Results for 'Cognitive Ability'

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  1. Cognitive Ability and the Extended Cognition Thesis.Duncan Pritchard - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):133 - 151.
    This paper explores the ramifications of the extended cognition thesis in the philosophy of mind for contemporary epistemology. In particular, it argues that all theories of knowledge need to accommodate the ability intuition that knowledge involves cognitive ability, but that once this requirement is understood correctly there is no reason why one could not have a conception of cognitive ability that was consistent with the extended cognition thesis. There is thus, surprisingly, a straightforward way of (...)
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  2.  33
    Epistemic Dependence and Cognitive Ability.Fernando Broncano-Berrocal - forthcoming - Synthese:1-18.
    In a series of papers, Jesper Kallestrup and Duncan Pritchard argue that the thesis that knowledge is a cognitive success because of cognitive ability is incompatible with the idea that whether or not an agent’s true belief amounts to knowledge can significantly depend upon factors beyond her cognitive agency. In particular, certain purely modal facts seem to preclude knowledge, while the contribution of other agents’ cognitive abilities seems to enable it. Kallestrup and Pritchard’s arguments are (...)
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  3. Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2013 - Synthese 190 (17):3715-3729.
    We challenge a line of thinking at the fore of recent work on epistemic value: the line (suggested by Kvanvig in The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003 and others) that if the value of knowledge is “swamped” by the value of mere true belief, then we have good reason to doubt its theoretical importance in epistemology. We offer a value-driven argument for the theoretical importance of knowledge—one that stands even if the value of knowledge is “swamped” (...)
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  4.  1
    Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.J. Konek - 2016 - Philosophical Review Recent Issues 125 (4):509-587.
    Sarah Moss argues that degrees of belief, or credences, can amount to knowledge in much the way that full beliefs can. This essay explores a new kind of objective Bayesianism designed to take us some way toward securing such knowledge-constituting credences, or "probabilistic knowledge." Whatever else it takes for an agent's credences to amount to knowledge, their success, or accuracy, must be the product of _cognitive ability_ or _skill_. The brand of Bayesianism developed here helps ensure this ability condition (...)
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    Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.Jason Konek - 2016 - Philosophical Review 125 (4):509-587.
    Sarah Moss argues that degrees of belief, or credences, can amount to knowledge in much the way that full beliefs can. This essay explores a new kind of objective Bayesianism designed to take us some way toward securing such knowledge-constituting credences, or “probabilistic knowledge.” Whatever else it takes for an agent's credences to amount to knowledge, their success, or accuracy, must be the product of cognitive ability or skill. The brand of Bayesianism developed here helps ensure this (...) condition is satisfied. Cognitive ability, in turn, helps make credences valuable in other ways: it helps mitigate their dependence on epistemic luck, for example. What we end up with, at the end of the day, are credences that are particularly good candidates for constituting probabilistic knowledge. What's more, examining the character of these credences teaches us something important about what the pursuit of probabilistic knowledge demands from us. It does not demand that we give hypotheses equal treatment, by affording them equal credence. Rather, it demands that we give them equal consideration, by affording them an equal chance of being discovered. (shrink)
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  6.  45
    Natural Myside Bias is Independent of Cognitive Ability.Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):225 – 247.
    Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We defined the participant's perspective as their previously existing status on four variables: their sex, whether they smoked, their alcohol consumption, and the strength of their religious beliefs. Participants then evaluated a contentious but ultimately factual proposition relevant to each of these demographic factors. Myside bias is defined between-participants as the mean difference (...)
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  7.  97
    Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.Jason Konek - manuscript
    Moss (2013) argues that partial beliefs, or credences can amount to knowledge in much the way that full beliefs can. This paper explores a new kind of objective Bayesianism designed to take us some way toward securing such ‘probabilistic knowledge’. Whatever else it takes for an agent’s credences to amount to knowledge, their success, or accuracy must be the product of cognitive ability or skill. The brand of Bayesianism developed here helps ensure this ability condition is satisfied. (...)
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  8. On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases.Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129-167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  9.  47
    Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance.E. Stanovich Keith & F. West Richard - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193-230.
    Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitationthe Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem-were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks was consistently associated. Individuals in the correct/correct cell of the bivariate performance matrix were over-represented. That is, individuals (...)
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  10.  29
    Truth Table Tasks: Irrelevance and Cognitive Ability.Aline Sevenants, Kristien Dieussaert & Walter Schaeken - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (3):213 - 246.
    Two types of truth table task are used to examine people's mental representation of conditionals. In two within-participants experiments, participants either receive the same task-type twice (Experiment 1) or are presented successively with both a possibilities task and a truth task (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 examines how people interpret the three-option possibilities task and whether they have a clear understanding of it. The present study aims to examine, for both task-types, how participants' cognitive ability relates to the classification (...)
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  11.  4
    The Questionable Utility of “Cognitive Ability” in Explaining Cognitive Illusions.Ralph Hertwig - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-679.
    The notion of “cognitive ability” leads to paradoxical conclusions when invoked to explain Inhelder and Piaget's research on class inclusion reasoning and research on the inclusion rule in the heuristics-and-biases program. The vague distinction between associative and rule-based reasoning overlooks the human capacity for semantic and pragmatic inferences, and consequently, makes intelligent inferences look like reasoning errors.
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  12.  2
    The Cognitive Aspects of Motor Performances and Their Bearing on General Motor Ability.M. Campbell - 1936 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (3):323.
  13.  43
    Genetics and General Cognitive Ability.Robert Plomin & Frank M. Spinath - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (4):169-176.
  14.  94
    How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability.Clancy Blair - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
    This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to (...)
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  15.  44
    Epistemic Situationism and Cognitive Ability.John Turri - unknown
    Leading virtue epistemologists defend the view that knowledge must proceed from intellectual virtue and they understand virtues either as refned character traits cultivated by the agent over time through deliberate effort, or as reliable cognitive abilities. Philosophical situationists argue that results from empirical psychology should make us doubt that we have either sort of epistemic virtue, thereby discrediting virtue epistemology’s empirical adequacy. I evaluate this situationist challenge and outline a successor to virtue epistemology: abilism . Abilism delivers all the (...)
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  16.  34
    The Genetics of Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older People.Sarah E. Harris & Ian J. Deary - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (9):388-394.
  17.  8
    Above Suspicion: Cognitive and Intentional Aspects of the Ability to Lie. [REVIEW]Beatrice Gelder - 1988 - Argumentation 2 (1):77-87.
    This paper looks at the attribution of the ability to lie and not at lying or lies. It also departs from more familiar approaches by focussing on the appraisal of an ability and not on the ability in itself. We believe that this attribution perspective is required to bring out the cognitive and intentional basis of the ability to lie.
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  18.  4
    All Sex Differences in Cognitive Ability May Be Explained by an X-Y Homologous Gene Determining Degrees of Cerebral Asymmetry.T. J. Crow - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):249-250.
    Male superiority in mathematical ability (along with female superiority in verbal fluency) may reflect the operation of an X-Y homologous gene (the right-shift-factor) influencing the relative rates of development of the cerebral hemispheres. Alleles at the locus on the Y chromosome will be selected at a later mean age than alleles on the X, and only by females.
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  19.  2
    Models of Cognitive Ability and Emotion Can Better Inform Contemporary Emotional Intelligence Frameworks.José M. Mestre, Carolyn MacCann, Rocío Guil & Richard D. Roberts - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (4):322-330.
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  20.  1
    Learning Strategies and General Cognitive Ability as Predictors of Gender- Specific Academic Achievement.Stephanie Ruffing, F. -Sophie Wach, Frank M. Spinath, Roland Brünken & Julia Karbach - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  21. Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability.Matt McGue & Irving I. Gottesman - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (S1):S25-S31.
  22.  1
    Discoursive Humanity as a Transcendental Basis for Cognitive Ability Ethics and Policies.Matti Häyry - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (2):262-271.
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  23.  9
    Ability EI as an Intelligence? Associations of the MSCEIT with Performance on Emotion Processing and Social Tasks and with Cognitive Ability.Daniel Farrelly & Elizabeth J. Austin - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (5):1043-1063.
  24. Identifying and Profiling Scholastic Cheaters: Their Personality, Cognitive Ability, and Motivation.Kevin M. Williams, Craig Nathanson & Delroy L. Paulhus - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 16 (3):293-307.
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  25.  16
    Cognitive Ability and the Effect of Strategic Uncertainty.Nobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini & Adam Zylbersztejn - forthcoming - Theory and Decision.
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  26.  2
    Cognitive Ability and Occupational Status in a British Cohort.K. Thienpont & G. Verleye - 2004 - Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (3):333-349.
  27.  15
    Graphing: Cognitive Ability or Practice?Wolff-Michael Roth & Michelle K. McGinn - 1997 - Science Education 81 (1):91-106.
