Results for 'Cognitive control'

999 found
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  1.  28
    The Computational and Neural Basis of Cognitive Control: Charted Territory and New Frontiers.Matthew M. Botvinick - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1249-1285.
    Cognitive control has long been one of the most active areas of computational modeling work in cognitive science. The focus on computational models as a medium for specifying and developing theory predates the PDP books, and cognitive control was not one of the areas on which they focused. However, the framework they provided has injected work on cognitive control with new energy and new ideas. On the occasion of the books' anniversary, we review (...)
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  2. Cognitive Control: Componential or Emergent?Richard P. Cooper - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):598-613.
    The past 25 years have witnessed an increasing awareness of the importance of cognitive control in the regulation of complex behavior. It now sits alongside attention, memory, language, and thinking as a distinct domain within cognitive psychology. At the same time it permeates each of these sibling domains. This introduction reviews recent work on cognitive control in an attempt to provide a context for the fundamental question addressed within this topic: Is cognitive control (...)
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  3.  86
    Language and the Development of Cognitive Control.Lucy Cragg & Kate Nation - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):631-642.
    We review the relationships between language, inner speech, and cognitive control in children and young adults, focusing on the domain of cognitive flexibility. We address the role that inner speech plays in flexibly shifting between tasks, addressing whether it is used to represent task rules, provide a reminder of task order, or aid in task retrieval. We also consider whether the development of inner speech in childhood serves to drive the development of cognitive flexibility. We conclude (...)
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  4. Cognitive Control: Easy to Identify But Hard to Define.J. Bruce Morton, Fredrick Ezekiel & Heather A. Wilk - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):212-216.
    Cognitive control is easy to identify in its effects, but difficult to grasp conceptually. This creates somewhat of a puzzle: Is cognitive control a bona fide process or an epiphenomenon that merely exists in the mind of the observer? The topiCS special edition on cognitive control presents a broad set of perspectives on this issue and helps to clarify central conceptual and empirical challenges confronting the field. Our commentary provides a summary of and critical (...)
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  5. The Other Side of Cognitive Control: Can a Lack of Cognitive Control Benefit Language and Cognition?Evangelia G. Chrysikou, Jared M. Novick, John C. Trueswell & Sharon L. Thompson-Schill - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):253-256.
    Cognitive control refers to the regulation of mental activity to support flexible cognition across different domains. Cragg and Nation (2010) propose that the development of cognitive control in children parallels the development of language abilities, particularly inner speech. We suggest that children’s late development of cognitive control also mirrors their limited ability to revise misinterpretations of sentence meaning. Moreover, we argue that for certain tasks, a tradeoff between bottom-up (data-driven) and top-down (rule-based) thinking may (...)
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  6.  96
    Defining an Ontology of Cognitive Control Requires Attention to Component Interactions.David Badre - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):217-221.
    Cognitive control is not only componential, but those components may interact in complicated ways in the service of cognitive control tasks. This complexity poses a challenge for developing an ontological description, because the mapping may not be direct between our task descriptions and true component differences reflected in indicators. To illustrate this point, I discuss two examples: (a) the relationship between adaptive gating and working memory and (b) the recent evidence for a control hierarchy. From (...)
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  7.  71
    Cognitive Control: Componential and Yet Emergent.Ion Juvina - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):242-246.
    In this commentary, I will argue that the componential and emergent views of cognitive control as defined by Cooper (2010) do not necessarily oppose each other, and I will try to make a case for their interdependence. First, I will use the construct of cognitive inhibition—one of the main componential control functions mentioned in the target articles—to illustrate my line of reasoning. Then, I will comment on how some of the target articles, each from a different (...)
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  8.  87
    Influences of Cognitive Control on Numerical Cognition—Adaptation by Binding for Implicit Learning.Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein & Hans-Christoph Nuerk - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):335-353.
    Recently, an associative learning account of cognitive control has been suggested (Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). In this so-called adaptation by binding theory, Hebbian learning of stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response associations is assumed to drive the adaptation of human behavior. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the adaptation-by-binding account for the case of implicit learning of regularities within a stimulus set (i.e., the frequency of specific unit digit combinations in a two-digit number magnitude comparison task) and their association (...)
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  9. Toward a Unified View of Cognitive Control.Dario D. Salvucci & Niels A. Taatgen - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):227-230.
    Allen Newell (1973) once observed that psychology researchers were playing “twenty questions with nature,” carving up human cognition into hundreds of individual phenomena but shying away from the difficult task of integrating these phenomena with unifying theories. We argue that research on cognitive control has followed a similar path, and that the best approach toward unifying theories of cognitive control is that proposed by Newell, namely developing theories in computational cognitive architectures. Threaded cognition, a recent (...)
