Background: Personal genomic testing (PGT) offers individuals genetic information about relationships, wellness, sporting ability, and health. PGT is increasingly accessible online, including in emerging markets such as Australia. Little is known about what consumers expect from these tests and whether their reflections on testing resonate with bioethics concepts such as autonomy. Methods: We report findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews that explored attitudes to and experiences of PGT. Focus group participants had little experience with PGT, while interview participants had (...) undergone testing. Recordings were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings were critically interpreted with reference to bioethics scholarship on autonomy. Results: Fifty-six members of the public participated in seven focus groups, and 40 individuals were interviewed separately. Both groups valued the choice of PGT, and believed that it could motivate relevant actions. Focus group themes centered on the perceived value of choices, knowledge enabling action and knowledge about the self. Interview themes suggest that participants reflexively engage with their PGT information to make meaning, and that some appreciate its shortcomings. Critical interpretation of findings shows that while consumers of PGT are able to exercise a degree of autonomy in choosing, they may not be able to achieve a substantive conceptualization of autonomy, one that promotes alignment with higher-order desires. Conclusions: PGT consumers can critically reason about testing. However, they may uncritically accept test results, may not appreciate drawbacks of increased choice, or may overestimate the potential for information to motivate behavioral change. While consumers appear to be capable of substantive autonomy, they do so without ongoing support from companies. PGT companies promote a problematic (“default”) account of autonomy, reliant on empowerment rhetoric. This leaves consumers vulnerable to making decisions inconsistent with their higher-order desires. As PGT expands, claims about its power and value need to be carefully drawn. (shrink)
The arrival of Buddhism to Uruguay is related to various historical and cultural factors, such as the democratic opening at eighties, the progressive globalization in the country, the break of post (modernism) with a hegemonic rationalist-positivist model, the emergence of so-called New Religious Movements and opening of goods symbolic-religious markets, generally aimed at middle and upper social strata with economic and cultural capital is conducive to the proposed use of existential and introspective way of life. In this paper we analyze (...) the arrival of the different Buddhist lineages in Uruguay (Tibetan and Japanese), and the historical and socio-cultural context which activates their emergency. (shrink)
Auschwitz se ve a menudo como una singularidad histórica, un evento que no se puede explicar con las categorías tradicionales que dan cuenta de la agresión entre los seres humanos. En éste artículo queremos dar cuenta, siguiendo la explicación de Freud y Lacan, que lo que pasó allí es una muestra de la actividad de deshumanización inherente a toda guerra que se llevó a su grado máximo en el campo de concentración. La agresión busca la deshumanización más que la muerte; (...) de esto dará cuenta la imagen del musulmán. Con tal categoría se designaba a aquel judío en el campo de concentración, que perdía su humanidad por los maltratos que sobre él se cometían, es decir, debido al poder que ejercía sobre él el yo narciso de otro. Encontraremos que el yo narciso explica la necesidad que tenemos de imponer nuestra humanidad a los otros, hasta el punto de crear significantes imaginarios que deshumanizan a los que no la comparten; en la guerra esa deshumanización se vuelve algo real; el punto máximo de esta acción sobre los otros será el no-humano, aquel que ha perdido completamente su yo. (shrink)
The paper addresses a contemporary Polish debate on the limits and functions of juristic interpretation of law. After presenting the main theses and features of Jerzy Wróblewski’s clarificative theory of juristic interpretation and Maciej Zieliński’s derivational theory of juristic interpretation, the author critically discusses various arguments used in the debate. Finally, a tentative solution of the controversy, based on the criticism of Zieliński’s conception of legal norm, is proposed. It is argued that his conception is utopian and not recommendable, due (...) to unacceptable conceptual and practical consequences. (shrink)
Clara Zetkin was a socialist activist from 1878, first with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, then with the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, and finally with the Communist Party of Germany. During the period of antisocialist laws in Germany 1 she was exiled in Switzerland and France, and she assisted with the organization of the 1889 founding congress of the Second International in Paris. Indeed, she attended every congress of the Second International, acting as translator at them (...) all and speaking at several. In 1890 she returned to Germany and became editor of Die Gleichheit, the.. (shrink)
Este artigo explora as relações entre história e literatura considerando a literatura um testemunho que pode ser lido, desconstruído e submetido ao mesmo escrutínio ao qual os historiadores submetem outras fontes que lhes permitam ter acesso à compreensão de redes e tensões sociais mais amplas. Nele são utilizadas poesias publicadas no cancioneiro Trovador: coleção de modinhas, recitativos, árias, lundus, etc.., com o objetivo de mostrar como seus autores estabeleceram um diálogo entre si e com seus leitores acerca de um assunto (...) candente do seu tempo - o progresso e seus desdobramentos para o cotidiano da sociedade – utilizando-se da literatura como instrumento de intervenção na realidade. A partir desses pressupostos, a experiência histórica vivida por escritores é considerada condição básica de análise, bem como texto e contexto são percebidos como dimensões indissociáveis de um fenômeno mais amplo que é ao mesmo tempo, cultural, econômico, social e político devendo ser abordados em conjunto levando-se em conta suas conexões recíprocas. (shrink)
This essay is prompted, in part, by a spate of alarmist articles in the media over the past several years concerning what journalists have called "the creativity crisis,"2 articles claiming, in other words, that American creativity is in decline. A corresponding call has arisen to seek remedies and determine how creativity might be fostered in the lives of children so as to stem the tide of this (alleged) decline. While taking these dramatic concerns and pronouncements cum grano salis, this article (...) responds, nevertheless, by extracting a set of themes drawn from the childhoods of three individuals whose remarkable contributions to the disparate fields of science, classical music, and visual art are beyond .. (shrink)
This paper tryes understand the state of mind originated by the tension produced by the contardictions of an old society of contrasts an the obsolescence of the structures created by the conquest in the rural areas of the Andes. We also have tryed to relate the colonial peace in the XVIIth century the great crisis of the XVIIlth century which could be considered as the prologue of the independence.