virtues.Christopher Toner - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):453-468.
    Daniel Russell's Practical Intelligence and the Virtues is principally a defense of the Aristotelian claim that phronesis is part of every unqualified virtue—a defense of what Russell calls "hard virtue theory" and "hard virtue ethics." The main support for this is the further claim that we would be unable to act well reliably, or form our character reliably, without phronesis performing its "twin roles": correctly identifying the mean of each virtue, and integrating the mean of each virtue with those of (...)
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  15.  10
    Just Cause and Proper Authority in the Just War Tradition: From Salamanca to Konigsberg ... And Back?Christopher Toner - 2007 - Modern Schoolman 85 (1):1-19.
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  16.  28
    Akrasia Revisited: An Interpretation and Defense of Aristotle.Christopher Toner - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
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  17.  2
    Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics. I show instead that any moral theory (...)
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  18.  20
    Pascal's First Wager Reconsidered.Christopher Toner - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):75-90.
    There are at least two versions of the famous Wager argument to be found in Pascal’s Pensées. In contemporary work on the Wager, attention is almost always focused on the second. In this paper, we take a look at the first, which is often quickly dismissed as a failure. Indeed, it seems to be generally believed that Pascal himself quickly dismissed it as a failure. We fi rst argue that Pascal himself accepted the argument. Then we argue (more importantly) that (...)
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  19.  17
    Akrasia Revisited.Christopher Toner - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
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  20.  21
    Review of Anthony Kenny, Charles Kenny, Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Utility: Happiness in Philosophical and Economic Thought[REVIEW]Christopher Toner - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (6).
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  21.  8
    The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. By Jonathan Haidt.Christopher Toner - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (3):548-552.
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  22.  2
    Catastrophe and Eucatastrophe: Russell and Tolkien on the True Form of Fiction.Christopher Toner - 2008 - New Blackfriars 89 (1019):77-87.
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  23.  3
    Eudaimonic Ethics: The Philosophy and Psychology of Living Well. By Lorraine Besser-Jones.Christopher Toner - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (4):719-723.
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  24.  2
    A Philosophical Walking Tour With C. S. Lewis: Why It Did Not Include Rome. By Stewart Goetz.Christopher Toner - 2016 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):154-157.
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  25.  8
    Military Service as a Practice: Integrating the Sword and Shield Approaches to Military Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (3):183-200.
    The military's purpose centrally includes fighting its nation's wars, serving as the nation's sword. The dominant approach to military ethics today, which I will call the ?sword approach?, focuses on this purpose and builds an ethic out of the requirements the purpose imposes on soldiers. Yet recently philosophers such as Shannon French and Nancy Sherman have developed an alternative that I will call the ?shield approach?, which focuses on articulating a warrior code as a moral shield that can safeguard soldiers? (...)
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  26.  8
    Moral Issues in Military Decision Making.Christopher Toner - 2005 - Journal of Military Ethics 4 (2):149-152.
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  27.  11
    Review of Nancy Sherman, Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind[REVIEW]Christopher Toner - 2006 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (1).
  28.  2
    Militia Vel Malitia: How Can the Military Contribute to a Just Society.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 13 (4):121-132.
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  29.  1
    ACPQ Editor’s Report.Christopher Toner - 2012 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 86:319-325.
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  30. Angelic Sin in Aquinas and Scotus and the Genesis of Some Central Objections to Contemporary Virtue Ethics.Christopher Toner - 2005 - The Thomist 69 (1):79-125.
     
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  31. Just Cause and Proper Authority in the Just War Tradition: From Salamanca to Konigsberg... And Back?Christopher Toner - 2007 - Modern Schoolman 85 (1):1-19.
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  32. Pascal’s First Wager Reconsidered: A Virtue Theoretic View.Patrick Toner & Christopher Toner - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):75-90.
