Results for 'Cognition in animals'

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  1.  74
    Meta-Cognition in Animals: A Skeptical Look.Peter Carruthers - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (1):58–89.
    This paper examines the recent literature on meta-cognitive processes in non-human animals, arguing that in each case the data admit of a simpler, purely first-order, explanation. The topics discussed include the alleged monitoring of states of certainty and uncertainty, knowledge-seeking behavior in conditions of uncertainty, and the capacity to know whether or not the information needed to solve some problem is stored in memory. The first-order explanations advanced all assume that beliefs and desires come in various different strengths, or (...)
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  2. Meta-Cognition in Animals: A Skeptical Look.Peter Carruthers - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (1):58–89.
    This paper examines the recent literature on meta-cognitive processes in non-human animals, arguing that in each case the data admit of a simpler, purely first-order, explanation. The topics discussed include the alleged monitoring of states of certainty and uncertainty, the capacity to know whether or not one has perceived something, and the capacity to know whether or not the information needed to solve some problem is stored in memory. The first-order explanations advanced all assume that beliefs and desires come (...)
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  3.  2
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism.Gary E. Varner - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  4.  31
    Defining Motivation and Cognition in Animals.David McFarland - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (2):153 – 170.
    Abstract Motivation in an automaton, whether it be artificial or animate, is simply that aspect of the total state that determines the behaviour. In an autonomous agent, which has a degree of self?control, the motivational state includes a cognitive evaluation of the likely consequences of possible future behaviour. Such evaluation implies optimization with respect to some motivational criterion.
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  5.  23
    Comparing Cognition in Animals, and Researchers.Dario Maestripieri - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):452-453.
  6.  1
    Cognition in Animals: Learning as Program Assembly.J. E. R. Staddon - 1981 - Cognition 10 (1-3):287-294.
  7.  5
    Some Thoughts on the Proper Foundations for the Study of Cognition in Animals.Lynn Nadel - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):383.
  8. The Experimental-Analysis of Cognition in Animals.R. Cook - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):512-512.
     
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  9.  15
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism, by Gary E. Varner * The Philosophy of Animal Minds, Edited by Robert W. Lurz.K. Andrews - 2014 - Mind 123 (491):959-966.
  10. Cognition and Imagery in Animals.D. A. Oakley - 1985 - In David A. Oakley (ed.), Brain and Mind. Methuen. pp. 99--131.
  11.  5
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism.Justin Moss - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):225-231.
  12.  1
    Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism.Robert Streiffer - 2016 - Environmental Ethics 38 (2):249-252.
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  13.  16
    Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  14.  3
    Book Review: Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism, Written by Gary E. Varner. [REVIEW]Adam Kadlac - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (2):247-250.
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  15.  3
    Personhood, Ethics and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. By Varner. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, Pp. Xiv + 317. ISBN: 978-0199758784. [REVIEW]Robin Attfield & Rebekah Humphreys - 2013 - Philosophy 88 (3):493-498.
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  16.  8
    Language, Cognition, and Awareness in Animals?C. A. Ristau - 1983 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 406:170-86.
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  17. Review of Gary E. Varner's< Em> Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW]Tal Scriven - 2012 - Between the Species 16 (1):13.
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  18.  18
    Animals, Rights, and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics.Stephen Thomas Newmyer - 2006 - Routledge.
    Plutarch is virtually unique in surviving classical authors in arguing that animals are rational and sentient, and in concluding that human beings must take notice of their interests. Stephen Newmyer explores Plutarch's three animal-related treatises, as well as passages from his other ethical treatises, which argue that non-human animals are rational and therefore deserve to fall within the sphere of human moral concern. Newmyer shows that some of the arguments Plutarch raises strikingly foreshadow those found in the works (...)
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  19.  29
    'Theory of Mind' in Animals: Ways to Make Progress.Elske van der Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2012 - Synthese 191 (3):1-20.
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are insufficiently controlled, and that our (...)
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  20.  25
    'Theory of Mind' in Animals: Ways to Make Progress.Elske Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2012 - Synthese (3):1-20.
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are insufficiently controlled, and that our (...)
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  21. Consciousness and Self in Animals: Some Reflections.Marc Bekoff - 2003 - Zygon 38 (2):229-245.
