Results for 'Classical mechanics'

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  1.  94
    On the Structure of Classical Mechanics.Thomas William Barrett - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):801-828.
    The standard view is that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics are theoretically equivalent. Jill North, however, argues that they are not. In particular, she argues that the state-space of Hamiltonian mechanics has less structure than the state-space of Lagrangian mechanics. I will isolate two arguments that North puts forward for this conclusion and argue that neither yet succeeds. 1 Introduction2 Hamiltonian State-space Has less Structure than Lagrangian State-space2.1 Lagrangian state-space is metrical2.2 Hamiltonian state-space (...)
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  2. Niels Bohr?S Generalization of Classical Mechanics.Peter Bokulich - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (3):347-371.
    We clarify Bohr’s interpretation of quantum mechanics by demonstrating the central role played by his thesis that quantum theory is a rational generalization of classical mechanics. This thesis is essential for an adequate understanding of his insistence on the indispensability of classical concepts, his account of how the quantum formalism gets its meaning, and his belief that hidden variable interpretations are impossible.
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  3.  53
    A Continuous Transition Between Quantum and Classical Mechanics. I.Partha Ghose - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (6):871-892.
    In spite of its popularity, it has not been possible to vindicate the conventional wisdom that classical mechanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics. The purpose of the present paper is to offer an alternative formulation of mechanics which provides a continuous transition between quantum and classical mechanics via environment-induced decoherence.
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  4.  28
    Randomness in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.Igor V. Volovich - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (3):516-528.
    The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics assumes the existence of the classical deterministic Newtonian world. We argue that in fact the Newton determinism in classical world does not hold and in the classical mechanics there is fundamental and irreducible randomness. The classical Newtonian trajectory does not have a direct physical meaning since arbitrary real numbers are not observable. There are classical uncertainty relations: Δq>0 and Δp>0, i.e. the uncertainty (errors of observation) in the (...)
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  5.  14
    Lagrangian in Classical Mechanics and in Special Relativity From Observer’s Mathematics Point of View.Boris Khots & Dmitriy Khots - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):820-826.
    This work considers the Lagrangian in classical mechanics and in special relativity in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by observer’s mathematics. Certain results and communications pertaining to solutions of these problems are provided. In particular, we show that the standard expressions for Lagrangian take place with probabilities \1.
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  6.  11
    Filed Approach to Classical Mechanics.A. Gersten - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (8):1433-1443.
    We show that in classical mechanics the momentum may depend only on the coordinates and can thus be considered as a field. We formulate a special Lagrangian formalism as a result of which the momenta satisfy differential equations which depend only on the coordinates. The solutions correspond to all possible trajectories. As a bonus the Hamilton-Jacobi equation results in a very simple way.
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  7.  59
    Quantum Model of Classical Mechanics: Maximum Entropy Packets. [REVIEW]P. Hájíček - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (9):1072-1096.
    In a previous paper, a statistical method of constructing quantum models of classical properties has been described. The present paper concludes the description by turning to classical mechanics. The quantum states that maximize entropy for given averages and variances of coordinates and momenta are called ME packets. They generalize the Gaussian wave packets. A non-trivial extension of the partition-function method of probability calculus to quantum mechanics is given. Non-commutativity of quantum variables limits its usefulness. Still, the (...)
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  8.  46
    Classical and Quantum Mechanics Via Supermetrics in Time.E. Gozzi - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):795-806.
    Koopman-von Neumann in the 30’s gave an operatorial formulation of Classical Mechanics. It was shown later on that this formulation could also be written in a path-integral form. We will label this functional approach as CPI (for classical path-integral) to distinguish it from the quantum mechanical one, which we will indicate with QPI. In the CPI two Grassmannian partners of time make their natural appearance and in this manner time becomes something like a three dimensional supermanifold. Next (...)
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  9.  43
    Mechanics: Non-Classical, Non-Quantum.Elliott Tammaro - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (2):284-290.
    A non-classical, non-quantum theory, or NCQ, is any fully consistent theory that differs fundamentally from both the corresponding classical and quantum theories, while exhibiting certain features common to both. Such theories are of interest for two primary reasons. Firstly, NCQs arise prominently in semi-classical approximation schemes. Their formal study may yield improved approximation techniques in the near-classical regime. More importantly for the purposes of this note, it may be possible for NCQs to reproduce quantum results over (...)
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  10.  25
    A Continuous Transition Between Quantum and Classical Mechanics. II.Partha Ghose & Manoj K. Samal - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (6):893-906.
    Examples are worked out using a new equation proposed in the previous paper to show that it has new physical predictions for mesoscopic systems.