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  10.  42
    Search and the Aging Mind: The Promise and Limits of the Cognitive Control Hypothesis of Age Differences in Search.Rui Mata & Bettina Helversen - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):416-427.
    Search is a prerequisite for successful performance in a broad range of tasks ranging from making decisions between consumer goods to memory retrieval. How does aging impact search processes in such disparate situations? Aging is associated with structural and neuromodulatory brain changes that underlie cognitive control processes, which in turn have been proposed as a domain-general mechanism controlling search in external environments as well as memory. We review the aging literature to evaluate the cognitive control hypothesis (...)
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  11.  44
    Considering the Role of Cognitive Control in Expert Performance.John Toner, Barbara Gail Montero & Aidan Moran - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):1127-1144.
    Dreyfus and Dreyfus’ influential phenomenological analysis of skill acquisition proposes that expert performance is guided by non-cognitive responses which are fast, effortless and apparently intuitive in nature. Although this model has been criticised for over-emphasising the role that intuition plays in facilitating skilled performance, it does recognise that on occasions a form of ‘detached deliberative rationality’ may be used by experts to improve their performance. However, Dreyfus and Dreyfus see no role for calculative problem solving or deliberation when performance (...)
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  12.  84
    Towards an Ontology of Cognitive Control.Agatha Lenartowicz, Donald J. Kalar, Eliza Congdon & Russell A. Poldrack - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):678-692.
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  13.  58
    Dynamic Cooperation and Competition Between Brain Systems During Cognitive Control.Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Alex Fornito & Jason B. Mattingley - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (10):493-501.
  14.  92
    Processes Versus Representations: Cognitive Control as Emergent, Yet Componential.Eddy J. Davelaar - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):247-252.
    In this commentary, I focus on the difference between processes and representations and how this distinction relates to the question of what is controlled. Despite some views that task switching is a prototypical control process, the analysis concludes that task switching depends on the task goal representation and that control processes are there to prevent goal representations from disintegrating. Over time, these processes become obsolete, leaving behind a representation that automatically controls task performance. The distinction between processes and (...)
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  15. The Cognitive Control of Emotion.K. N. Ochsner & J. J. Gross - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):242-249.
    The capacity to control emotion is important for human adaptation. Questions about the neural bases of emotion regulation have recently taken on new importance, as functional imaging studies in humans have permitted direct investigation of control strategies that draw upon higher cognitive processes difficult to study in nonhumans. Such studies have examined (1) controlling attention to, and (2) cognitively changing the meaning of, emotionally evocative stimuli. These two forms of emotion regulation depend upon interactions between prefrontal and (...)
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  16. The Evolutionary Origins of Cognitive Control.Thomas T. Hills - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):231-237.
    The question of domain-specific versus domain-general processing is an ongoing source of inquiry surrounding cognitive control. Using a comparative evolutionary approach, Stout (2010) proposed two components of cognitive control: coordinating hierarchical action plans and social cognition. This article reports additional molecular and experimental evidence supporting a domain-general attentional process coordinating hierarchical action plans, with the earliest such control processing originating in the capacity of dynamic foraging behaviors—predating the vertebrate-invertebrate divergence (c. 700 million years ago). Further (...)
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  17.  92
    Supra-Personal Cognitive Control and Metacognition.Nicholas Shea, Annika Boldt, Dan Bang, Nick Yeung, Cecilia Heyes & Chris D. Frith - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (4):186–193.
    The human mind is extraordinary in its ability not merely to respond to events as they unfold but also to adapt its own operation in pursuit of its agenda. This ‘cognitive control’ can be achieved through simple interactions among sensorimotor processes, and through interactions in which one sensorimotor process represents a property of another in an implicit, unconscious way. So why does the human mind also represent properties of cognitive processes in an explicit way, enabling us to (...)
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  18.  72
    Computational Models of Performance Monitoring and Cognitive Control.William H. Alexander & Joshua W. Brown - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):658-677.
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been the subject of intense interest as a locus of cognitive control. Several computational models have been proposed to account for a range of effects, including error detection, conflict monitoring, error likelihood prediction, and numerous other effects observed with single-unit neurophysiology, fMRI, and lesion studies. Here, we review the state of computational models of cognitive control and offer a new theoretical synthesis of the mPFC as signaling response–outcome predictions. This new (...)
