34 found
Order:
See also
Claus Beisbart
University of Berne
  1. What is Understanding? An Overview of Recent Debates in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science.Christoph Baumberger, Claus Beisbart & Georg Brun - 2017 - In Stephen Grimm Christoph Baumberger & Sabine Ammon (eds.), Explaining Understanding: New Perspectives from Epistemolgy and Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 1-34.
    The paper provides a systematic overview of recent debates in epistemology and philosophy of science on the nature of understanding. We explain why philosophers have turned their attention to understanding and discuss conditions for “explanatory” understanding of why something is the case and for “objectual” understanding of a whole subject matter. The most debated conditions for these types of understanding roughly resemble the three traditional conditions for knowledge: truth, justification and belief. We discuss prominent views about how to construe these (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2.  96
    How Can Computer Simulations Produce New Knowledge?Claus Beisbart - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):395-434.
    It is often claimed that scientists can obtain new knowledge about nature by running computer simulations. How is this possible? I answer this question by arguing that computer simulations are arguments. This view parallels Norton’s argument view about thought experiments. I show that computer simulations can be reconstructed as arguments that fully capture the epistemic power of the simulations. Assuming the extended mind hypothesis, I furthermore argue that running the computer simulation is to execute the reconstructing argument. I discuss some (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  3. Can We Justifiably Assume the Cosmological Principle in Order to Break Model Underdetermination in Cosmology?Claus Beisbart - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):175-205.
    If cosmology is to obtain knowledge about the whole universe, it faces an underdetermination problem: Alternative space-time models are compatible with our evidence. The problem can be avoided though, if there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle (CP), because, assuming the principle, one can confine oneself to the small class of homogeneous and isotropic space-time models. The aim of this paper is to ask whether there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle in order to avoid underdetermination (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  4.  44
    Why Monte Carlo Simulations Are Inferences and Not Experiments.Claus Beisbart & John D. Norton - 2012 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (4):403-422.
    Monte Carlo simulations arrive at their results by introducing randomness, sometimes derived from a physical randomizing device. Nonetheless, we argue, they open no new epistemic channels beyond that already employed by traditional simulations: the inference by ordinary argumentation of conclusions from assumptions built into the simulations. We show that Monte Carlo simulations cannot produce knowledge other than by inference, and that they resemble other computer simulations in the manner in which they derive their conclusions. Simple examples of Monte Carlo simulations (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  5.  65
    Privileged, Typical, or Not Even That? – Our Place in the World According to the Copernican and the Cosmological Principles.Claus Beisbart & Tobias Jung - 2006 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (2):225-256.
    If we are to constrain our place in the world, two principles are often appealed to in science. According to the Copernican Principle, we do not occupy a privileged position within the Universe. The Cosmological Principle, on the other hand, says that our observations would roughly be the same, if we were located at any other place in the Universe. In our paper we analyze these principles from a logical and philosophical point of view. We show how they are related, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  6.  19
    How to Fix Directions Or Are Assignments of Vector Characteristics Attributions of Intrinsic Properties?Claus Beisbart - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):503-524.
    In physics, objects are often assigned vector characteristics such as a specific velocity. How can this be understood from a metaphysical point of view – is assigning an object a vector characteristic to attribute it an intrinsic property? As a short review of Newtonian, special relativistic and general relativistic physics shows, if we wish to assign some object a vector characteristic, we have to relate it to something – call it S. If S is to be different from the original (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  7.  14
    A Humean Guide to Spielraum Probabilities.Claus Beisbart - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (1):189-216.
    The most promising accounts of ontic probability include the Spielraum conception of probabilities, which can be traced back to J. von Kries and H. Poincaré, and the best system account by D. Lewis. This paper aims at comparing both accounts and at combining them to obtain the best of both worlds. The extensions of both Spielraum and best system probabilities do not coincide because the former only apply to systems with a special dynamics. Conversely, Spielraum probabilities may not be part (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8.  42
    Good Just Isn't Good Enough - Humean Chances and Boltzmannian Statistical Physics.Claus Beisbart - 2014 - In Maria C. Galavotti (ed.), New Directions in the Philosophy of Science, The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective 5. Springer. pp. 511-529.
