En este artículo se pretenden articular y sustentar los planteamientos del enfoque en Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad (CTS) en el campo social y educativo con la propuesta de Ulrich Beck de acuerdo con sus teorías de la individualización y de la modernidad reflexiva. A continuación, se argumentan las diferentes posturas de Beck, iniciando con la modernidad, sus fases (primera modernidad y segunda modernidad), la individualización y su relación con el Enfoque. Así pues, se presenta la síntesis del artículo en el (...) siguiente mapa conceptual, en el cual se establecen las relaciones entre la teoría de la individualización de Beck y el enfoque en Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad, partiendo de los procesos de modernización y sus fases. (shrink)
The present study aimed to analyze the stability of the memory of a stressful event over time in young people with mild or moderate intellectual disability. The results show a stability of the memory of what happened an hour and a week after the event in relation to the people involved, the apparatus used, and the parts of the body explored. No interaction effects were found between the stability of memory over time and the level of intellectual disability. The level (...) of disability only affected the description of the doctor who performed the exploration and the explored parts of the body, showing better results for people with mild disability. In addition, the results highlight the relationship between memory and IQ, especially verbal IQ. (shrink)
El presente texto pretende acercar y discutir la relación entre experiencia, memoria, emoción y estímulo en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Para ello, buscamos apoyo en diversos estudios, los cuales aportan algunos fundamentos sobre los mecanismos cerebrales relacionados al aprendizaje humano. Con eso, a través del diálogo entre los autores citados y sus interlocutores, hacemos algunas consideraciones sobre la complejidad del cerebro humano en lo que denominamos elementos basales del aprendizaje. Aunque este ensayo promueva un tatear inicial por el (...) tema en discusión, buscamos señalar que no se puede asignar la racionalidad del ser humano a un solo factor, pero sí distintos. (shrink)
Resumen: Durante la comisión de un crimen, testigos o víctimas, expuestos al habla del agresor pueden ser llamados, en forma posterior, a reconocer la voz de quien se sospecha es el autor del delito, con el fin de establecer si ellos la reconocerían como la voz del delincuente. Un ejemplo de esta situación, donde se vio involucrado el testimonio de testigos auditivos, fue durante el proceso del caso de Emilio Berkhoff, el joven universitario que fue declarado culpable de los delitos (...) de porte ilegal de armas y municiones y condenado a cinco años y un día de cárcel. El caso no estuvo exento de cierta controversia debido a las declaraciones públicas del imputado sobre supuestas violaciones al debido proceso. En este trabajo se revisa el procedimiento ocupado para la recolección de la evidencia auditiva a la luz de los criterios más ampliamente compartidos sobre la materia.: During the commission of a crime, witnesses or victims, exposed to the speech of the aggressor can be called, later, to recognize the voice of the person suspected of being the perpetrator of the crime, in order to establish whether they would recognize it as the voice of the offender. An example of this situation, where the testimony of hearing witnesses was involved, was during the case of Emilio Berkhoff, the young university student who was found guilty of the crimes of illegal bearing of arms and ammunition and sentenced to five years and one day in jail. The case was not exempt from some controversy due to the public statements of the accused about alleged violations of due process. In this paper we review the procedure used to collect the auditory evidence in light of the most widely shared criteria on the subject. (shrink)
Este artículo propone explorar algunos de los vínculos que es posible establecer entre el pensamiento indígena y el afrodescendiente que se ha desarrollado en América Latina durante el siglo XX. El caso que aquí trabajamos pone en relación al Caribe con los Andes, y más específicamente, a un intelectual indígena de Bolivia y un afrocaribeño de Martinica: Fausto Reinaga y Frantz Fanon. Reparamos en las referencias que hace Reinaga a la obra de Fanon en sus libros inaugurales del pensamiento indianista, (...) señalando que estas no son accesorias sino fundamentales para el tipo de indianismo que el autor quechua-aymara elabora, uno de tipo anticolonial en el que se encuentra presente un horizonte universal y humano. This article explores links that can be established among indigenous and Afro-descendent thought developed in Latin America during the 20th century. By drawing a comparison between the Caribbean and Andean regions, we specifically concentrate on the intellectual work of an indigenous Bolivian and an Afro-Caribbean from Martinique: Fausto Reinaga and Frantz Fanon. Reinaga’s inaugural writings on indianista thought reveal several references to the work of Fanon, providing material for our analysis. We argue that such allusions are not mere accessories, but rather fundamental elements for the kind of indianismo that the Quechua-Aymara author develops; that is, an anticolonial thought in which universal and human horizons are present. (shrink)