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  19. The Evolution of Cognitive Control.Dietrich Stout - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):614-630.
    One of the key challenges confronting cognitive science is to discover natural categories of cognitive function. Of special interest is the unity or diversity of cognitive control mechanisms. Evolutionary history is an underutilized resource that, together with neuropsychological and neuroscientific evidence, can help to provide a biological ground for the fractionation of cognitive control. Comparative evidence indicates that primate brain evolution has produced dissociable mechanisms for external action control and internal self-regulation, but that (...)
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  20. Cognitive Control: Social Evolution and Emotional Regulation.Matt J. Rossano - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):238-241.
    This commentary argues that theories of cognitive control risk being incomplete unless they incorporate social/emotional factors. Social factors very likely played a critical role in the evolution of human cognitive control abilities, and emotional states are the primary regulatory mechanisms of cognitive control.
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  21.  24
    Conflict Monitoring and Cognitive Control.Matthew M. Botvinick, Todd S. Braver, Deanna M. Barch, Cameron S. Carter & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):624-652.
  22.  42
    Model-Based Analyses: Promises, Pitfalls, and Example Applications to the Study of Cognitive Control.Rogier B. Mars, Nicholas Shea, Nils Kolling & Matthew F. S. Rushworth - 2012 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (2):252-267.
    We discuss a recent approach to investigating cognitive control, which has the potential to deal with some of the challenges inherent in this endeavour. In a model-based approach, the researcher defines a formal, computational model that performs the task at hand and whose performance matches that of a research participant. The internal variables in such a model might then be taken as proxies for latent variables computed in the brain. We discuss the potential advantages of such an approach (...)
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  23.  47
    Context-Specific Prime-Congruency Effects: On the Role of Conscious Stimulus Representations for Cognitive Control.Alexander Heinemann, Wilfried Kunde & Andrea Kiesel - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):966-976.
    Recent research suggests that processing of irrelevant information can be modulated in a rapid online fashion by contextual information in the task environment depending on the usefulness of that information in different contexts. Congruency effects evoked by irrelevant stimulus attributes are smaller in contexts with high proportions of incongruent trials and larger in contexts with high proportions of congruent trials . The present study investigates these context-adaptation effects in a masked-priming paradigm. Context-specific adaptation effects transfer to stimulus identities that are (...)
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  24.  35
    Enhanced Conflict-Driven Cognitive Control by Emotional Arousal, Not by Valence.Qinghong Zeng, Senqing Qi, Miaoyun Li, Shuxia Yao, Cody Ding & Dong Yang - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (6):1083-1096.
    Emotion is widely agreed to have two dimensions, valence and arousal. Few studies have explored the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation by considering both of these, which could have dissociate influence. The present study aimed to fill the gap as to whether emotional valence and arousal would exert dissociable influence on conflict adaptation. In the experiments, we included positive, neutral, and negative conditions, with comparable arousal between positive and negative conditions. Both positive and negative conditions have higher arousal than (...)
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  25.  11
    The Effect of Automatic Vs. Reflective Emotions on Cognitive Control in Antisaccade Tasks and the Emotional Stroop Test.Maria T. Jarymowicz & Kamil K. Imbir - 2013 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 44 (2):137-146.
    The article presents two studies based on the assumption that the effectiveness of cognitive control depends on the subject’s type of emotional state. Inhibitory control is taken into account, as the basic determinant of the antisaccade reactions and the emotional Stroop effect. The studies deal with differentiation of emotions on the basis of their origin: automatic vs. reflective. According to the main assumption, automatic emotions are diffusive, and decrease the effectiveness of cognitive control. The hypothesis (...)
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  26.  25
    Memory and Cognitive Control in an Integrated Theory of Language Processing.L. Robert Slevc & Jared M. Novick - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):373-374.
    Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) integrated model of production and comprehension includes no explicit role for nonlinguistic cognitive processes. Yet, how domain-general cognitive functions contribute to language processing has become clearer with well-specified theories and supporting data. We therefore believe that their account can benefit by incorporating functions like working memory and cognitive control into a unified model of language processing.
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  27.  19
    Cognitive Control: Dynamic, Sustained, and Voluntary Influences.MaryBeth Knight - unknown
    The cost of incongruent stimuli is reduced when conflict is expected. This series of experiments tested whether this improved performance is due to repetition priming or to enhanced cognitive control. Using a paradigm in which Word and Number Stroop alternated every trial, Experiment 1 assessed dynamic trial-to-trial changes. Incongruent trials led to task-specific reduction of conflict (trial n ϩ 2) without cross-task modulation (trial n ϩ 1), but this was fully explained by repetition priming. In contrast, an increased (...)
