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  1. The atrocity paradigm: a theory of evil.Claudia Card - 2002 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible (...)
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  2.  98
    The Unnatural Lottery: character and moral luck.Claudia Card - 1996 - temple.
    The opportunities to become a good person are not the same for everyone. Modern European ethical theory, especially Kantian ethics, assumes the same virtues are accessible to all who are capable of rational choice. Character development, however, is affected by circumstances, such as those of wealth and socially constructed categories of gender, race, and sexual orientation, which introduce factors beyond the control of individuals. Implications of these influences for morality have, since the work of Williams and Nagel in the seventies, (...)
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  3.  19
    The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil.Claudia Card - 2002 - New York, US: Oxford University Press USA.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Are some evils unforgivable? How should we respond to evils? Card offers a secular theory of evil--representing a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic approaches--that responds to these and other questions.
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  4. Feminist Ethics.Claudia Card (ed.) - 1991 - University of Kansas.
    Fifteen essays address subjects ranging from the history of feminist ethics to the logic of pluralist feminism and present feminist perspectives on such topics as terrorism, bitterness, women trusting other women, and survival and ethics. Paper edition, $14.95. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
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  5. Caring and Evil.Claudia Card - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (1):101-108.
    Nel Noddings, in Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, presents and develops an ethic of care as an alternative to an ethic that treats justice as a basic concept. I argue that this care ethic is unable to give an adequate account of ethical relationships between strangers and that it is also in danger of valorizing relationships in which carers are seriously abused.
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  6. Against Marriage and Motherhood.Claudia Card - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (3):1 - 23.
    This essay argues that current advocacy of lesbian and gay rights to legal marriage and parenthood insufficiently criticizes both marriage and motherhood as they are currently practiced and structured by Northern legal institutions. Instead we would do better not to let the State define our intimate unions and parenting would be improved if the power presently concentrated in the hands of one or two guardians were diluted and distributed through an appropriately concerned community.
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  7. Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide.Claudia Card - 2010 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm, and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables us (...)
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  8. Gratitude and Obligation.Claudia Card - 1988 - American Philosophical Quarterly 25 (2):115 - 127.
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  9.  35
    Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory.Sandra Lee Bartky, Paul Benson, Sue Campbell, Claudia Card, Robin S. Dillon, Jean Harvey, Karen Jones, Charles W. Mills, James Lindemann Nelson, Margaret Urban Walker, Rebecca Whisnant & Catherine Wilson (eds.) - 2004 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Moral psychology studies the features of cognition, judgement, perception and emotion that make human beings capable of moral action. Perspectives from feminist and race theory immensely enrich moral psychology. Writers who take these perspectives ask questions about mind, feeling, and action in contexts of social difference and unequal power and opportunity. These essays by a distinguished international cast of philosophers explore moral psychology as it connects to social life, scientific studies, and literature.
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  10. On mercy.Claudia Card - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (2):182-207.
  11. Gender and moral luck [1990].Claudia Card - 1995 - In Virginia Held (ed.), Justice and care: essential readings in feminist ethics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. pp. 79.
     
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  12.  12
    Feminist Ethics.Laura M. Purdy & Claudia Card - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (6):41.
    Book reviewed in this article: Feminist Ethics. Ed. Claudia Card.
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  13. Rape as a Weapon of War.Claudia Card - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (4):5 - 18.
    This essay examines how rape of women and girls by male soldiers works as a martial weapon. Continuities with other torture and terrorism and with civilian rape are suggested. The inadequacy of past philosophical treatments of the enslavement of war captives is briefly discussed. Social strategies are suggested for responding and a concluding fantasy offered, not entirely social, of a strategy to change the meanings of rape to undermine its use as a martial weapon.
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  14.  35
    Feminist Ethics and Politics.Claudia Card (ed.) - 1999 - University Press of Kansas.
    For years, mainstream feminist ethics focused criticism on male supremacy. Feminist philosophers in this volume adopt a less male-focused stance to look closely at oppression's impact on women's agency and on women's relations with women. Examining legal, social, and physical relationships, these philosophers confront moral ambiguity, moral compromise, and complicity in perpetuating oppression. Combining personal experience with philosophical inquiry, they vividly portray their daily engagement with oppression as both victims and perpetrators. They explore such issues as how pornography silences women (...)
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  15.  34
    Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    Social death, central to the evil of genocide, distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  16. Genocide and social death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    : Social death, central to the evil of genocide (whether the genocide is homicidal or primarily cultural), distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  17.  60
    Lesbian Choices.Claudia Card - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (2):185-188.
  18.  29
    What Can She Know? Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge.Claudia Card - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (3):662.
  19.  25
    The Idea of a Political Liberalism: Essays on Rawls.Samantha Brennan, Claudia Card, Bernard Dauenhauer, Marilyn A. Friedman, Dale Jamieson, Richard Arneson, Clark Wolf, Robert Nagle, James Nickel, Christoph Fehige, Norman Daniels & Robert Noggle - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In this unique volume, some of today's most eminent political philosophers examine the thought of John Rawls, focusing in particular on his most recent work. These original essays explore diverse issues, including the problem of pluralism, the relationship between constitutive commitment and liberal institutions, just treatment of dissident minorities, the constitutional implications of liberalism, international relations, and the structure of international law. The first comprehensive study of Rawls's recent work, The Idea of Political Liberalism will be indispensable for political philosophers (...)
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  20. The Atrocity Paradigm Revisited.Claudia Card - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):212 - 222.
    This essay reflects on issues raised by commentators regarding my book, The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Oxford 2002). They are (1) Robin Schott's observation of the tension between my discussion of forgiveness and of castration fantasies; (2) Bat-Ami Bar On's questions regarding whether evil is ethical, political, or both; (3) Adam Morton's queries regarding the relative seriousness of evils and injustices; and (4) María Pía Lara's concerns regarding what is valuable in Kant's ethics.
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  21.  65
    The Cambridge Companion to Simone de Beauvoir.Claudia Card (ed.) - 2003 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Simone de Beauvoir was a philosopher and writer of notable range and influence whose work is central to feminist theory, French existentialism, and contemporary moral and social philosophy. The essays in this 2003 volume examine all the major aspects of her thought, including her views on issues such as the role of biology, sexuality and sexual difference, and evil, the influence on her work of Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Husserl, and others, and the philosophical significance of her memoirs and fiction. New (...)
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  22.  29
    Evil, Political Violence, and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card.Todd Calder, Claudia Card, Ann Cudd, Eric Kraemer, Alice MacLachlan, Sarah Clark Miller, María Pía Lara, Robin May Schott, Laurence Thomas & Lynne Tirrell - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    Rather than focusing on political and legal debates surrounding attempts to determine if and when genocidal rape has taken place in a particular setting, this essay turns instead to a crucial, yet neglected area of inquiry: the moral significance of genocidal rape, and more specifically, the nature of the harms that constitute the culpable wrongdoing that genocidal rape represents. In contrast to standard philosophical accounts, which tend to employ an individualistic framework, this essay offers a situated understanding of harm that (...)
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  23.  62
    Gay Divorce: Thoughts on the Legal Regulation of Marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  24. Gay divorce: Thoughts on the legal regulation of marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    : Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  25.  16
    Controversies in Feminism.James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
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  26.  24
    The L Word and the F Word.Claudia Card - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):223-229.
  27.  11
    The Atrocity Paradigm Revisited.Claudia Card - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):210-220.
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  28.  70
    Women, Evil, and Grey Zones.Claudia Card - 2000 - Metaphilosophy 31 (5):509-528.
    Gray zones, which develop wherever oppression is severe and lasting, are inhabited by victims of evil who become complicit in perpetrating on others the evils that threaten to engulf themselves. Women, who have inhabited many gray zones, present challenges for feminist theorists, who have long struggled with how resistance is possible under coercive institutions. Building on Primo Levi's reflections on the gray zone in Nazi death camps and ghettos, this essay argues that resistance is sometimes possible, although outsiders are rarely, (...)
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  29.  44
    Feminism and Philosophy.Moira Gatens, Lorraine Code, Claudia Card & Rosi Braidotti - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (173):513-519.
  30. Challenges of Local and Global Misogyny.Claudia Card - 2013 - In Jon Mandle & David A. Reidy (eds.), A Companion to Rawls. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 472-486.
    Rawls saw need for non-ideal theory also within society but never developed that project. In this chapter, Card suggests that the non-ideal part of Rawls’ Law of Peoples can be a resource for thinking about responding to evils when the subject is not state-centered. It is plausible that defense against great evils other than those of aggressive states should be governed by analogues of scruples that Rawlsian well-ordered societies observe in defending themselves against outlaw states. This essay explores those hypotheses (...)
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  31.  43
    Environmental atrocities and non-sentient life.Claudia Card - 2004 - Ethics and the Environment 9 (1):23-45.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Environmental Atrocities and Non-Sentient LifeClaudia Card (bio)Environmental Atrocities and Non-Sentient Life1. To Whom (or to What) Can Evils Be Done?Mention of environmental atrocities calls to mind such catastrophes as major oil spills, which ruin the fishing (not to mention the fish) for extended periods. Such carelessness is not simply a disaster to human projects. It destroys or endangers species and ecosystems as well as individual organisms, plant and animal. (...)
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  32. The Unnatural Lottery.Claudia Card - 2000 - Mind 109 (435):565-567.
     
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  33. The L word and the F word.Claudia Card - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):223-229.
  34. Questions regarding a war on terrorism.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):164 - 169.
    : The concept of a war on terrorism creates havoc with attempts to apply rules of war. For "terrorism" is not an agent. Nor is it clear what relationship to terrorism agents must have in order to be legitimate targets. Nor is it clear what kinds of terrorism count. Would a war on terrorism in the home be a justifiable response to domestic battering? If not, do similar objections apply to a war on public terrorism?
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  35. Making war on terrorism in response to 9/11.Claudia Card - 2003 - In James Sterba (ed.), Terrorism and International Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 171--185.
     
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  36. Why Homophobia?Claudia Card - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (3):110-117.
    Suzanne Pharr's Homophobia: A Weapon of Sexism may be an effective tool for women committed to overcoming their own homophobia who want practical advice on recognizing and eradicating it, although as an essay in theory it does not advance the issues. The author seems unaware that Celia Kitzinger has argued recently that “homophobia” is not a helpful concept because it individualizes problems better seen as political and begs the question of the rationality of the fear. I argue that “homophobia” has (...)
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  37.  11
    Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2018-04-18 - In Criticism and Compassion. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 61–78.
    This chapter develops the hypothesis that social death is utterly central to the evil of genocide, not just when a genocide is primarily cultural but even when it is homicidal on a massive scale. It is social death that enables us to distinguish the peculiar evil of genocide from the evils of other mass murders. The evil of genocide falls not only on men and boys but also on women and girls, typically unarmed, untrained in defense against violence, and often (...)
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  38.  10
    The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy.Claudia Card - 2018-04-18 - In Criticism and Compassion. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 79–92.
    A little more than a decade ago, a powerful short book appeared with what was then the provocative title: Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia‐Herzegovina and Croatia. It was written by Beverly Allen. In that book she introduced the term "genocidal rape" to describe rapes that were done as policy for the purpose of genocide by Serb military forces in Bosnia‐Herzegovina and Croatia in the early 1990s. This chapter examines the paradox that Allen articulated and places it in the (...)
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  39.  9
    Against Marriage and Motherhood.Claudia Card - 2018-04-18 - In Criticism and Compassion. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 193–217.
    This chapter expresses that radical feminist perspectives on marriage and motherhood are in danger of being lost in the quest for equal rights. For more than a decade, feminist philosophers and lesbian/gay activists have been optimistic about the potentialities of legal marriage and legitimated motherhood. Feminist philosophers are taking as valuable theoretical paradigms for ethics many kinds of caring relationships that have been salient in women's lives. "Family" is itself a family resemblance concept. Apart from the institution of marriage and (...)
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  40.  6
    Rape as a Weapon of War.Claudia Card - 2018-04-18 - In Criticism and Compassion. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 11–26.
    This chapter focuses on martial rape as a weapon wielded by male soldiers of one country (or national, political, or cultural group) against typically unarmed female civilians of another. Martial rape domesticates not only the women survivors who were its immediate victims but also the men socially connected to them, and men who were socially connected to those who did not survive. The penalty instituted by men for martial rape has often been death, a penalty almost never carried out where (...)
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  41.  40
    Surviving Long‐Term Mass Atrocities1.Claudia Card - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):35-52.
  42.  3
    Surviving Long‐Term Mass Atrocities.Claudia Card - 2018-04-18 - In Criticism and Compassion. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 93–112.
    Longer terms offer room for more complex responses: strategizing, learning from mistakes, choices of how or whether to try to survive, to hide, resist, flee, or comply with oppressive demands. This chapter explores the specific conceptual issues regarding the meaning of survival. "Surviving" refers both to an activity and to what remains. Picking up on the ambiguity of "surviving", there are two ways to understand true survival. Preservation survival requires one to come through with mental and physical health in basically (...)
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  43. What's wrong with adult-child sex?Claudia Card - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (2):170–177.
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  44. Kant's moral excluded middle.Claudia Card - 2009 - In Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.), Kant's Anatomy of Evil. Cambridge University Press.
  45. Surviving Homophobia: Overcoming Evil Environments.Claudia Card - 2018 - In Shlomit Harrosh & Roger Crisp (eds.), Moral Evil in Practical Ethics. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 145-164.
    Thinking of the evils of homophobia and what is needed to survive them requires acknowledging a new category of evil besides the evils of individual deeds, social practices and social structures. That further category is evil social environments. Building on the work of Jeremy Waldron on the harm in hate speech, this chapter extends that account to certain hate crimes that, like the written word, send a lingering social message. The cases of four women survivors of homophobia are then examined (...)
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  46. Ticking Bombs and Interrogations.Claudia Card - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
    Torture is like slavery (and unlike murder and genocide) in that it is not inconceivable that torture might be justifiable. But the circumstances that would make it tolerable are unrealistic in philosophically interesting ways. It is unrealistic to think we can predict when torture will be effective and containable; unwarranted to suppose that humane alternatives are impossible; disastrous to remove motivations to create alternatives; unacceptable to be satisfied with available evidence regarding suspects’ identity, knowledge of critical detail, ability to recall (...)
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  47. Pragmatic Liberalism and the Critique of Modernity.Claudia Card - 2002 - Mind 111 (444):863-866.
  48.  70
    Female Friendship: Separations and Continua.Claudia Card - 1988 - Hypatia 3 (2):123-130.
    This review essay on Janice Raymond's A Passion for Friends, sympathetic to the author's inquiry into the institutional contexts of female friendship, criticizes as unnecessary its rejection of feminist separatism and of the “lesbian continuum” and formulates a possible connection of its account of sources of passionate friendship among women to the new research on women and violence.
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  49.  17
    Is penalty enhancement a sound idea?Claudia Card - 2001 - Law and Philosophy 20 (2):195-214.
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  50.  13
    Is Penalty Enhancement a Sound Idea?Claudia Card - 2001 - Law and Philosophy 20 (2):195-214.
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