Results for 'Common causes'

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  1. CommonCauses Are Not Common CommonCauses.Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklos Redei & Laszlo E. Szabo - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):623-636.
    A condition is formulated in terms of the probabilities of two pairs of correlated events in a classical probability space which is necessary for the two correlations to have a single (Reichenbachian) common-cause and it is shown that there exists pairs of correlated events probabilities of which violate the necessary condition. It is concluded that different correlations do not in general have a common common-cause. It is also shown that this conclusion remains valid even if one weakens (...)
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  2. Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Miklós Rédei - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (5):745-756.
    A partition $\{C_i\}_{i\in I}$ of a Boolean algebra Ω in a probability measure space (Ω, p) is called a Reichenbachian common cause system for the correlation between a pair A,B of events in Ω if any two elements in the partition behave like a Reichenbachian common cause and its complement; the cardinality of the index set I is called the size of the common cause system. It is shown that given any non-strict correlation in (Ω, p), and (...)
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  3.  53
    The Common Cause Principle.Frank Arntzenius - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:227 - 237.
    The common cause principle states that correlations have prior common causes which screen off those correlations. I argue that the common cause principle is false in many circumstances, some of which are very general. I then suggest that more restricted versions of the common cause principle might hold, and I prove such a restricted version.
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  4.  64
    No-Common-Cause EPR-Like Funny Business in Branching Space-Times.Nuel Belnap - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 114 (3):199 - 221.
    There is no EPR-like funny business if (contrary to apparent fact)our world is as indeterministic as you wish, but is free from theEPR-like quantum mechanical phenomena such as is sometimes described interms of superluminal causation or correlation between distant events.The theory of branching space-times can be used to sharpen thetheoretical dichotomy between EPR-like funny business and noEPR-like funny business. Belnap (2002) offered two analyses of thedichotomy, and proved them equivalent. This essay adds two more, bothconnected with Reichenbachs principle of the (...)
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  5.  22
    Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Revisited.Claudio Mazzola - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (4):512-523.
    According to Reichenbach’s principle of common cause, positive statistical correlations for which no straightforward causal explanation is available should be explained by invoking the action of a hidden conjunctive common cause. Hofer-Szabó and Rédei’s notion of a Reichenbachian common cause system is meant to generalize Reichenbach’s conjunctive fork model to fit those cases in which two or more common causes cooperate in order to produce a positive statistical correlation. Such a generalization is proved to be (...)
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  6.  44
    Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Miklos Redei - 2004 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics 43:1819-1826.
    A partition $\{C_i\}_{i\in I}$ of a Boolean algebra $\cS$ in a probability measure space $(\cS,p)$ is called a Reichenbachian common cause system for the correlated pair $A,B$ of events in $\cS$ if any two elements in the partition behave like a Reichenbachian common cause and its complement, the cardinality of the index set $I$ is called the size of the common cause system. It is shown that given any correlation in $(\cS,p)$, and given any finite size $n>2$, (...)
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  7.  70
    Common Cause Explanation.Elliott Sober - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (2):212-241.
    Russell (1948), Reichenbach (1956), and Salmon (1975, 1979) have argued that a fundamental principle of science and common sense is that "matching" events should not be chalked up to coincidence, but should be explained by postulating a common cause. Reichenbach and Salmon provided this intuitive idea with a probabilistic formulation, which Salmon used to argue for a version of scientific realism. Van Fraassen (1980, 1982) showed that the principle, so construed, runs afoul of certain results in quantum mechanics. (...)
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  8.  36
    The Common Cause Principle. Explanation Via Screening Off.Leszek Wronski - 2010 - Dissertation, Jagiellonian University
    My Ph.D. dissertation written under the supervision of Prof. Tomasz Placek at the Institute of Philosophy of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. In one of its most basic and informal shapes, the principle of the common cause states that any surprising correlation between two factors which are believed not to directly influence one another is due to their common cause. Here we will be concerned with a version od this idea which possesses a purely probabilistic formulation. It was (...)
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  9.  96
    Characterizing Common Cause Closed Probability Spaces.Zalán Gyenis & Miklós Rédei - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (3):393-409.
    A classical probability measure space was defined in earlier papers \cite{Hofer-Redei-Szabo1999}, \cite{Gyenis-Redei2004} to be common cause closed if it contains a Reichenbachian common cause of every correlation in it, and common cause incomplete otherwise. It is shown that a classical probability measure space is common cause incomplete if and only if it contains more than one atom. Furthermore, it is shown that every probability space can be embedded into a common cause closed one; which entails (...)