    In this essay I argue that many nonhuman animal beings are conscious and have some sense of self. Rather than ask whether they are conscious, I adopt an evolutionary perspective and ask why consciousness and a sense of self evolved---what are they good for? Comparative studies of animal cognition, ethological investigations that explore what it is like to be a certain animal, are useful for answering this question. Charles Darwin argued that the differences in cognitive abilities and emotions among (...)
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  22.  16
    Some Prerequisites for a Study of the Evolution of Cognition in the Animal Kingdom.Jacques Gervet, Alain Gallo, Raphael Chalmeau & Muriel Soleilhavoup - 1996 - Acta Biotheoretica 44 (1):37-57.
    A distinction is made between two definitions of animal cognition: the one most frequently employed in cognitive sciences considers cognition as extracting and processing information; a more phenomenologically inspired model considers it as attributing to a form of the outside world a significance, linked to the state of the animal. The respective fields of validity of these two models are discussed along with the limitations they entail, and the questions they pose to evolutionary biologists are emphasized. This is (...)
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  23.  17
    Methodologische Überlegungen zu tierischen Überzeugungen / Methodological Reflections on Exploring Beliefs in Animals.Manuel Bremer - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):347 - 355.
    A theory of the beliefs of non-human animals is not closed to us, only because we do not have beliefs of their kind. Starting from a theory of human beliefs and working on a building block model of propositional attitudes a theory of animal beliefs is viable. Such a theory is an example of the broader conception of a heterophenomenological approach to animal cognition. The theory aims at outlining the crucial differences between human and animal beliefs as well (...)
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  24.  25
    Variation in Emotion and Cognition Among Fishes.Victoria A. Braithwaite, Felicity Huntingford & Ruud den Bos - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):7-23.
    Increasing public concern for the welfare of fish species that human beings use and exploit has highlighted the need for better understanding of the cognitive status of fish and of their ability to experience negative emotions such as pain and fear. Moreover, studying emotion and cognition in fish species broadens our scientific understanding of how emotion and cognition are represented in the central nervous system and what kind of role they play in the organization of behavior. For instance, (...)
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  25. Fighting Fair: The Ecology of Honor in Humans and Animals.Dan Demetriou - 2015 - In Jonathan Crane (ed.), Beastly Morality. Columbia University Press. pp. 123-154.
    This essay distinguishes between honor-typical and authoritarian behavior in humans and animals. Whereas authoritarianism concerns hierarchies coordinated by control and obedience, honor concerns rankings of prestige determined by fair contests. Honor-typical behavior is identifiable in non-human species, and is to be expected in polygynous species with non-resource-based mating systems. This picture lends further support to an increasingly popular psychological theory that sees morality as constituted by a variety of moral systems. If moral cognition is pluralistic in this way, (...)
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  26.  7
    Variation in Emotion and Cognition Among Fishes.Victoria A. Braithwaite, Felicity Huntingford & Ruud van den Bos - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):7-23.
    Increasing public concern for the welfare of fish species that human beings use and exploit has highlighted the need for better understanding of the cognitive status of fish and of their ability to experience negative emotions such as pain and fear. Moreover, studying emotion and cognition in fish species broadens our scientific understanding of how emotion and cognition are represented in the central nervous system and what kind of role they play in the organization of behavior. For instance, (...)
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  27. Affective Consciousness: Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans.Jaak Panksepp - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):30-80.
    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain–mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional “gift of nature” rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill (...)
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  28.  20
    Rationality and Metacognition in Non-Human Animals.Joëlle Proust - 2006 - In Susan L. Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford University Press. pp. 247--274.
    The project of understanding rationality in non-human animals faces a number of conceptual and methodological difficulties. The present chapter defends the view that it is counterproductive to rely on the human folk psychological idiom in animal cognition studies. Instead, it approaches the subject on the basis of dynamic- evolutionary considerations. Concepts from control theory can be used to frame the problem in the most general terms. The specific selective pressures exerted on agents endowed with information-processing capacities are analysed. (...)
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  29.  18
    On Hans, Zou and the Others: Wonder Animals and the Question of Animal Intelligence in Early Twentieth-Century France.Sofie Lachapelle & Jenna Healey - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (1):12-20.
    During the second half of the nineteenth century, the advent of widespread pet ownership was accompanied by claims of heightened animal abilities. Psychical researchers investigated many of these claims, including animal telepathy and ghostly apparitions. By the beginning of the twentieth century, news of horses and dogs with the ability to read and calculate fascinated the French public and scientists alike. Amidst questions about the justification of animal cruelty in laboratory experiments, wonder animals came to represent some extraordinary possibilities (...)