Resumen Auditores chilenos no entrenados y sin conocimientos del alemán deben identificar dentro de una secuencia de voces en alemán la voz de una mujer alemana que habló previamente en español con un retardo de 2 horas. Los enunciados fueron emitidos por estudiantes alemanas nativas de la Universität Regensburg. Los resultados muestran que los auditores identifican la voz original, pero con imprecisión al otorgarle, dentro de una escala de 1 a 7, el mayor puntaje a la voz objetivo por sobre (...) las demás, pero con un promedio general de 6,1. Esto refuerza la idea de que la evidencia auditiva solo debe tener un valor orientativo. El presente texto se basa en un manuscrito presentado en el congreso INGEACUS 2010 celebrado en Valdivia, Chile.Untrained Chilean auditors and without knowledge of German must identify, within a sequence of German voices, the voice of a German woman who previously spoke in Spanish with a delay of 2 hours. The statements were spoken by native German students from the University of Regensburg. The results show that the auditors identify the original voice, but inaccurately, by giving, within a scale of 1 to 7 the highest score to the target voice above the others, but with an overall average of 6.1. This reinforces the idea that hearing evidence should only have an indicative value. This text is based on a manuscript presented at the 2010 INGEACUS Congress held in Valdivia, Chile. (shrink)
Resumen El presente artículo plantea la necesidad de un acercamiento histórico a los textos filosóficos tomando como ejemplo el caso de la propuesta ética de David Hume. Se muestra el interés de Hume por insertarse en el diálogo intelectual de su época y su propósito de integrar el método científico en las ciencias morales y cómo la crítica que hace a la razón debe ser comprendida bajo esta luz. Para ello se menciona el ambiente intelectual de la época y las (...) posturas en conflicto en el debate filosófico del siglo XVIII: el escepticismo-relativista, el racionalismo exagerado y el sentimentalismo ingenuo, señalando que, en el fondo, Hume no puede ser excluido totalmente de ninguna de estas posturas pero tampoco encasillado en alguna de ellas.This article raises the need of a historical approach to philosophical texts taking as an example the case of David Hume’s ethics proposal. It shows Hume`s interest in participating actively in the intellectual dialogue of his time and his intention to integrate the scientific method into the moral sciences and how his critique of reason must be understood in this light. To do this, we quickly mention the intellectual atmosphere of the time and the positions in conflict in the philosophical debate of the 18th Century: relativistic skepticism, radical rationalism and naive sentimentality, noting that, deep down, Hume cannot be excluded completely from any of these positions but not typecast in any of them. (shrink)
Este trabajo profundiza en un momento importante en la historia de la comunicación como lo fue el de la difusión de la imprenta y el desarrollo de las técnicas del grabado aplicadas a la impresión. Se estudian las imágenes del libro bíblico del Apocalipsis, ilustrado por el artista alemán Alberto Durero a finales del siglo XV. Para ello se ha ahondando en el contexto histórico en el que fueron producidas, en la personalidad y circunstancias que rodearon la vida del artista (...) y en las propias imágenes xilográficas rastreando sus antecedentes y características propias. This work focuses on an important moment in the history of communication such as the diffusion of the printing press and the development of the engraving techniques applied to printing. It studies in depth the images of the biblical book of the Apocalypse illustrated by the German artist Alberto Durero by the end of the fifteenth century. This article analyzes the historical context where they were produced, the personality of the artist and the circumstances surrounding his life, and the very own xylographic images, whose antecedents and characteristics are traced. (shrink)
O processo de resposta do Teste Pictórico de Memória (TEPIC-M) classifica seus itens em três categorias sequenciais (céu, terra e água). Assim, aventou-se a hipótese que pessoas com uma familiaridade diária com o mar (Aracaju-grupo A) lembrariam mais desses itens quando comparadas com pessoas sem es..