    Statistical physicists assume a probability distribution over micro-states to explain thermodynamic behavior. The question of this paper is whether these probabilities are part of a best system and can thus be interpreted as Humean chances. I consider two Boltzmannian accounts of the Second Law, viz. a globalist and a localist one. In both cases, the probabilities fail to be chances because they have rivals that are roughly equally good. I conclude with the diagnosis that well-defined micro-probabilities under-estimate the robust character (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  9.  38
    Are We Sims? How Computer Simulations Represent and What This Means for the Simulation Argument.Claus Beisbart - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):399-417.
    N. Bostrom’s simulation argument and two additional assumptions imply that we likely live in a computer simulation. The argument is based upon the following assumption about the workings of realistic brain simulations: The hardware of a computer on which a brain simulation is run bears a close analogy to the brain itself. To inquire whether this is so, I analyze how computer simulations trace processes in their targets. I describe simulations as fictional, mathematical, pictorial, and material models. Even though the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  10.  19
    Are Computer Simulations Experiments? And If Not, How Are They Related to Each Other?Claus Beisbart - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (2):171-204.
    Computer simulations and experiments share many important features. One way of explaining the similarities is to say that computer simulations just are experiments. This claim is quite popular in the literature. The aim of this paper is to argue against the claim and to develop an alternative explanation of why computer simulations resemble experiments. To this purpose, experiment is characterized in terms of an intervention on a system and of the observation of the reaction. Thus, if computer simulations are experiments, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  28
    Matthias Adam: Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  57
    A Utilitarian Assessment of Alternative Decision Rules in the Council of Ministers.Claus Beisbart, Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann - 2005 - European Union Politics 6 (4):395-419.
    We develop a utilitarian framework to assess different decision rules for the European Council of Ministers. The proposals to be decided on are conceptualized as utility vectors and a probability distribution is assumed over the utilities. We first show what decision rules yield the highest expected utilities for different means of the probability distri- bution. For proposals with high mean utility, simple bench- mark rules (such as majority voting with proportional weights) tend to outperform rules that have been proposed in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  13.  28
    Groups Can Make a Difference: Voting Power Measures Extended. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):469-488.
    The voting power of a voter—the extent to which she can affect the outcome of a collective decision—is often quantified in terms of the probability that she is critical. This measure is extended to a series of power measures of different ranks. The measures quantify the extent to which a voter can be part of a group that can jointly make a difference as to whether a bill passes or not. It is argued that the series of these measures allow (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  14. Welfarist Evaluations of Decision Rules Under Interstate Utility Dependencies.Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann - 2010 - Social Choice and Welfare 34 (2):315-344.
    We provide welfarist evaluations of decision rules for federations of states and consider models, under which the interests of people from different states are stochastically dependent. We concentrate on two welfarist standards; they require that the expected utility for the federation be maximized or that the expected utilities for people from different states be equal. We discuss an analytic result that characterizes the decision rule with maximum expected utility, set up a class of models that display interstate dependencies and run (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  15. Welfarism and the Assessment of Social Decision Rules.Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann - 2006 - In Jerome Lang & Ulle Endriss (eds.), Computational Social Choice 2006. University of Amsterdam.
    The choice of a social decision rule for a federal assembly affects the welfare distribution within the federation. But which decision rules can be recommended on welfarist grounds? In this paper, we focus on two welfarist desiderata, viz. (i) maximizing the expected utility of the whole federation and (ii) equalizing the expected utilities of people from different states in the federation. We consider the European Union as an example, set up a probabilistic model of decision making and explore how different (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  13
    Welfarist Evaluations of Decision Rules for Boards of Representatives.Claus Beisbart & Luc Bovens - unknown
    We consider a decision board with representatives who vote on proposals on behalf of their constituencies. We look for decision rules that realize utilitarian and egalitarian ideals. We set up a simple model and obtain roughly the following results. If the interests of people from the same constituency are uncorrelated, then a weighted rule with square root weights does best in terms of both ideals. If there are perfect correlations, then the utilitarian ideal requires proportional weights, whereas the egalitarian ideal (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  17.  83
    Review of M. Wille, Mathematics and the Synthetic A Priori: Epistemological Investigations Into the Status of Mathematical Axioms[REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (1):130-132.
    Kant famously thought that mathematics contains synthetic a priori truths. In his book, Wille defends a version of the Kantian thesis on not-so-Kantian grounds. Wille calls his account neo-Kantian, because it makes sense of Kantian tenets by using a methodology that takes the linguistic and pragmatic turns seriously.Wille's work forms part of a larger project in which the statuses of mathematics and proof theory are investigated. The official purpose of the present book is to answer the question: what is mathematics. (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  23
    Measuring Voting Power for Dependent Voters Through Causal Models.Luc Bovens & Claus Beisbart - 2011 - Synthese 179 (1):35 - 56.