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  30.  4
    A General Model for the Adaptive Function of Self-Knowledge in Animals and Humans.Sue Taylor Parker - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):75-86.
    This article offers a general definition of self-knowledge that embraces all forms and levels of self-knowledge in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that various levels of self-knowledge constitute an ordinal scale such that each species in a lineage displays the forms of self-knowledge found in related species as well as new forms it and its sister species may have evolved. Likewise, it is hypothesized that these various forms of levels of self-knowledge develop in the sequence in which they (...)
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  31.  15
    Numerical Competence in Animals: Definitional Issues, Current Evidence, and a New Research Agenda.Hank Davis & Rachelle Pérusse - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):561.
  32.  6
    Dreaming and Cognition in Patients with Frontotemporal Dysfunction.Teresa Paiva, Paulo Bugalho & Carla Bentes - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1027-1035.
    Individuals with Parkinson’s disease and temporal lobe epilepsy have hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this work was to study dreams in PD and TLE patients using a common functional model of dream production involving the limbic and paralimbic structures.Dreams were characterised in early-stage PD and TLE patients with dream diaries classified by the Hall van de Castle system and were compared with matched controls.In PD, there were significant differences between patients’ dreams and those of controls: animals, (...)
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  33. Studies of Uncertainty Monitoring and Metacognition in Animals and Humans.J. David Smith - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
     
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  34.  15
    The Evolution of Means-End Cognition; Why Animals Cannot Think.David Papineau - unknown
    Why is there a cognitive gulf between other animals and humans? Current fashion favours our greater understanding of Theory of Mind as an answer, and Language is another obvious candidate. But I think that analysis of the evolution of means-end cognitive mechanisms suggests that there may be a further significant difference: where animals will only perform those means which they (or their ancestors) have previously used as a route to some end, humans can employ observation to learn that (...)
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  35.  37
    Cognition, Language, and Consciousness: Integrative Levels.G. Greenberg & E. Tobach (eds.) - 1987 - Lawrence Erlbaum.
    "Each animal in its own psychological setting . . / 1 Gerard Piel Scientific American, New York TC Schneirla was more interested in questions than in ...
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  36.  8
    ROC in Animals: Uncovering the Neural Substrates of Recollection and Familiarity in Episodic Recognition Memory☆.Magdalena M. Sauvage - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):816-828.
    It is a consensus that familiarity and recollection contribute to episodic recognition memory. However, it remains controversial whether familiarity and recollection are qualitatively distinct processes supported by different brain regions, or whether they reflect different strengths of the same process and share the same support. In this review, I discuss how adapting standard human recognition memory paradigms to rats, performing circumscribed brain lesions and using receiver operating characteristic methods contributed to solve this controversy. First, I describe the validation of the (...)
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  37.  36
    Tool Use, Planning and Future Thinking in Children and Animals.Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl - 2011 - In Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Butterfill (eds.), Tool use and causal cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 129.
    This chapter considers in what sense, if any, planning and future thinking is involved both in the sort of behaviour examined by McCarty et al. (1999) and in the sort of behaviour measured by researchers creating versions of Tulving's spoon test. It argues that mature human planning and future thinking involves a particular type of temporal cognition, and that there are reasons to be doubtful as to whether either of those two approaches actually assesses this type of cognition. (...)
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  38. Reflections on Thinking in Animals.R. Epstein - 1987 - In G. Greenberg & E. Tobach (eds.), Cognition, Language, and Consciousness: Integrative Levels. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 19--29.
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  39. Social Cognition in the Wild: Machiavellian Dolphins?Richard Connor & Mann & Janet - 2006 - In Susan Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford University Press.
     
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  40. RW Mitchell (Ed.). Pretending and Imagination in Animals and Children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. T. Bowell & G. Kemp. Critical Thinking–A Concise Guide. London: Routledge. HJ Gensler. Introduction to Logic. London: Routledge. A. Thomson. Critical Reasoning–A Practical Introduction. London: Routledge. [REVIEW]L. J. Rogers - 2003 - Cognition 89:65-66.
     
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  41.  12
    Conditioning or Cognition? Understanding Interspecific Communication as a Way of Improving Animal Training (a Case Study with Elephants in Nepal).Helena Telkänranta - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (3-4):542-555.