Cet article constitue l'un des éléments d'un dossier comparatif international sur le traitement médiatique de l'attentat survenu à la gare d'Atocha à Madrid en mars 2004. Centré sur l'Italie et basé sur l'étude d'un corpus des quatre principaux quotidiens, il analyse les orientations du discours développé par cette presse dans les jours qui ont suivi cet événement. Il montre, qu'après un moment de compassion devant les conséquences dramatiques de l'attentat, ces titres se sont déterminés sur la base d'une analogie entre (...) la situation politique espagnole et la situation italienne et ceci en raison des positions identiques de leurs gouvernements quant au conflit en Irak. Des divergences de tons et d'attitude sont observables entre ces différents journaux, mais on assiste globalement à une forme de banalisation et de «nationalisation» de l'événement progressivement replié sur la scène nationale.This article is one of a comparative study on the international media coverage of the attack in Atocha train station in Madrid in March 2004. Centered on Italy and based on the study of a corpus of four major dailies, it analyzes the stand taken by the press in the days following the event. It shows, after a moment of compassion for the tragic consequences of the attack, these securities are determined on the basis of an analogy between the Spanish political situation and the situation in Italy and this because of the identical positions of their governments about the conflict in Iraq. Differences of tone and attitude are observable between these newspapers, but there is generally a form of trivialization and "nationalization" of the event gradually declined on the national scene. (shrink)
This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societallevel analyses. At the individual- level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub- dimensions and two sets of values dimensions. At the societal- level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each (...) society, we report the Cronbach' s? statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency as well as report interrater agreement analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country span sp. (shrink)
What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and (...) impossible or that makes a death indecent. The other component is culpable wrongdoing. Atrocities, such as genocides, slavery, war rape, torture, and severe child abuse, are Card's paradigms because in them these key elements are writ large. Atrocities deserve more attention than secular philosophers have so far paid them. They are distinguished from ordinary wrongs not by the psychological states of evildoers but by the seriousness of the harm that is done. Evildoers need not be sadistic:they may simply be negligent or unscrupulous in pursuing their goals. Card's theory represents a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic alternatives (including Kant's theory of radical evil). Utilitarians tend to reduce evils to their harms; Stoics tend to reduce evils to the wickedness of perpetrators: Card accepts neither reduction. She also responds to Nietzsche's challenges about the worth of the concept of evil, and she uses her theory to argue that evils are more important than merely unjust inequalities. She applies the theory in explorations of war rape and violence against intimates. She also takes up what Primo Levi called "the gray zone", where victims become complicit in perpetrating on others evils that threaten to engulf themselves. While most past accounts of evil have focused on perpetrators, Card begins instead from the position of the victims, but then considers more generally how to respond to -- and live with -- evils, as victims, as perpetrators, and as those who have become both. (shrink)
BackgroundScientists engaged in global health research are increasingly faced with barriers to access and use of human tissues from the developing world communities where much of their research is targeted. In part, the problem can be traced to distrust of researchers from affluent countries, given the history of 'scientific-imperialism' and 'biocolonialism' reflected in past well publicized cases of exploitation of research participants from low to middle income countries.DiscussionTo a considerable extent, the failure to adequately engage host communities, the opacity of (...) informed consent, and the lack of fair benefit-sharing have played a significant role in eroding trust. These ethical considerations are central to biomedical research in low to middle income countries and failure to attend to them can inadvertently contribute to exploitation and erode trust. A 'tissue trust' may be a plausible means for enabling access to human tissues for research in a manner that is responsive to the ethical challenges considered.SummaryPreventing exploitation and restoring trust while simultaneously promoting global health research calls for innovative approaches to human tissues research. A tissue trust can reduce the risk of exploitation and promote host capacity as a key benefit. (shrink)
In this article, I respond to Laury Naranch’s and Mary Caputi’s discussion of my book Power and Feminist Agency in Capitalism (2017). In response to Naranch, I clarify how the political subject-in-outline translates into collective political action through the figure of the Chicana working-class woman. I also explain why the proletariat, more so than the precariat, implies a radical political imaginary if we rethink this concept in the context of my idea of the political subject-in-outline. I also clarify that my (...) chapters on Marx expose how Adorno and Marx have problematic imaginations of the working-class woman, which counter their otherwise radical imaginary. In response to Caputi, I clarify the meaning of capitalism in my book and underline that we need a rigorous critique of capitalism to counter the rise of the Far Right. I also explain why the fluid subject does not have agency and why the subject-in-outline is a better way to theorize transformative feminist agency. I also clarify that my conception of feminist political subjectivity does not assume a privileged vantage point outside power structures. (shrink)
Daydreaming appears to have a complex relationship with life satisfaction and happiness. Here we demonstrate that the facets of daydreaming that predict life satisfaction differ between men and women , that the content of daydreams tends to be social others , and that who we daydream about influences the relation between daydreaming and happiness variables like life satisfaction, loneliness, and perceived social support . Specifically, daydreaming about people not close to us predicts more loneliness and less perceived social support, whereas (...) daydreaming about close others predicts greater life satisfaction. Importantly, these patterns hold even when actual social network depth and breadth are statistically controlled, although these associations tend to be small in magnitude. Individual differences and the content of daydreams are thus important to consider when examining how happiness relates to spontaneous thoughts. (shrink)
In this article, I respond to David McIvor’s and Lars Rensmann’s discussion of my recent book, The Politics of Repressed Guilt: The Tragedy of Austrian Silence (2018, Edinburgh University Press). Both invited me to clarify my use of Arendt in my conception of embodied reflective judgment. I argue for a stronger connection between judgment and emotions than Arendt because one can effectively shut down critical thinking if one uses defense mechanisms to repress feelings of guilt. In response to McIvor, I (...) discuss the idea of the “subject-in-outline” and “embodied reflective spaces” to overcome the guilt/defense complex to engender a reparative politics of justice. Finally, in response to Rensmann, I point out that the lingering culture of repressed guilt helps us explain the general conditions that contributed to the rise of the far and extremist right in Austria, which I develop further in my new book Analyzing the Far Right. (shrink)
Oliver Sacks MD, Clinical Professor of Neurology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, talked with Anthony Freeman during his visit to London in January 1995 to publicize his recently published book An Anthropologist on Mars. The interview is preceded by an overview of the book.