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  28.  7
    Cognitive Control and Cortisol Response to Stress in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: A Study of Working Memory Capacity with Negative and Neutral Distractors.Joelle LeMoult, Randi E. McCabe, Atayeh Hamedani & K. Lira Yoon - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-7.
    We investigated the association between cognitive control and individual differences in cortisol response to stress in participants with generalised anxiety disorder and in never-disordered c...
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  29.  50
    Implicit Cognition, Emotion, and Meta-Cognitive Control.Ron Sun & Robert C. Mathews - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):107-119.
    The goal of this research is to understand the interaction of implicit and explicit psychological processes in dealing with emotional distractions and meta-cognitive control of such distractions. The questions are how emotional and meta-cognitive processes can be separated into implicit and explicit components, and how such a separation can be utilized to improve self-regulation of emotion, which can have significant theoretical and practical implications.
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  30.  8
    Cognitive Control in Romantic Love: The Roles of Infatuation and Attachment in Interference and Adaptive Cognitive Control.Sandra J. E. Langeslag & Henk van Steenbergen - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-8.
    ABSTRACTBesides physiological, behavioural, and affective effects, romantic love also has cognitive effects. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in infatuation and/or attachment level predict impaired interference control even in the absence of a love booster procedure, and whether individual differences in attachment level predict reduced adaptive cognitive control as measured by conflict adaptation and post-error slowing. Eighty-three young adults who had recently fallen in love completed a Stroop-like task, which yielded reliable indices of interference (...)
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  31.  14
    On the Nature of Cognitive Control and Endogenous Orienting: A Response to Chica and Bartolomeo (2010).Evan F. Risko & Jennifer A. Stolz - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):445-446.
    Chica and Bartolemeo : The proportion valid effect in covert orienting: Strategic control or implicit learning? Consciousness and Cognition,19, 443–444.) agree that our results . The proportion valid effect in covert orienting: Strategic control or implicit learning? Consciousness and Cognition,19, 432–442.) are consistent with an implicit learning account of the proportion valid effect. Nevertheless, they raise two general issues that an explicit strategy might be operative in other contexts and that orienting in response to implicit knowledge is endogenous. (...)
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  32.  1
    Cognitive Control Constrains Memory Attributions.Colleen M. Kelley & Larry L. Jacoby - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    Cognitive control constrains retrieval processing and so restricts what comes to mind as input to the attribution system. We review evidence that older adults, patients with Alzheimer's disease, and people with traumatic brain injury exert less cognitive control during retrieval, and so are susceptible to memory misattributions in the form of dramatic levels of false remembering.
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  33.  22
    Studying the Role of Cognitive Control in Reasoning: Evidence for the Congruency Sequence Effect in the Ratio-Bias Task.Balazs Aczel & Bence Palfi - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (1):81-97.
    In this study, we investigated whether control of the conflict between incongruent heuristic and analytical answer options in a reasoning task is modulated by the presence of conflict on previous trials. In two experiments, we found that the incongruency of the previous trial has a significant effect on the control exhibited on the current trial. Our data also showed that this adaptation effect is modulated by the incongruency of the previous series of trials. These results demonstrate the same (...)
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  34.  27
    Two Facets of Cognitive Control in Analogical Mapping: The Role of Semantic Interference Resolution Andgoal-Driven Structure Selection.Anna Chuderska & Adam Chuderski - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (3):352-371.
    (2013). Two facets of cognitive control in analogical mapping: The role of semantic interference resolution andgoal-driven structure selection. Thinking & Reasoning. ???aop.label???
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  35.  26
    Differences in Cognitive Control Between Real and Hypothetical Payoffs.Ralf Morgenstern, Marcus Heldmann & Bodo Vogt - 2014 - Theory and Decision 77 (4):557-582.
    This study focuses on the question of neural differences in the evaluation of hypothetical and real payoffs. Hypothetical payoffs are not incentive compatible and are, therefore, not considered to be reliable. Behavioral differences between the evaluation of hypothetical and real payoffs can be attributed to this incentive effect. Because real payoff mechanisms are not always applicable in the field, it is necessary to know in which way both types of payoffs affect evaluation processes. In order to delineate the cognitive (...)
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  36.  16
    The Development of Cognitive Control in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.Heather M. Shapiro, Flora Tassone, Nimrah S. Choudhary & Tony J. Simon - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    © 2014 Shapiro, Tassone, Choudhary and Simon.Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive (...)