    When animals are trained to function in a human society (for example, pet dogs, police dogs, or sports horses), different trainers and training cultures vary widely in their ability to understand how the animal perceives the communication efforts of the trainer. This variation has considerable impact on the resulting performance and welfare of the animals. There are many trainers who frequently resort to physical punishment or other pain-inflicting methods when the attempts to communicate have failed or when the (...)
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  42.  5
    Has a Fully Three-Dimensional Space Map Never Evolved in Any Species? A Comparative Imperative for Studies of Spatial Cognition.Cynthia F. Moss - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):557-557.
    I propose that it is premature to assert that a fully three-dimensional map has never evolved in any species, as data are lacking to show that space coding in all animals is the same. Instead, I hypothesize that three-dimensional representation is tied to an animal's mode of locomotion through space. Testing this hypothesis requires a large body of comparative data.
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  43.  47
    The Philosophy of Animal Minds.Robert W. Lurz (ed.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume is a collection of fourteen essays by leading philosophers on issues concerning the nature, existence, and our knowledge of animal minds. The nature of animal minds has been a topic of interest to philosophers since the origins of philosophy, and recent years have seen significant philosophical engagement with the subject. However, there is no volume that represents the current state of play in this important and growing field. The purpose of this volume is to highlight the state of (...)
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  44.  71
    Are Animals Stuck in Time or Are They Chronesthetic Creatures?N. S. Clayton, J. Russell & A. Dickinson - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):59-71.
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  45.  66
    Cognition in the Wild.Edwin Hutchins - 1995 - MIT Press.
    Hutchins examines a set of phenomena that have fallen between the established disciplines of psychology and anthropology, bringing to light a new set of relationships between culture and cognition.
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  46. Animal Agendas: Conflict Over Productive Animals in Twentieth-Century Australian Cities.Andrea Gaynor - 2007 - Society and Animals 15 (1):29-42.
    Over the course of the twentieth century, the number of productive nonhuman animals in Australian cities declined dramatically. This decline resulted—at least in part—from an imaginative geography, in which productive animals were deemed inappropriate occupants of urban spaces. A class-based prioritization of amenity, privacy, order, and the protection of real property values—as well as a gender order within which animal-keeping was not recognized as a legitimate economic activity for women—shaped this imaginative geography of animals that found its (...)
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  47.  18
    Meaning in the Lives of Humans and Other Animals.Duncan Purves & Nicolas Delon - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-22.
    This paper argues that contemporary philosophical literature on meaning in life has important implications for the debate about our obligations to non-human animals. If animal lives can be meaningful, then practices including factory farming and animal research might be morally worse than ethicists have thought. We argue for two theses about meaning in life: that the best account of meaningful lives must take intentional action to be necessary for meaning—an individual’s life has meaning if and only if the individual (...)
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  48.  18
    Transitions Vs. Dissociations: A Paradigm Shift in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - manuscript
    Since Freud and his co-author Breuer spoke of dissociation in 1895, a scientific paradigm was painstakingly established in the field of unconscious cognition. This is the dissociation paradigm. However, recent critical analysis of the many and various reported dissociations reveals their blurred, or unveridical, character. Moreover, we remain ignorant with respect to the ways cognitive phenomena transition from consciousness to an unconscious mode (or the reverse). This hinders us from filling in the puzzle of a unified mind. We conclude (...)
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  49.  7
    Do Nonhuman Animals Have a Language of Thought?Beck Jacob - forthcoming - In Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. Routledge.
    Because we humans speak a public language, there has always been a special reason to suppose that we have a language of thought. For nonhuman animals, this special reason is missing, and the issue is less straightforward. On the one hand, there is evidence of various types of nonlinguistic representations, such as analog magnitude representations, which can explain many types of intelligent behavior. But on the other hand, the mere fact that some aspects of animal cognition can be (...)
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  50.  49
    In Defense of Animals.Peter Singer (ed.) - 2013 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Bringing together new essays by philosophers and activists, _In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave_ highlights the new challenges facing the animal rights movement. Exciting new collection edited by controversial philosopher Peter Singer, who made animal rights into an international concern when he first published _In Defence of Animals_ and _Animal Liberation_ over thirty years ago Essays explore new ways of measuring animal suffering, reassess the question of personhood, and draw highlight tales of effective advocacy Lays out “Ten Tips (...)
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