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  11. On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics.Valia Allori & Nino Zanghi - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 10.1007/S10701-008-9259-4 39 (1):20-32.
    Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the ¯h → 0 asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains (...)
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  12. Classical Mechanics Is Lagrangian; It Is Not Hamiltonian.Erik Curiel - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):269-321.
    One can (for the most part) formulate a model of a classical system in either the Lagrangian or the Hamiltonian framework. Though it is often thought that those two formulations are equivalent in all important ways, this is not true: the underlying geometrical structures one uses to formulate each theory are not isomorphic. This raises the question of whether one of the two is a more natural framework for the representation of classical systems. In the event, the answer (...)
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  13.  50
    Quantum Mechanics as a Simple Generalization of Classical Mechanics.Don N. Page - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (11):1197-1204.
    A motivation is given for expressing classical mechanics in terms of diagonal projection matrices and diagonal density matrices. Then quantum mechanics is seen to be a simple generalization in which one replaces the diagonal real matrices with suitable Hermitian matrices.
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  14.  42
    Time as a Geometric Concept Involving Angular Relations in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.Juan Eduardo Reluz Machicote - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1744-1778.
    The goal of this paper is to introduce the notion of a four-dimensional time in classical mechanics and in quantum mechanics as a natural concept related with the angular momentum. The four-dimensional time is a consequence of the geometrical relation in the particle in a given plane defined by the angular momentum. A quaternion is the mathematical entity that gives the correct direction to the four-dimensional time.Taking into account the four-dimensional time as a vectorial quaternionic idea, we (...)
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  15.  26
    Equivalent and Inequivalent Formulations of Classical Mechanics.Thomas William Barrett - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axy017.
    In this paper, I examine whether or not the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations of classical mechanics are equivalent theories. I do so by applying a standard for equivalence that was recently introduced into philosophy of science by Halvorson, Halvorson and Weatherall. This case study yields three general philosophical payo offs. The first concerns what a theory is, while the second and third concern how we should interpret what our physical theories say about the world.
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  16.  55
    Theoretical Equivalence in Classical Mechanics and its Relationship to Duality.Nicholas J. Teh & Dimitris Tsementzis - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 59:44-54.
    As a prolegomenon to understanding the sense in which dualities are theoretical equivalences, we investigate the intuitive `equivalence' of hyper-regular Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical mechanics. We show that the symplectification of these theories provides a sense in which they are isomorphic, and mutually and canonically definable through an analog of `common definitional extension'.
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  17. On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.Jeremy Butterfield - unknown
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's ``first theorem'', in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem's main ``ingredient'', apart (...)
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  18.  91
    Elementary Classical Mechanics and the Principle of the Composition of Causes.Sheldon R. Smith - 2010 - Synthese 173 (3):353-373.
    In this paper, I explore whether elementary classical mechanics adheres to the Principle of Composition of Causes as Mill claimed and as certain contemporary authors still seem to believe. Among other things, I provide a proof that if one reads Mill’s description of the principle literally, it does not hold in any general sense. In addition, I explore a separate notion of Composition of Causes and note that it too does not hold in elementary classical mechanics. (...)
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  19.  28
    The Transitions Among Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics.Franklin E. Schroeck - 1982 - Foundations of Physics 12 (9):825-841.
    Various formalisms for recasting quantum mechanics in the framework of classical mechanics on phase space are reviewed and compared. Recent results in stochastic quantum mechanics are shown to avoid the difficulties encountered by the earlier approach of Wigner, as well as to avoid the well-known incompatibilities of relativity and ordinary quantum theory. Specific mappings among the various formalisms are given.
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  20. Why Classical Mechanics Cannot Accommodate Consciousness but Quantum Mechanics Can.Henry P. Stapp - 1995 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 2.
    It is argued on the basis of certain mathematical characteristics that classical mechanics is not constitutionally suited to accommodate consciousness, whereas quantum mechanics is. These mathematical characteristics pertain to the nature of the information represented in the state of the brain, and the way this information enters into the dynamics.
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  21. Why the Difference Between Quantum and Classical Mechanics is Irrelevant to the Mind-Body Problem.Kirk A. Ludwig - 1995 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 2.
    I argue that the logical difference between classical and quantum mechanics that Stapp (1995) claims shows quantum mechanics is more amenable to an account of consciousness than is classical mechanics is irrelevant to the problem.
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  22.  19
    Intimate Connections: Symmetries and Conservation Laws in Quantum Versus Classical Mechanics.Pablo Ruiz de Olano - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1275-1288.