    We construct a new measure of voting power that yields reasonable measurements even if the individual votes are not cast independently. Our measure hinges on probabilities of counterfactuals, such as the probability that the outcome of a collective decision would have been yes, had a voter voted yes rather than no as she did in the real world. The probabilities of such counterfactuals are calculated on the basis of causal information, following the approach by Balke and Pearl. Opinion leaders whose (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  52
    Normativity and Naturalism, Edited by Peter Schaber.Claus Beisbart - 2008 - European Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):325-329.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  50
    Factions in Rousseau's du Contrat Social and Federal Representation.Luc Bovens & Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Analysis 67 (1):12–20.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  46
    Kant’s Characterization of Natural Ends.Claus Beisbart - 2009 - Kant Yearbook 1 (1).
    What is it to judge something to be a natural end? And what objects may properly be judged natural ends? These questions pose a challenge, because the predicates “natural” and “end” seemingly can not be instantiated at the same time – at least given some Kantian assumptions. My paper defends the thesis that Kant’s “Critique of Teleological Judgment”, nevertheless, provides a sensible account of judging something a natural end. On the account, a person judges an object O a natural end, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  15
    Probabilistic Modeling in Physics.Claus Beisbart - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 143.
  23.  12
    Gabriele Gramelsberger: Computerexperimente. Zum Wandel der Wissenschaft im Zeitalter des Computers. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (1):185-188.
    Direct download (4 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  13
    Minimizing the Threat of a Positive Majority Deficit in Two-Tier Voting Systems with Equipopulous Units.Claus Beisbart & Luc Bovens - 2013 - Public Choice 132 (1-2):75-94.
    The mean majority deficit in a two-tier voting system is a function of the partition of the population. We derive a new square-root rule: For odd-numbered population sizes and equipopulous units the mean majority deficit is maximal when the member size of the units in the partition is close to the square root of the population size. Furthermore, within the partitions into roughly equipopulous units, partitions with small even numbers of units or small even-sized units yield high mean majority deficits. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25.  24
    Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle Von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. Reihe Epistemische Stu-Dien, Schriften Zur Erkenntnis- Und Wissenschaftstheorie.Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. Richard Johns, A Theory of Physical Probability. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24:34-36.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Richard Johns, A Theory of Physical Probability Reviewed By.Claus Beisbart - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (1):34-36.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  14
    Computersimulationen in der Angewandten Politischen Philosophie - Ein Beispiel.Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann - forthcoming - In Carl-Friedrich Gethmann (ed.), Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft. Meiner. pp. 601ß634.
    In den vergangenen Jahren hat die Europäische Union (EU) wiederholt versucht, ihre Institutionen zu reformieren. Als der Entwurf für eine Europäische Verfassung und später der Vertrag von Lissabon ausgehandelt wurden, betraf einer der meistdiskutiertesten Streitpunkte die Frage, nach welcher Entscheidungsregel der EU-Ministerrat abstimmen sollte. Diese Frage ist eine genuin normative Frage. Deshalb sollten auch politische Philosophen und Ethiker etwas zu dieser Frage beitragen können. Im folgenden wollen wir uns dieser Herausforderung stellen und alternative Entscheidungsregeln für den EU-Ministerrat bewerten. Dabei erweisen (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  9
    Varieties of Goodness at Work: The Relationship Between Business and Morality.Claus Beisbart - 2012 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 55 (4):405-430.
    Abstract What do we mean to say when we call some person a good business manager? And where do the criteria flow from by which we judge people good business managers? I answer these questions by drawing on von Wright's distinction between several varieties of goodness. We can then discriminate between instrumental, technical and moral senses of the expression ?to be a good business manager?. The first two senses presume that business managers have a characteristic task or that they engage (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  2
    Normativity and Naturalism, Edited by Peter Schaber.Claus Beisbart - 2008 - European Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):325-329.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Introduction.Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  20
    Probabilities in Physics.Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume is the first to provide a philosophical appraisal of probabilities in all of physics.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. The Messy Mass? On the Concept of Mass in Special Relativity.Claus Beisbart & Tobias Jung - 2003 - Philosophia Naturalis 40:1-52.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Ulla Wessels: Die gute Samariterin. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2003 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 56 (3).
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography