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Christopher Tollefsen [62]Christopher O. Tollefsen [5]Christopher Olaf Tollefsen [1]
  1.  89
    The Ontological Status of Embryos: A Reply to Jason Morris.Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen & Robert P. George - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):483-504.
    In various places we have defended the position that a new human organism, that is, an individual member of the human species, comes to be at fertilization, the union of the spermatozoon and the oocyte. This individual organism, during the ordinary course of embryological development, remains the same individual and does not undergo any further substantial change, unless monozygotic twinning, or some form of chimerism occurs. Recently, in this Journal Jason Morris has challenged our position, claiming that recent findings in (...)
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  2.  11
    Family Consent and Organ Donation.Christopher Tollefsen - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (5):588-602.
    This paper asks whether investigation into the ontology of the extended family can help us to think about and resolve questions concerning the nature of the family’s decision-making authority where organ donation is concerned. Here, “extended family” refers not to the multigenerational family all living at the same time, but to the family extended past its living boundaries to include the dead and the not yet living. How do non-existent members of the family figure into its ontology? Does an answer (...)
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  3.  41
    The New Natural Law Theory.Christopher Tollefsen - 2008 - Lyceum 10 (1).
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  4.  65
    Is A Purely First Person Account Of Human Action Defensible?Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (4):441-460.
    There are two perspectives available from which to understand an agent's intention in acting. The first is the perspective of the acting agent: what did she take to be her end, and the means necessary to achieve that end? The other is a third person perspective that is attentive to causal or conceptual relations: was some causal outcome of the agent's action sufficiently close, or so conceptually related, to what the agent did that it should be considered part of her (...)
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  5.  19
    The Future of Roman Catholic Bioethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (6):667-685.
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  6.  20
    What Would John Dewey Do? The Promises and Perils of Pragmatic Bioethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (1):77 – 106.
    Recent work done at the intersection of classical American pragmatism and bioethics promises much: a clarified self-understanding for bioethics, a modus vivendi for progress, and liberation from misguided and misguiding theories and principles. The revival of pragmatism outside bioethics in the past twenty years, however, has been of a distinctly anti-realist orientation. Richard Rorty, for example, has urged that there is no objective truth or good for philosophy to be concerned with. I ask whether the work in Pragmatic Bioethics follows (...)
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  7.  6
    Hippocrates’ Oath: Commitment and Community.Christopher Tollefsen - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (3):905-912.
    In Hippocrates’ Oath and Asclepius’ Snake: The Birth of the Medical Profession, Thomas Cavanaugh focuses on performative aspects of the taking of the oath which bear upon the formation of that community we identify as the medical profession. In this paper, I suggest that we can go further than Cavanaugh does in identifying what the Hippocratic oath makes possible. Given its particular content and what it communicates, the oath makes possible, to a degree few other oaths could, and in a (...)
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  8.  35
    Religious Reasons and Public Healthcare Deliberations.Christopher Tollefsen - 2007 - Christian Bioethics 13 (2):139-157.
    This paper critically explores the path of some of the controversies over public reason and religion through four distinct steps. The first part of this article considers the engagement of John Finnis and Robert P. George with John Rawls over the nature of public reason. The second part moves to the question of religion by looking at the engagement of Nicholas Wolterstorff with Rawls, Robert Audi, and others. Here the question turns specifically to religious reasons, and their permissible use by (...)
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  9.  2
    Lying and Christian Ethics.Christopher O. Tollefsen - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book defends the controversial 'absolute view' of lying, which maintains that an assertion contrary to the speaker's mind is always wrong, regardless of the speaker's intentions. Whereas most people believe that a lie told for a good cause, such as protecting Jews from discovery by Nazis, is morally acceptable, Christopher Tollefsen argues that Christians should support the absolute view. He looks back to the writings of Augustine and Aquinas to illustrate that lying violates the basic human goods of integrity (...)
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  10.  14
    Conscience and the Way of Medicine.Farr A. Curlin & Christopher O. Tollefsen - 2019 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 62 (3):560-575.
    Doctors often refuse patients' REQUESTS, even when patients request interventions that are legal and permitted by the medical profession. This is a fact about the practice of medicine so familiar that it is easy to overlook.Doctors' refusals are neither new nor infrequent, and only a small minority occasion any controversy. Surgeons refuse to operate when they believe a surgery is unlikely to succeed. Physicians refuse medications when they believe the medications are unlikely to be helpful. Clinicians refuse requested interventions because (...)
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  11.  42
    Mind the Gap: Charting the Distance Between Christian and Secular Bioethics: Articles.Christopher Tollefsen - 2011 - Christian Bioethics 17 (1):47-53.
    The gap between Christian and secular bioethics appears to be widening, and inevitably so. In this essay, I identify four areas in which the differences between Christian and secular bioethics are significant, and in light of which secular bioethics, by its inability to attend to key concerns of Christian thought, will inevitably continue to marginalize the latter. How Christian bioethicists should view this marginalization will be the subject of the final section of this paper.
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  12.  38
    Embryos, Individuals, and Persons: An Argument Against Embryo Creation and Research.Christopher Tollefsen - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (1):65–78.
  13.  63
    Response to Robert Koons and Matthew O’Brien’s “Objects of Intention: A Hylomorphic Critique of the New Natural Law Theory”.Christopher Tollefsen - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):751 - 778.
    Robert Koons and Matthew O’Brien have leveled a number of objections against the New Natural Law account of human action and intention. In this paper, I discuss five areas in which I believe that the Koons-O’Brien criticism of the New Natural Law theory is mistaken, or in which their own view is problematic. I hope to show, inter alia, that the New Natural Law approach is not committed to a number of theses attributed to it by Koons and O’Brien; that (...)
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  14.  55
    Pragmatism and Bioethics: Diagnosis or Cure?Christopher Tollefsen & Mark J. Cherry - 2003 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (5 & 6):533 – 544.
  15.  36
    Biomedical Research and Beyond: Expanding the Ethics of Inquiry.Christopher O. Tollefsen - 2007 - Routledge.
    What is the relationship between scientific research and ethics? Some think that science should be free from ethical and political considerations. _Biomedical Research and Beyond_ argues that ethical guidance is essential for all forms of inquiry, including biomedical and scientific research. By addressing some of the most controversial questions of biomedical research, such as embryonic research, animal research, and genetic enhancement research, the author argues for a rich moral framework for the ethics of inquiry, based on the ideal of human (...)
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  16.  66
    Fission, Fusion, and the Simple View.Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - Christian Bioethics 12 (3):255-263.
    In this essay, I defend three Simple Views concerning human beings. First, that the human embryo is, from the one-cell stage onwards, a single unitary organism. Second, that when an embryo twins, it ceases to exist and two new embryos come into existence. And third, that you and I are essentially human organisms. This cluster of views shows that it is not necessary to rely on co-location, or other obscure claims, in understanding human embryogenesis.
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  17.  23
    The Contribution of Natural Law Theory to Bioethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2016 - Christian Bioethics 22 (2):81-87.
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  18.  5
    Lying and Christian Ethics.Christopher O. Tollefsen - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book defends the controversial 'absolute view' of lying, which maintains that an assertion contrary to the speaker's mind is always wrong, regardless of the speaker's intentions. Whereas most people believe that a lie told for a good cause, such as protecting Jews from discovery by Nazis, is morally acceptable, Christopher Tollefsen argues that Christians should support the absolute view. He looks back to the writings of Augustine and Aquinas to illustrate that lying violates the basic human goods of integrity (...)
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  19.  37
    Experience Machines, Dreams, and What Matters.Christopher Tollefsen - 2003 - Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (2):153-164.
  20.  36
    Direct and Indirect Action Revisited.Christopher Tollefsen - 2000 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 74 (4):653-670.
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  21.  15
    Morality and God.Christopher Tollefsen - 2014 - Quaestiones Disputatae 5 (1):47-60.
    This paper has three parts; in the first, I look at the question, recently dis­cussed by Mark Murphy, of the role that God plays as an explainer of moral­ity. I argue for a form of explanation that is different from Murphy’s, though I wonder whether there is disagreement here, or simply difference of empha­sis. In the second part, I ask what difference Christianity—and specifically the idea that the Kingdom of heaven is our natural ultimate end—makes to us, as practical and (...)
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  22.  7
    Suffering, Enhancement, and Human Goods.Christopher Tollefsen - 2015 - Quaestiones Disputatae 5 (2):104-117.
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  23. Divine, Human, and Embryo Adoption.Christopher Tollefsen - 2010 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 10 (1):75-85.
    The author shows how, by means of adoption, spouses become parents together and as the fruit of their marital love. The account serves two purposes. First, it allows a rebuttal of two types of objections to embryo adoption: that embryo adoption fails to respect the mutuality of marital love and that it in some way “constructs” parenthood. Second, the account makes it possible to recognize a deficiency in the way Dignitas personae understands embryo adoption, a deficiency indicated by the Instruction’s (...)
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  24.  85
    Augustine, Aquinas, and the Absolute Norm Against Lying.Christopher Tollefsen - 2012 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):111-134.
    Recent events concerning the guerilla journalism group Live Action created controversy over the morality of lying for a good cause. In that controversy, I defended the absolutist view about lying, the view that lying, understood as assertion contrary to one’s belief, is always wrong. In this essay, I step back from the specifics of the Live Action case to look more closely at what St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas, had to say in defense of the absolute view. Their approaches, (...)
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  25. Reasons for Action and Reasons for Belief.Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - Social Epistemology 20 (1):55 – 65.
    As Alan Wood has recently pointed out, there is "a long and strong philosophical traditionthat parcels out cognitive tasks to human faculties in such a way that belief is assigned to the will".1 Such an approach lends itself to addressing the ethics of belief as an extension of practical ethics. It also lends itself to a treatment of reasons for belief that is an extension of its treatment of reasons for action, for our awareness of reasons for action provides the (...)
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  26.  38
    Response to Robert Koons and Matthew O’Brien’s “Objects of Intention: A Hylomorphic Critique of the New Natural Law Theory”.Christopher Tollefsen - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):751-778.
    Robert Koons and Matthew O’Brien have leveled a number of objections against the New Natural Law account of human action and intention. In this paper, I discuss five areas in which I believe that the Koons-O’Brien criticism of the New Natural Law theory is mistaken, or in which their own view is problematic. I hope to show, inter alia, that the New Natural Law approach is not committed to a number of theses attributed to it by Koons and O’Brien; that (...)
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  27.  55
    McDowell’s Moral Realism and the Secondary Quality Analogy.Christopher O. Tollefsen - 2000 - Disputatio (8):1-13.
  28.  42
    Double Effect and Two Hard Cases in Medical Ethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (3):407-420.
    Two hard cases have generated controversy regarding the application of the principle of double effect in recent years. As regards the first, the case of the conjoined twins of Malta, there has been considerable convergence: most natural law ethicists seem to agree that separation of the twins was morally permissible. By contrast, the so-called “Phoenix case,” involving an abortion at a Catholic hospital for a woman with pulmonary arterial hypertension, has become a touchstone of disagreement between defenders of the so-called (...)
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  29.  8
    Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: The New Catholic Debate.Christopher Tollefsen (ed.) - 2007 - Springer Press.
    This collection of essays by some of the most prominent Catholic bioethicists addresses the Pope s statements, the moral issues surrounding artificial feeding and hydration, the refusal of treatment, and the ethics of care for those at the ...
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  30. Ewa Podrez, Ed. Tadeusz Ślipko.Christopher Tollefsen - 1970 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 26 (1):163-168.
    This new volume from the Polish Christian Philosophy in the 20th Century series focuses on Fr. Tadeusz Ślipko, S.J., born in Lvov, but for most of his academic life a professor in Krakow. His work spanned “general ethics,” concerned with the foundations of morality; “detailed ethics,” which includes both personal and social ethics; and bioethics, to which Ślipko was one of Poland’s earliest philosophical contributors. The volume under review contains two parts, the first serving as an introduction to Ślipko’s life (...)
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  31. Review. [REVIEW]Christopher Tollefsen - 2010 - The Thomist 74:489-493.
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  32. Thomas Nagel and the Problem of Aesthetics.Christopher Tollefsen - 1989 - Lyceum 1 (1):42-50.
     
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  33.  26
    The Ever-Conscious View: A Critique.Christopher Tollefsen - 2008 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 8 (1):43-48.
  34.  28
    Does God Intend Death?Christopher Tollefsen - 2013 - Diametros 38:191-200.
    In this paper, I argue that God never intends a human being’s death. The core argument is essentially Thomistic. God wills only the good; and human life is always a good, and its privation always an evil. Thus, St. Thomas holds that “God does not will death as per se intended,” and he gives an account of the act of divine punishment that conforms to this claim. However, some further claims of St. Thomas are in tension with this position – (...)
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  35.  15
    Aquinas’s Four Orders, Normativity, and Human Nature.Christopher Tollefsen - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (3):243-256.
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  36.  20
    The Perspective of Morality: Philosophical Foundations of Thomistic Virtue Ethics. [REVIEW]Christopher Tollefsen - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):674-675.
  37.  26
    Natural Law and Modern Meta-Ethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2004 - In Mark J. Cherry (ed.), Natural Law and the Possibility of a Global Ethics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 39--56.