    In this article, I use a number of remarks made by Eugene Wigner to defend the claim that the nature of the connection between symmetries and conservation laws is different in quantum and in classical mechanics. In particular, I provide a list of three differences that obtain between the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and the Lagrangian formulation of classical mechanics. I also show that these differences are due to the fact that conservation laws (...)
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  23.  42
    Superposition in Quantum and Classical Mechanics.M. K. Bennett & D. J. Foulis - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (6):733-744.
    Using the mathematical notion of an entity to represent states in quantum and classical mechanics, we show that, in a strict sense, proper superpositions are possible in classical mechanics.
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  24.  67
    Temporal Asymmetry in Classical Mechanics.Keith Hutchison - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (2):219-234.
    This paper argues against a standard view that all deterministic and conservative classical mechanical systems are time-reversible, by asking how the temporal evolution of a system modulates parametric imprecision (either ontological or epistemic). It notes that well-behaved systems (e.g. inertial motion) can possess a dynamics which is unstable enough to fail at reversing uncertainties—even though exact values are reliably reversed. A limited (but significant) source of irreversibility is thus displayed in classical mechanics, closely analogous the lack of (...)
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  25.  12
    Matrix Formulation of Special Relativity in Classical Mechanics and Electromagnetic Theory.Authur A. Frost - 1975 - Foundations of Physics 5 (4):619-641.
    The two-component spinor theory of van der Waerden is put into a convenient matrix notation. The mathematical relations among various types of matrices and the rule for forming covariant expressions are developed. Relativistic equations of classical mechanics and electricity and magnetism are expressed in this notation. In this formulation the distinction between time and space coordinates in the four-dimensional space-time continuum falls out naturally from the assumption that a four-vector is represented by a Hermitian matrix. The indefinite metric (...)
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  26.  39
    Random Dynamics and the Research Programme of Classical Mechanics.Michal Tempczyk - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (3):227 – 239.
    Abstract The modern mathematical theory of dynamical systems proposes a new model of mechanical motion. In this model the deterministic unstable systems can behave in a statistical manner. Both kinds of motion are inseparably connected, they depend on the point of view and researcher's approach to the system. This mathematical fact solves in a new way the old problem of statistical laws in the world which is essentially deterministic. The classical opposition: deterministic?statistical, disappears in random dynamics. The main thesis (...)
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  27.  53
    Founded on Classical Mechanics and Interpretation of Classical Staistical Mechanical Probabilities.Miklos Redei - unknown
    The problem of relation between statistical mechanics (SM) and classical mechanics (CM), especially the question whether SM can be founded on CM, has been a subject of controversies since the rise of classical statistical mechanics (CSM) at the end of 19th century. The first views rejecting explicitly the possibility of laying the foundations of CSM in CM were triggered by the "Wiederkehr-" and "Umkehreinwand" arguments. These arguments played an important role in the debate about Boltzmann's (...)
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  28.  15
    Transient Chaos in Quantum and Classical Mechanics.Boris V. Chirikov - 1986 - Foundations of Physics 16 (1):39-49.
    Bogolubov's classical example of statistical relaxation in a many-dimensional linear oscillator is discussed. The relation of the discovered relaxation mechanism to quantum dynamics as well as to some new problems in classical mechanics is considered.
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  29.  23
    The Unifying Laws of Classical Mechanics.C. D. Bailey - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (1):159-176.
    It is shown that, at the time of Euler and Lagrange, a belief led to an assumption. The assumption is applied to derive the principle of least action from the vis viva. The assumption is also applied to derive Hamilton's principles from the vis viva. It is shown that Hamilton, in his 1834 paper, countered the assumption of the earlier mathematicians. Finally, Hamilton's law, completely independent of the principle of least action and Hamilton's principles, is obtained to verify the foregoing (...)
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  30.  30
    Global Interaction in Classical Mechanics.Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (2):173 – 183.
    In this paper, an example is presented for a dynamic system analysable in the framework of the mechanics of rigid bodies. Interest in the model lies in three fundamental features. First, it leads to a paradox in classical mechanics which does not seem to be explainable with the conceptual resources currently available. Second, it is possible to find a solution to it by extending in a natural way the idea of global interaction in the context of what (...)
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  31.  13
    An “Anti-Gleason” Phenomenon and Simultaneous Measurements in Classical Mechanics.Michael Entov, Leonid Polterovich & Frol Zapolsky - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (8):1306-1316.
    We report on an “anti-Gleason” phenomenon in classical mechanics: in contrast with the quantum case, the algebra of classical observables can carry a non-linear quasi-state, a monotone functional which is linear on all subspaces generated by Poisson-commuting functions. We present an example of such a quasi-state in the case when the phase space is the 2-sphere. This example lies in the intersection of two seemingly remote mathematical theories—symplectic topology and the theory of topological quasi-states. We use this (...)