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  10. Common Causes and the Direction of Causation.Brad Weslake - 2005 - Minds and Machines 16 (3):239-257.
    Is the common cause principle merely one of a set of useful heuristics for discovering causal relations, or is it rather a piece of heavy duty metaphysics, capable of grounding the direction of causation itself? Since the principle was introduced in Reichenbach’s groundbreaking work The Direction of Time (1956), there have been a series of attempts to pursue the latter program—to take the probabilistic relationships constitutive of the principle of the common cause and use them to ground the (...)
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  11. Characterizing Common Cause Closedness of Quantum Probability Theories.Yuichiro Kitajima & Miklós Rédei - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (B):234-241.
    We prove new results on common cause closedness of quantum probability spaces, where by a quantum probability space is meant the projection lattice of a non-commutative von Neumann algebra together with a countably additive probability measure on the lattice. Common cause closedness is the feature that for every correlation between a pair of commuting projections there exists in the lattice a third projection commuting with both of the correlated projections and which is a Reichenbachian common cause of (...)
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  12. Generalised Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems.Claudio Mazzola - 2019 - Synthese 196 (10):4185-4209.
    The principle of the common cause claims that if an improbable coincidence has occurred, there must exist a common cause. This is generally taken to mean that positive correlations between non-causally related events should disappear when conditioning on the action of some underlying common cause. The extended interpretation of the principle, by contrast, urges that common causes should be called for in order to explain positive deviations between the estimated correlation of two events and the (...)
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  13.  3
    Reichenbachian Common Cause Clusters.Claudio Mazzola, David Kinkead, Peter Ellerton & Deborah Brown - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-29.
    The principle of the common cause demands that every pair of causally independent but statistically correlated events should be the effect of a common cause. This demand is often supplemented with the requirement that said cause should screen-off the two events from each other. This paper introduces a new probabilistic model for common causes, which generalises this requirement to include sets of distinct but non-disjoint causes. It is demonstrated that the model hereby proposed satisfies the (...)
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  14.  10
    The Principle of the Common Cause.Miklós Redei, Gabor Hofer-Szabo & Laszlo Szabo - 2013 - Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.
    The common cause principle says that every correlation is either due to a direct causal effect linking the correlated entities or is brought about by a third factor, a so-called common cause. The principle is of central importance in the philosophy of science, especially in causal explanation, causal modeling and in the foundations of quantum physics. Written for philosophers of science, physicists and statisticians, this book contributes to the debate over the validity of the common cause principle, (...)
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  15.  68
    Common Causes and Decision Theory.Ellery Eells & Elliott Sober - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (2):223-245.
    One of us (Eells 1982) has defended traditional evidential decision theory against prima facie Newcomb counterexamples by assuming that a common cause forms a conjunctive fork with its joint effects. In this paper, the evidential theory is defended without this assumption. The suggested rationale shows that the theory's assumptions are not about the nature of causality, but about the nature of rational deliberation. These presuppositions are weak enough for the argument to count as a strong justification of the evidential (...)
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  16.  28
    Common Cause Abduction: The Formation of Theoretical Concepts and Models in Science.Gerhard Schurz - 2016 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 24 (4).
  17. Separate- Versus Common -Common-Cause-Type Derivations of the Bell Inequalities.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):199 - 215.
    Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common common cause system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper (Grasshoff et al., 2005) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper it will be shown that the assumptions of this separate-common-cause-type derivation of the Bell inequalities in the case of perfect correlations (...)
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  18.  85
    Coincidence and Common Cause.Tamar Lando - 2017 - Noûs 51 (1):132-151.
    According to the traditional view of the causal structure of a coincidence, the several parts of a coincidence are produced by independent causes. I argue that the traditional view is mistaken; even the several parts of a coincidence may have a common cause. This has important implications for how we think about the relationship between causation and causal explanation—and in particular, for why coincidences cannot be explained.
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  19.  47
    Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory with Locally Finite Degrees of Freedom.Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (2):241-255.
    In the paper it will be shown that Reichenbach’s Weak Common Cause Principle is not valid in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom in general. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated double cones ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ , respectively, a correlating state can be given for which there is no nontrivial common cause (system) located in the union of the backward light cones of ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ and commuting with (...)
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  20.  34
    Do Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist?Claudio Mazzola & Peter W. Evans - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1543-1558.