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  38.  18
    Ten Errors Regarding End of Life Issues, and Especially Artificial Nutrition and Hydration.Christopher Tollefsen - 2008 - In C. Tollefsen (ed.), Artificial Nutrition and Hydration. Springer Press. pp. 213--226.
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  39.  41
    Poverty, Justice, and Western Political Thought (Review).Christopher Tollefsen - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (1):pp. 151-152.
    This book is an important effort to fill a notable void in moral and political philosophy, for there has been, according to Sharon K. Vaughan, “no formal study of the treatment of poverty in Western political thought” . Vaughan attempts to rectify this with a survey of the views of Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Mill, de Tocqueville, Hegel, Marx, Rawls, and Nozick on the subject of poverty, the poor, the redistribution of wealth, and justice. Her effort is valuable, (...)
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  40.  30
    Some Questions for Philosophical Embryology.Christopher Tollefsen - 2011 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):447-464.
    A philosophical embryology should have three concerns: first, it should describe the realities discovered by embryology and developmental biology ata higher level of generality than is achieved by those disciplines, and it should integrate this more general representation with philosophy’s other more generalconcepts. Second, it should answer philosophical questions raised by the study of embryological development if, as I believe, there are some. And third, it mustbe prepared to engage in a philosophical dialectic with those whose general representations work with (...)
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  41.  7
    Conscience, Religion and the State.Christopher Tollefsen - 2009 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 54 (1):93-116.
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  42.  12
    Joseph M. Boyle: In Memoriam.Christopher Tollefsen - 2016 - Christian Bioethics 22 (3):364-365.
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  43.  11
    No Problem: A Response to Bernard Prusak’s “The Problem with the Problem of the Embryo”.Christopher Tollefsen - 2009 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):583-591.
    Is the human zygote and human embryo a human being? Such questions are biological questions. The issue of personhood is thus best kept entirely off the table when that question is being discussed. What is, or is not, possible for ontological persons, and what would, or would not, be morallywarranted for moral persons, should not play a role in the assessment of biological evidence with a view to answering the biological question. Yet this is what happens in a recent essay (...)
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  44.  16
    Pure Perfectionism and the Limits of Paternalism.Christopher Tollefsen - 2013 - In John Keown & Robert P. George (eds.), Reason, Morality, and Law: The Philosophy of John Finnis. Oxford University Press. pp. 204.
  45.  26
    MacIntyre and the Moralization of Enquiry.Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (4):421-438.
    Are there moral norms or virtues, the application or exercise of which are necessary for successful progress in enquiry? This paper considers the work of one thinker who is convinced of an affi rmative answer to this question, Alasdair MacIntyre. For MacIntyre, the possibility of progress in enquiry depends, ultimately, on the way in which the virtues, and related normative requirements such as that demanding narrative unity to a life, shape and govern the context and practice of enquiry. Correlatively, MacIntyre (...)
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  46.  24
    The President’s Council on Bioethics: Overview and Assessment. [REVIEW]Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - HEC Forum 18 (2):99-107.
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  47.  20
    No Problem: A Response to Bernard Prusak’s “The Problem with the Problem of the Embryo”.Christopher Tollefsen - 2009 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):583-591.
    Is the human zygote and human embryo a human being? Such questions are biological questions (although philosophy may helpfully be drawn upon in rebutting objections and clarifying concepts). The issue of personhood is thus best kept entirely off the table when that question is being discussed. What is, or is not, possible for ontological persons, and what would, or would not, be morallywarranted for moral persons, should not play a role in the assessment of biological evidence with a view to (...)
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  48.  9
    Joseph M. Boyle: In Memoriam.Christopher Tollefsen - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (6):696-697.
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  49.  16
    Persons in Time.Christopher Tollefsen - 2006 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 80 (1):107-123.
    It can seem implausible that a merely bodily existence could be also a personal existence. Two related lines of thought can mitigate this implausibility. The first, developed in the first part of this paper, is the thought that our bodily existence is better described as an organic, animal existence. Organisms, I argue, are essentially temporal; this essential temporality makes sense of the possibility thatsome organisms are persons. The second line of thought, addressed in the second part of the paper, considers (...)
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  50.  1
    Intention, Vocation, and Nutrition at the End of Life.Christopher Tollefsen - 2021 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 21 (3):441-451.
    In this essay, I discuss the role that vocation plays in assessing the proportion of burdens to benefits in end-of-life options. I then look at the case of patients in a persistent vegetative state. What vocational considerations are relevant for persons considering what care to accept should they ever be in a PVS or for those caring for patients in such a state? Ultimately, I argue that the vocational shape of a patient’s life ought not to be a consideration for (...)
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