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  32.  11
    Mechanism and Poincaré's Critiques on Classical Mechanics.Jee Sun Rhee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:171-177.
    Mechanism is a conception of the world according to which all can be explained by mechanics expressed by its fundamental concepts and principles. I’ll firstly show that, following Poincaré’s discussion on mechanical explanation, the very foundation of classical mechanics implicates that all just can’t be explained. Next, I’ll discuss the principles of mechanics as they are viewed by Poincaré, especially the principle of relativity that has a particularity in its form of “pseudo-universal”argument, as well as in (...)
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  33.  11
    Poincaré's Critiques on Classical Mechanics.Jee Sun Rhee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:165-170.
    In this article, I firstly show that, following Poincaré, it turns out that the very foundation of classical mechanics implicates that all just can’t be explained. Next, I discuss principles of mechanics as they are viewed by Poincaré. This will reveal the particularity of the principle of relativity in its form of “pseudo-universal” argument.
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  34. Epistemological Aspects of History of Classical Mechanics.L. Kvasz - 2001 - Filozofia 56 (10):679-702.
    The aim of the paper is to examine the changes, which occurred in the epistemological structure of classical mechanics during its development from Newton to Poincaré. The analysis is based on the reconstruction of the language form. Attention is paid to such aspects of the language of classical mechanics as the notion of pace or the description of action . Even though these notions do not have direct denotation, they, nevertheless, constitute the general framework, on which (...)
     
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  35.  44
    From the Universe to Subsystems: Why Quantum Mechanics Appears More Stochastic Than Classical Mechanics.Andrea Oldofredi, Dustin Lazarovici, Dirk-André Deckert & Michael Esfeld - unknown
    By means of the examples of classical and Bohmian quantum mechanics, we illustrate the well-known ideas of Boltzmann as to how one gets from laws defined for the universe as a whole to dynamical relations describing the evolution of subsystems. We explain how probabilities enter into this process, what quantum and classical probabilities have in common and where exactly their difference lies.
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  36. Classical Mechanics is Lagrangian; It is Not Hamiltonian; the Semantics of Physical Theory is Not Semantical.Erik Curiel - unknown
    One can (for the most part) formulate a model of a classical system in either the Lagrangian or the Hamiltonian framework. Though it is often thought that those two formulations are equivalent in all important ways, this is not true: the underlying geometrical structures one uses to formulate each theory are not isomorphic. This raises the question whether one of the two is a more natural framework for the representation of classical systems. In the event, the answer is (...)
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  37.  28
    Imprints of the Quantum World in Classical Mechanics.Maurice A. De Gosson & Basil J. Hiley - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (9):1415-1436.
    The imprints left by quantum mechanics in classical (Hamiltonian) mechanics are much more numerous than is usually believed. We show that the Schrödinger equation for a nonrelativistic spinless particle is a classical equation which is equivalent to Hamilton’s equations. Our discussion is quite general, and incorporates time-dependent systems. This gives us the opportunity of discussing the group of Hamiltonian canonical transformations which is a non-linear variant of the usual symplectic group.
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  38.  41
    Bohmian Mechanics, the Quantum-Classical Correspondence and the Classical Limit: The Case of the Square Billiard. [REVIEW]A. Matzkin - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (8):903-920.
    Square billiards are quantum systems complying with the dynamical quantum-classical correspondence. Hence an initially localized wavefunction launched along a classical periodic orbit evolves along that orbit, the spreading of the quantum amplitude being controlled by the spread of the corresponding classical statistical distribution. We investigate wavepacket dynamics and compute the corresponding de Broglie-Bohm trajectories in the quantum square billiard. We also determine the trajectories and statistical distribution dynamics for the equivalent classical billiard. Individual Bohmian trajectories follow (...)
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  39.  27
    Remark on a Group-Theoretical Formalism for Quantum Mechanics and the Quantum-to-Classical Transition.J. K. Korbicz & M. Lewenstein - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (6):879-896.
    We sketch a group-theoretical framework, based on the Heisenberg–Weyl group, encompassing both quantum and classical statistical descriptions of unconstrained, non-relativistic mechanical systems. We redefine in group-theoretical terms a kinematical arena and a space of statistical states of a system, achieving a unified quantum-classical language and an elegant version of the quantum-to-classical transition. We briefly discuss the structure of observables and dynamics within our framework.
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  40. Decoherence and the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics.Valia Allori - 2002 - Dissertation, University of Genova, Italy
    In my dissertation (Rutgers, 2007) I developed the proposal that one can establish that material quantum objects behave classically just in case there is a “local plane wave” regime, which naturally corresponds to the suppression of all quantum interference.
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  41. The Natural Philosophy of Galileo Essay on the Origins and Formation of Classical Mechanics.Maurice Clavelin - 1974
     
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  42. Relationalism Rehabilitated? I: Classical Mechanics.Oliver Pooley & Harvey R. Brown - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (2):183--204.
    The implications for the substantivalist–relationalist controversy of Barbour and Bertotti's successful implementation of a Machian approach to dynamics are investigated. It is argued that in the context of Newtonian mechanics, the Machian framework provides a genuinely relational interpretation of dynamics and that it is more explanatory than the conventional, substantival interpretation. In a companion paper (Pooley [2002a]), the viability of the Machian framework as an interpretation of relativistic physics is explored. 1 Introduction 2 Newton versus Leibniz 3 Absolute space (...)
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  43.  87
    On Symplectic Reduction in Classical Mechanics.Jeremy Butterfield - unknown
    This paper expounds the modern theory of symplectic reduction in finite-dimensional Hamiltonian mechanics. This theory generalizes the well-known connection between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's theorem. It also illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. The exposition emphasises how the theory provides insights about the rotation group and the rigid body. The theory's device of quotienting a state space also casts light (...)
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  44. Why Manifold Substantivalism is Probably Not a Consequence of Classical Mechanics.Nick Huggett - 1999 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (1):17 – 34.
    This paper develops and defends three related forms of relationism about spacetime against attacks by contemporary substantivalists. It clarifies Newton's globes argument to show that it does not bear on relations that fail to determine geodesic motions, since the inertial effects on which Newton relies are not simply correlated with affine structure, but must be understood in dynamical terms. It develops remarks by Sklar and van Fraassen into relational versions of Newtonian mechanics, and argues that Earman does not show (...)
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  45.  34
    The Problem of the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Self-Induced Decoherence.Mario Castagnino & Manuel Gadella - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (6):920-952.
    Our account of the problem of the classical limit of quantum mechanics involves two elements. The first one is self-induced decoherence, conceived as a process that depends on the own dynamics of a closed quantum system governed by a Hamiltonian with continuous spectrum; the study of decoherence is addressed by means of a formalism used to give meaning to the van Hove states with diagonal singularities. The second element is macroscopicity represented by the limit $\hbar \rightarrow 0$ : (...)
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  46.  22
    Semi-Classical Limit and Minimum Decoherence in the Conditional Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Vincent Corbin & Neil J. Cornish - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (5):474-485.
    The Conditional Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics replaces the abstract notion of time used in standard Quantum Mechanics by the time that can be read off from a physical clock. The use of physical clocks leads to apparent non-unitary and decoherence. Here we show that a close approximation to standard Quantum Mechanics can be recovered from conditional Quantum Mechanics for semi-classical clocks, and we use these clocks to compute the minimum decoherence predicted by the Conditional (...)
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  47. Can Planck's Constant Be Measured with Classical Mechanics?Hasok Chang - 1997 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (3):223 – 243.
    An interesting case of the complex interaction between theory and experiment can be found in many experiments in quantum physics employing classical reasoning. It is expected that this practice would lead to quantitative inaccuracy, unless the measurements' results were averaged. Whether or not this inaccuracy is significant depends critically on the details of the particular experimental situation. The example of Millikan's photoelectric experiment, in which he obtained a precise value of Planck's constant, provides a good case for illustrating the (...)
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  48.  25
    An Interpretation Within Philosophy of the Relationship Between Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.Patrick Sibelius - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (11):1315-1326.
    A mapping of a finite directed graph onto a curve in space-time is considered. The mapping induces the dynamics of a free particle moving along the curve. The distinction between the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of particle mechanics is expressed in terms of the distinction between referring to a particle in space and time and referring to the points in space which the particle occupies, respectively. These elements are combined to yield an interpretation of Feynman's path integral formulation (...)
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  49.  27
    Classical Mechanics in Galilean Space-Time.Ray E. Artz - 1981 - Foundations of Physics 11 (9-10):679-697.
    Galilean space-time plays the same role in nonrelativistic physics that Minkowski space-time does in relativistic physics. In this paper, the fundamental concepts (velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, etc.) and principles (laws of motion and conservation laws) of classical physics are formulated in the language of Galilean space-time. Much of the development closely parallels the development of similar concepts and principles in the theory of special relativity.
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  50.  37
    What is “Classical Mechanics” Anyway?Mark Wilson - 2013 - In Robert Batterman (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics. Oup Usa. pp. 43.
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