    There are at least two versions of the famous Wager argument to be found in Pascal’s Pensées. In contemporary work on the Wager, attention is almost always focused on the second. In this paper, we take a look at the first, which is often quickly dismissed as a failure. Indeed, it seems to be generally believed that Pascal himself quickly dismissed it as a failure. We fi rst argue that Pascal himself accepted the argument. Then we argue that those who (...)
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  33.  4
    Rejoinder to Adam Reed, "Not Even False: A Commentary on Parrish and Toner" (Spring 2008): God-Talk and the Arbitrary.Patrick Toner - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (2):417 - 421.
    In this brief note, Toner discusses Adam Reed's reply ("Not Even False," The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Spring 2008) to his earlier paper, "Objectivist Atheology" (The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Spring 2007). He argues that Reed's criticisms do not hold up under scrutiny.
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  34.  6
    Christopher J. McDonough, Ed. And Trans., The Arundel Lyrics: The Poems of Hugh Primas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010. Pp. Xlvii, 288. $29.95. ISBN: 9780674055575. [REVIEW]Thomas C. Moser - 2014 - Speculum 89 (1):217-219.
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  35.  5
    Christopher Rosin, Paul Stock and Hugh Campbell : Food Systems Failure: The Global Food Crisis and the Future of Agriculture.Anna Krzywoszynska - 2014 - Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):323-324.
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  36.  91
    Critical Management Studies: A Reader.Christopher Grey & Hugh Willmott (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    'Critical Management Studies', or 'CMS', describes a diverse group of work that has adopted a critical or questioning approach to the traditional concerns of Management Studies, and the growing interest in CMS has produced a vibrant and exciting body of research. Christopher Grey and Hugh Willmott, leading authorities in this area, introduce seventeen readings which reflect these developments, and show CMS' importance. As an assessment of CMS, the Reader will be of interest to academics, researchers, and students of (...)
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  37.  21
    Souls, Ships, and Substances: A Response to Toner.Christopher M. Brown - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (4):655-668.
    I do four things in responding to Patrick Toner’s incisive critique of my Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus (AST). First, I further motivate Aquinas’s position that Socrates exists in the post-mortem and ante-resurrection state by noting that Socrates’ situation is at least analogous to other states of affairs that would certainly count as atypical (although not impossible). Secondly, I offer a revised Thomistic account of artefact identity through time in light of Toner’s objections to Aquinas’srestrictive view. Unlike (...)
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  38.  5
    Hugh Primas 18: A Poetic Glosula on Amiens, Reims, and Peter Abelard.Christopher J. McDonough - 1986 - Speculum 61 (4):806-835.
    The poem numbered 18 in the collection known as the Oxford poems was written a little before the middle of the twelfth century. Composed in rhyming octosyllabic verse, the poem has three parts. It begins by praising the bishop and clergy of Amiens for an act of charity on behalf of the destitute poet. It continues with a celebration of the cathedral school of Reims under Master Alberic. It concludes with a biting attack upon an anonymous teacher who is unfit (...)
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  39. Souls, Ships, and Substances: A Response to Toner.Christopher M. Brown - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (4):655-668.
    I do four things in responding to Patrick Toner’s incisive critique of my Aquinas and the Ship of Theseus. First, I further motivate Aquinas’s position that Socrates exists in the post-mortem and ante-resurrection state by noting that Socrates’ situation is at least analogous to other states of affairs that would certainly count as atypical. Secondly, I offer a revised Thomistic account of artefact identity through time in light of Toner’s objections to Aquinas’srestrictive view. Unlike the restrictive view, this (...)
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  40.  7
    Hugh Metel and the Floridus Aspectus of Peter Riga (Staatsbibhothek Zu Berlin-Preußischer Kulturbesitz Phillipps 1694).Christopher J. McDonough - 2005 - Mediaeval Studies 67 (1):27-74.
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  41.  9
    Christopher Fry: An Appreciation. By Derek Stanford.Hugh Dickinson - 1952 - Renascence 4 (2):191-193.