What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Are some evils unforgivable? How should we respond to evils? Card offers a secular theory of evil--representing a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic approaches--that responds to these and other questions.
Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the (...) ethical reasoning for considering their disclosure or the need for planning for them during the development of the research study. Some authors have discussed the methods for re-contacting participants for disclosing IFs, as well as the relevance of considering the clinical importance of the IFs. Similarly, other authors have debated about when IFs should be disclosed to participants. However, no author has addressed how the “actionability” of the IFs should be considered, evaluated, or characterized at the participant's research setting level. This paper defines the concept of “Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level” for anticipatable IFs from clinical research, discusses some related ethical concepts to justify the APRSL concept, proposes a strategy to incorporate APRSL into the planning and management of IFs, and suggests a strategy for integrating APRSL at each local research setting. (shrink)
Global health conditions are marked by inequities due mostly to poverty and lack of access to healthcare services. In a Pandemic setting, Mayan Communities in the Quintana Roo State in Mexico are a good example of how these disparities are exacerbated. First, they may have difficulty in adhering to directives to stay home from work because of the nature of their job, and the necessity to work, their living conditions are marked by crowding and sometimes lack of basic sanitation. Other (...) susceptibilities generally considered are the underlying host factors and medical conditions that may increase the risk of disease or of complications of disease. In general, our native communities experience a high degree of socio-economic marginalization and are at disproportionate risk in public health emergencies, becoming even more vulnerable during this global pandemic, owing to factors such as their lack of access to effective monitoring and early-warning systems, and adequate health and social services. (shrink)
There is widespread agreement that an adequate understanding of the nature of science is a critical component of scientific literacy and a major goal in science education. However, we still do not know many specific details regarding how students and teachers learn particular aspects of NOS and what are the most important feature traits of instruction. In this context, the main objective of this review is to analyze articles from nine main science education journals that consider the teaching of NOS (...) to K-12 students, pre-service, and in-service science teachers in search of patterns in teaching and learning NOS. After reviewing 52 studies in nine journals that included data regarding participants’ views of NOS before and after an intervention, the main findings were as follows: some aspects of NOS are easier to learn than others, and subjective aspects of NOS and “the scientific method” seemed to be difficult for participants to understand; the interventions most frequently lasted 5 to 8 weeks for students, one semester for pre-service teachers, and 1 year for experienced teachers; and most of the interventions incorporated both decontextualized and contextualized activities. Given the substantial diversity in the methods and intervention designs used and the variables studied, it was not possible to infer a pattern of more-effective NOS teaching strategies from the reviewed studies. Future investigation should focus on disentangling whether a difference exists between the easy and difficult aspects of learning NOS and formulating a theoretical explanation for distinguishing the two types of aspects and assessing the effectiveness of different kinds of courses and strategies. (shrink)
Rather than focusing on political and legal debates surrounding attempts to determine if and when genocidal rape has taken place in a particular setting, this essay turns instead to a crucial, yet neglected area of inquiry: the moral significance of genocidal rape, and more specifically, the nature of the harms that constitute the culpable wrongdoing that genocidal rape represents. In contrast to standard philosophical accounts, which tend to employ an individualistic framework, this essay offers a situated understanding of harm that (...) features the importance of interdependence and relationality and that conceptualizes harms as embodied and contextual. The paper ultimately reveals what is distinctive about this particular crime of sexual violence by exploring the logic of genocidal rape: genocidal rape involves the harm of forced self-betrayal unleashed relationally, causing victims as representatives of their group to participate inadvertently in the destruction of that group. (shrink)
Foucault’s vocabulary of arts of existence might be helpful to problematize the entwinement of humans and technology and to search for new types of hybrid selves. However, to be a serious new ethical vocabulary for technology, this art of existence should be supplemented with an ongoing critical discourse of technologies, including a critical analysis of the subjectivities imposed by technologies, and should be supplemented with new medical and philosophical regimens for an appropriate use of technologies.
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