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  28.  6
    Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.Heiner Rindermann, David Becker & Thomas R. Coyle - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  29. Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?-Open Peer Commentary-The Questionable Utility of Cognitive Ability in Explaining Cognitive Illusions.K. E. Stanovich, R. F. West & R. Hertwig - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-678.
     
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  30.  3
    Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.Eline Van Geert, Altan Orhon, Iulia A. Cioca, Rui Mamede, Slobodan Golušin, Barbora Hubená & Daniel Morillo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  31. Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance.Margaret E. Beier & Frederick L. Oswald - 2012 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 18 (4):331-345.
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  32. Discoursive Humanity as a Transcendental Basis for Cognitive Ability Ethics and Policies.Matti Häyry - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (2):262-271.
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  33. G and G: Two Markers of a General Cognitive Ability, or None?Charles Locurto - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  34. Cognitive Ability of Preschool, Primary and Secondary School Children in Costa Rica.Heiner Rindermann, Eva-Maria Stiegmaier & Gerhard Meisenberg - 2015 - Journal of Biosocial Science 47 (3):281-310.
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  35.  8
    Intratextual Fundamentalism and the Desire for Simple Cognitive Structure: The Moderating Effect of the Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure.Hamdi Muluk - 2010 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 32 (2):217-238.
  36.  28
    Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Paul Seli, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2012 - Cognition 123 (3):335-346.
    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement, conventional religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively (...)
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  37. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks After Age 30.Laura T. Germine, Bradley Duchaine & Ken Nakayama - 2011 - Cognition 118 (2):201-210.
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  38.  8
    Building Theories of Reading Ability: On the Relation Between Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills and Reading Comprehension.Thomas H. Carr - 1981 - Cognition 9 (1):73-114.
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  39.  14
    The Entanglement of Race and Cognitive Dis/Ability.Anna Stubblefield - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):531-551.
  40. Paternalism in the Age of Cognitive Enhancement: Do Civil Liberties Presuppose Roughly Equal Mental Ability?Daniel Wikler - 2010 - In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oxford University Press.
     
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  41. Cognitive Coordinate Systems: Accounts of Mental Rotation and Individual Differences in Spatial Ability.Marcel A. Just & Patricia A. Carpenter - 1985 - Psychological Review 92 (2):137-172.
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  42.  8
    Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Patterns of Dedifferentiation in Late-Life Cognitive and Sensory Function: The Effects of Age, Ability, Attrition, and Occasion of Measurement.Kaarin J. Anstey, Scott M. Hofer & Mary A. Luszcz - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (3):470.
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  43.  2
    Could Cognitive Estimation Ability Be a Measure of Cognitive Reserve?Guido E. D'Aniello, Gianluca Castelnuovo & Federica Scarpina - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  44.  2
    The Effect of Brain Asymmetry on Cognitive Functions Depends Upon What Ability, for Which Sex, at What Point in Development.Mark G. McGee - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):243.
  45. Working Memory Ability: Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance on Cognitive Tasks.A. E. Eastwood, R. A. Steffy & W. C. Corning - 2000 - Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S96 - S96.
  46. The Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of the Relations Between Cognitive Skills and Components of Reading Ability.Micaela E. Christopher, Janice M. Keenan, Jacqueline Hulslander, John C. DeFries, Akira Miyake, Sally J. Wadsworth, Erik Willcutt, Bruce Pennington & Richard K. Olson - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):451-466.
  47. PERVALE-S: A New Cognitive Task to Assess Deaf People’s Ability to Perceive Basic and Social Emotions.José M. Mestre, Cristina Larrán, Joaquín Herrero, Rocío Guil & Gabriel G. de la Torre - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  48. Disentangling Learning From Knowing: Does Associative Learning Ability Underlie Performances on Cognitive Test Batteries?Jayden O. van Horik & Stephen E. G. Lea - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  49. Development of the Ability to Judge Relative Areas: Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Superimposition as a Cognitive Tool.Masamichi Yuzawa, William M. Bart & Miki Yuzawa - 2002 - In Serge P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 12--43.
  50.  30
    Cognitive Technology and the Pragmatics of Impossible Plans — A Study in Cognitive Prosthetics.Roger Lindsay - 1996 - AI and Society 10 (3-4):273-288.
    Do AI programs just make it quicker and easier for humans to do what they can do already, or can the range of do-able things be extended? This paper suggests that cognitively-oriented technology can make it possible for humans to construct and carry out mental operations, which were previously impossible. Probable constraints upon possible human mental operations are identified and the impact of cognitive technology upon them is evaluated. It is argued that information technology functions as a cognitive (...)
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