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  42. Robert P. George and Christopher Tollefsen Embryo: A Defense of Human Life. Do Ubleday Publishers, 2008, 256 Pages, $27.95, Hb., Isbn: 978-0-8 5-52282-3 (0-8 5-52282-7). [REVIEW]Hugh V. McLachlan - 2010 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 15 (1):40.
     
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  43.  10
    Lloyd-Jones (H.) The Further Academic Papers of Sir Hugh Lloyd-Jones. Pp. Viii + 455. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Cased, £65. ISBN: 978-0-19-927932-. [REVIEW]Christopher Collard - 2007 - The Classical Review 57 (02):267-270.
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  44. Why It's Smart to Be Imperfectly Rational: A Review of Minimal Rationality by Christopher Cherniak. [REVIEW]Hugh Wilder - 1988 - Behaviorism 16 (1):89.
     
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  45.  23
    The Oxford Handbook of Adam Smith.Christopher J. Berry, Maria Pia Paganelli & Craig Smith (eds.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Preface Introduction Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith: Outline of Life, Times, and Legacy Part One: Adam Smith: Heritage and Contemporaries 1: Nicholas Phillipson: Adam Smith: A Biographer's Reflections 2: Leonidas Montes: Newtonianism and Adam Smith 3: Dennis C. Rasmussen: Adam Smith and Rousseau: Enlightenment and counter-Enlightenment 4: Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith and Early Modern Thought Part Two: Adam Smith on Language, Art and Culture 5: Catherine Labio: Adam Smith's Aesthetics 6: James Chandler: Adam Smith as Critic 7: (...)
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  46. Susanna Blamire 1747–94.Christopher Hugh Maycock & A. Passionate Poet - forthcoming - Hypatia.
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  47. Does Socrates Have a Method?: Rethinking the Elenchus in Plato's Dialogues and Beyond.Gary Alan Scott (ed.) - 2002 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Although "the Socratic method" is commonly understood as a style of pedagogy involving cross-questioning between teacher and student, there has long been debate among scholars of ancient philosophy about how this method as attributed to Socrates should be defined or, indeed, whether Socrates can be said to have used any single, uniform method at all distinctive to his way of philosophizing. This volume brings together essays by classicists and philosophers examining this controversy anew. The point of departure for many of (...)
     
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  48.  38
    Just War and the Supreme Emergency Exemption.Toner Christopher - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):545-561.
    Recently a number of liberal political theorists, including Rawls and Walzer, have argued for a 'supreme emergency exemption' from the traditional just war principle of discrimination which absolutely prohibits direct attacks against innocent civilians, claiming that a political community threatened with destruction may deliberately target innocents in order to save itself. I argue that this 'supreme emergency exemption' implies that individuals too may kill innocents in supreme emergencies. This is a significant theoretical cost. While it will not constitute a decisive (...)
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  49. Hugh of Saint Victor.Michael Gorman - 2003 - In Noone Gracia (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Blackwell.
    An overview of Hugh’s thought, focusing on philosophical issues. Specifically it gives a summary of his overall vision; the sources he worked from; his understanding of: the division of the science, biblical interpretation, God, creation, providence and evil, human nature and ethics, salvation; and his spiritual teachings.
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  50.  24
    Reading Nietzsche.Robert C. Solomon & Kathleen Marie Higgins (eds.) - 1988 - Oxford University Press.
    Addressing the issue of how to read Nietzsche, this book presents an accessible series of essays for students and general readers on Nietzsche's individual works, written by such distinguished Nietzsche scholars as Frithjof Bergmann, Arthur Danto, Bernd Magnus, Christopher Middleton, Eric Blondel, Lars Gustaffson, Alexander Nehamas, Richard Schacht, Gary Shapiro, Hugh Silverman, and Ivan Soll. Among the works discussed are On the Genealogy of Morals, Beyond Good and Evil, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Twilight of the Idols and The Will (...)
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