One characteristic feature of Spanish society, from the symbolic year 1492, is the progressive adoption of the purity-of-blood laws by various administrations. The Society of Jesus, however, declined during most of the sixteenth century to apply these statutes, claiming to do the will expressed in this regard by Ignatius of Loyola himself. However, in 1593 the Fifth General Congregation decided to implement the purity test for the admission to the Colleges of the Company. This article describes the tenacious opposition against (...) this decision made by the Spanish Jesuit Pedro de Ribadeneyra, of Jewish origin, in his letters to the then General, Claudio Aquaviva. Also contextualizes Jesuit controversy around statutes of purity of blood within the profound change the Company suffered after the rise to generalship of Everard Mercurian and then with Aquaviva, and whose main characteristic is the removal of the converso jesuits from the Italian directive positions. (shrink)
This response to the articles of Luzzati and Broekman (in this issue) addresses principally the character of early rabbinic legal interpretation, as viewed by the Rabbis themselves. It considers, with examples, their concept of "simple meaning'' (peshat), its place within their overall hermeneutic system and its theological presuppositions. The second section responds more briefly to thetheoretical critiques of Luzzati and Broekman, stressing that (my version of) semiotics is descriptive rather than normative; resists the reduction of textual meaning to interpretation; and (...) refuses to equate decision-making with justification. (shrink)
This paper replies to Claudio La Rocca's criticisms of my account of Kant's views on concept formation. On my account, Kant holds that, although all conscious experiences of adult human beings are informed by the categories, it is possible to represent objects by means of non-conceptualized intuitions. La Rocca rejects that claim. In this paper, I first discuss the passages cited by La Rocca. I then argue that Kant's account of the formation of the categories presupposes that it is (...) possible to represent and group objects without employing any concepts. (shrink)
The œuvre of Portuguese photographer Jorge Molder can be construed as a series of series. These series are filled with a wealth of absent presences, of possibilities that arise and fade without ever reaching actualization or confirmation, thereby contributing to create a ‘detective-story’ atmosphere. This also proves to be true as regards Molder’s own body. Indeed, his face, his hands are recurrent “subjects” running through his 40 years of work. Even so, when we ask who the man is that we (...) see in Molder’s series, the answer is problematic. On the one hand, we know it is “him”, insofar as he himself is the model for his iconic “constructions”. On the other hand, Molder’s images are not “self-portraits” aiming to reveal the essence of his self, but rather “self-representations” creating a peculiar “character” who is and yet is not him: a double. (shrink)
After some preliminary remarks in §1, I argue in §2 that Claudio’s considerations about my treatment of Quine’s Bizet-Verdi counterfactuals do not constitute a difficulty for the structural analysis of such counterfactuals. I discuss some of his other examples and argue that counterfactuals are ambiguous both structurally and contextually. I conclude with an examination of the principle of transitivity for counterfactuals.
Dans les analyses de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il n'est pas évident que les Résistances prennent la forme d'une guerre civile, ou que cette forme leur soit reconnue. En ce qui concerne l'Italie, Claudio Pavone lie indissolublement, et ce dès le titre même de son ouvrage, Résistance et guerre civile. Si l'accent porte ainsi sur la lutte interne, fratricide, plutôt que sur la guerre de libération, c'est qu'ennemi, l'étranger ne l'est devenu que tardivement, à l'issue du renversement du..
Este artigo tem como objetivo fundamental analisar a categoria de reconhecimento e a possível formação de uma comunidade ética. Para isso, analisaremos os principais textos que lidam com o tema do autor contemporâneo Henrique Cláudio de Lima Vaz. O artigo será dividido dialeticamente em três partes. A primeira parte evidenciará o problema da formação de uma comunidade ética como a questão central do nosso tempo. A segunda parte abordará as categorias de intersubjetividade e de reconhecimento como dimensões antropológicas do ser (...) humano. Por fim, na terceira parte, trataremos da questão do reconhecimento e do consenso no plano do agir ético e da vida ética. (shrink)