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  37.  5
    Quantifying Contextual Information For Cognitive Control.Francisco Barceló & Patrick S. Cooper - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Cognition is context-sensitive, as the same sensory information is processed differently depending on its context (e.g., on its probabilistic association with goal-directed actions and their outcomes). Despite this, the concept of context in studies of higher-order cognitive processes, like cognitive control, is often simplified to nominal stimulus categories (like a target vs. distractor). Here we propose that quantifying contextual information to model cognitive demands is (1) fruitful as it can provide novel insight into the nature of (...)
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  38.  2
    When Affect Supports Cognitive Control – A Working Memory Perspective.Alina Kolańczyk - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (1):29-42.
    The paper delineates a study of executive functions, construed as procedural working memory, from a motivational perspective. Since WM theories and motivation theories are both concerned with purposive activity, the role of implicit evaluations observed in goal pursuit can be anticipated to arise also in the context of cognitive control, e.g., during the performance of the Stroop task. The role of positive and negative affect in goal pursuit consists in controlling attention resources according to the goal and situational (...)
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  39.  2
    The Role of Cognitive Control Mechanisms in Selective Attention Towards Emotional Stimuli.Manuel Petrucci & Anna Pecchinenda - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (7):1480-1492.
    The role of cognitive control mechanisms in reducing interference from emotionally salient distractors was investigated. In two experiments, participants performed a flanker task in which target-distractor affective compatibility and cognitive load were manipulated. Differently from past studies, targets and distractors were presented at separate spatial locations and cognitive load was not domain-specific. In Experiment 1, words and faces, were used respectively as targets and distractors, whereas in Experiment 2, both targets and distractors were faces. Findings showed (...)
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  40.  93
    The Variable Nature of Cognitive Control: A Dual Mechanisms Framework.Todd S. Braver - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):106-113.
  41. Semantics and Metaphysics in Informatics: Toward an Ontology of Tasks (a Reply to Lenartowicz Et Al. 2010, Towards an Ontology of Cognitive Control).Carrie Figdor - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):222-226.
    This article clarifies three principles that should guide the development of any cognitive ontology. First, that an adequate cognitive ontology depends essentially on an adequate task ontology; second, that the goal of developing a cognitive ontology is independent of the goal of finding neural implementations of the processes referred to in the ontology; and third, that cognitive ontologies are neutral regarding the metaphysical relationship between cognitive and neural processes.
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  42.  50
    Cognitive Control in Altruism and Self-Control: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective.Jeremy R. Gray & Todd S. Braver - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):260-260.
    The primrose path and prisoner's dilemma paradigms may require cognitive (executive) control: The active maintenance of context representations in lateral prefrontal cortex to provide top-down support for specific behaviors in the face of short delays or stronger response tendencies. This perspective suggests further tests of whether altruism is a type of self-control, including brain imaging, induced affect, and dual-task studies.
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  43. Attention and Cognitive Control.Michael I. Posner & C. R. R. Snyder - 1975 - In Robert L. Solso (ed.), Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  44.  42
    Frontal Theta as a Mechanism for Cognitive Control.James F. Cavanagh & Michael J. Frank - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (8):414-421.
  45. Cognitive Control Processes and Hypnosis.Tobias Egner & Amir Raz - 2007 - In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 29-50.
  46.  61
    Cognitive Control, Hierarchy, and the Rostro–Caudal Organization of the Frontal Lobes.David Badre - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (5):193-200.
  47. Autonomous Cognitive Systems in Real-World Environments: Less Control, More Flexibility and Better Interaction.Vincent C. Müller - 2012 - Cognitive Computation 4 (3):212-215.
    In October 2011, the “2nd European Network for Cognitive Systems, Robotics and Interaction”, EUCogII, held its meeting in Groningen on “Autonomous activity in real-world environments”, organized by Tjeerd Andringa and myself. This is a brief personal report on why we thought autonomy in real-world environments is central for cognitive systems research and what I think I learned about it. --- The theses that crystallized are that a) autonomy is a relative property and a matter of degree, b) increasing (...)
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  48.  35
    Emotional Foundations of Cognitive Control.Michael Inzlicht, Bruce D. Bartholow & Jacob B. Hirsh - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (3):126-132.
  49.  97
    Adaptation by Binding: A Learning Account of Cognitive Control.Tom Verguts & Wim Notebaert - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (6):252-257.
  50.  5
    Cognitive Control As a Double-Edged Sword.Tarek Amer, Karen L. Campbell & Lynn Hasher - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (12):905-915.
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