    The principle of common cause asserts that positive correlations between causally unrelated events ought to be explained through the action of some shared causal factors. Reichenbachian common cause systems are probabilistic structures aimed at accounting for cases where correlations of the aforesaid sort cannot be explained through the action of a single common cause. The existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems of arbitrary finite size for each pair of non-causally correlated events was allegedly demonstrated by Hofer-Szabó (...)
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  21.  27
    Only Countable Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Exist.Leszek Wroński & Michał Marczyk - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1155-1160.
    In this paper we give a positive answer to a problem posed by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 43:1819–1826, 2004) regarding the existence of infinite Reichenbachian common cause systems (RCCSs). An example of a countably infinite RCCS is presented. It is also determined that no RCCSs of greater cardinality exist.
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  22. On Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and Reichenbach's Notion of Common Cause.G. Hofer-Szabo - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):377-399.
    It is shown that, given any finite set of pairs of random events in a Boolean algebra which are correlated with respect to a fixed probability measure on the algebra, the algebra can be extended in such a way that the extension contains events that can be regarded as common causes of the correlations in the sense of Reichenbach's definition of common cause. It is shown, further, that, given any quantum probability space and any set of commuting (...)
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  23.  85
    Non-Local Common Cause Explanations for EPR.Matthias Egg & Michael Esfeld - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):181-196.
    The paper argues that a causal explanation of the correlated outcomes of EPR-type experiments is desirable and possible. It shows how Bohmian mechanics and the GRW mass density theory offer such an explanation in terms of a non-local common cause.
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  24.  59
    Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle.Frank Arntzenius - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Suppose that two geysers, about one mile apart, erupt at irregular intervals, but usually erupt almost exactly at the same time. One would suspect that they come from a common source, or at least that there is a common cause of their eruptions. And this common cause surely acts before both eruptions take place. This idea, that simultaneous correlated events must have prior common causes, was first made precise by Hans Reichenbach (Reichenbach 1956). It can (...)
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  25.  65
    The Common Cause Principle in Historical Linguistics.Christopher Hitchcock - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (3):425-447.
    Despite the platitude that analytic philosophy is deeply concerned with language, philosophers of science have paid little attention to methodological issues that arise within historical linguistics. I broach this topic by arguing that many inferences in historical linguistics conform to Reichenbach's common cause principle (CCP). Although the scope of CCP is narrower than many have thought, inferences about the genealogies of languages are particularly apt for reconstruction using CCP. Quantitative approaches to language comparison are readily understood as methods for (...)
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  26.  48
    The Principle of the Common Cause Faces the Bernstein Paradox.Jos Uffink - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):525.
    I consider the problem of extending Reichenbach's principle of the common cause to more than two events, vis-a-vis an example posed by Bernstein. It is argued that the only reasonable extension of Reichenbach's principle stands in conflict with a recent proposal due to Horwich. I also discuss prospects of the principle of the common cause in the light of these and other difficulties known in the literature and argue that a more viable version of the principle is the (...)
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  27.  76
    Physics and Common Causes.Frank Arntzenius - 1990 - Synthese 82 (1):77 - 96.
    The common cause principle states that common causes produce correlations amongst their effects, but that common effects do not produce correlations amongst their causes. I claim that this principle, as explicated in terms of probabilistic relations, is false in classical statistical mechanics. Indeterminism in the form of stationary Markov processes rather than quantum mechanics is found to be a possible saviour of the principle. In addition I argue that if causation is to be explicated in (...)
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  28.  48
    Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and Quantum Field Theory.Miklós Rédei - 1997 - Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1309-1321.
    Reichenbach's principles of a probabilistic common cause of probabilistic correlations is formulated in terms of relativistic quantum field theory, and the problem is raised whether correlations in relativistic quantum field theory between events represented by projections in local observable algebrasA andA pertaining to spacelike separated spacetime regions V1 and V2 can be explained by finding a probabilistic common cause of the correlation in Reichenbach's sense. While this problem remains open, it is shown that if all superluminal correlations predicted (...)
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  29. The Limits of Common Cause Approach to EPR Correlation.Katsuaki Higashi - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (7):591-609.
    It is often argued that no local common cause models of EPR correlation exist. However, Szabó and Rédei pointed out that such arguments have the tacit assumption that plural correlations have the same common causes. Furthermore, Szabó showed that for EPR correlation a local common cause model in his sense exists. One of his requirements is that common cause events are statistically independent of apparatus settings on each side. However, as Szabó knows, to meet this (...)
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  30.  28
    Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle and Quantum Correlations.Miklós Rédei - 2002 - In T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.), Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 259--270.
    Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle is the claim that if two events are correlated, then either there is a causal connection between the correlated events that is responsible for the correlation or there is a third event, a so called common cause, which brings about the correlation. The paper reviews some results concerning Reichenbach’s notion of common cause, results that are directly relevant to the problem of how one can falsify Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle. Special emphasis will (...)
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  31.  36
    Independent Evidence About a Common Cause.Elliott Sober - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (2):275-287.
    To infer the state of a cause from the states of its effects, independent lines of evidence are preferable to dependent ones. This familiar idea is here investigated, the goal being to identify its presuppositions. Connections are drawn with Reichenbach's (1956) and Salmon's (1984) discussions of the principle of the common cause.
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  32.  28
    Coherence and Common Causes: Against Relevance-Sensitive Measures of Coherence.Jakob Koscholke & Michael Schippers - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (3):771-785.
    Changing weather conditions and barometer changes usually coincide. Accordingly, the propositions that my barometer falls and that the weather conditions deteriorate are quite coherent—especially under the assumption that there is a drop in atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, scenarios like these involving common causes turn out to be highly problematic for a prominent class of probabilistic coherence measures, namely, those explicating coherence based on the idea of relevance-sensitivity. In this article, we show that none of these measures accords with the (...)
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  33.  13
    Separate- Versus Common-Common-Cause-Type Derivations of the Bell Inequalities.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):199-215.
    Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common-commoncause-system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper Graßhoff et al., "The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science", 56, 663–680 ) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper it will be shown that the assumptions of this separate-common-cause-type derivation of the Bell inequalities (...)
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  34.  39
    Sober’s Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Comparing Incomplete Hypotheses.Malcolm R. Forster - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (4):538-559.
    Sober (1984) has considered the problem of determining the evidential support, in terms of likelihood, for a hypothesis that is incomplete in the sense of not providing a unique probability function over the event space in its domain. Causal hypotheses are typically like this because they do not specify the probability of their initial conditions. Sober's (1984) solution to this problem does not work, as will be shown by examining his own biological examples of common cause explanation. The proposed (...)
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  35.  22
    Making Common Cause with Men and Women of Our Age: A Thomist Perspective.Jean Porter - 2012 - Studies in Christian Ethics 25 (2):169-173.
    This paper argues that Aquinas and other scholastic theologians offer unexpected resources for a moral theology that is fully engaged with today’s pluralistic societies. In order to do so, it is necessary to bring Aquinas into a conversation with these diverse perspectives, rather than treating his thought as a closed system, and to extend his insights through original, constructive analysis.
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  36.  68
    Local Primitive Causality and the Common Cause Principle in Quantum Field Theory.Miklos Redei & Stephen J. Summers - 2001 - Foundations of Physics 32 (3):335-355.
    If $\mathcal{A}$ (V) is a net of local von Neumann algebras satisfying standard axioms of algebraic relativistic quantum field theory and V 1 and V 2 are spacelike separated spacetime regions, then the system ( $\mathcal{A}$ (V 1 ), $\mathcal{A}$ (V 2 ), φ) is said to satisfy the Weak Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle iff for every pair of projections A∈ $\mathcal{A}$ (V 1 ), B∈ $\mathcal{A}$ (V 2 ) correlated in the normal state φ there exists a projection (...)
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  37.  70
    Venetian Sea Levels, British Bread Prices, and the Principle of the Common Cause.Elliott Sober - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (2):331-346.
    When two causally independent processes each have a quantity that increases monotonically (either deterministically or in probabilistic expectation), the two quantities will be correlated, thus providing a counterexample to Reichenbach's principle of the common cause. Several philosophers have denied this, but I argue that their efforts to save the principle are unsuccessful. Still, one salvage attempt does suggest a weaker principle that avoids the initial counterexample. However, even this weakened principle is mistaken, as can be seen by exploring the (...)
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  38.  61
    Correlations, Deviations and Expectations: The Extended Principle of the Common Cause.Claudio Mazzola - 2013 - Synthese 190 (14):2853-2866.
    The Principle of the Common Cause is usually understood to provide causal explanations for probabilistic correlations obtaining between causally unrelated events. In this study, an extended interpretation of the principle is proposed, according to which common causes should be invoked to explain positive correlations whose values depart from the ones that one would expect to obtain in accordance to her probabilistic expectations. In addition, a probabilistic model for common causes is tailored which satisfies the generalized (...)
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  39.  29
    On Modifications of Reichenbach's Principle of Common Cause in Light of Bell's Theorem.Eric G. Cavalcanti & Raymond Lal - 2014 - Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 47 (42):424018.
    Bellʼs 1964 theorem causes a severe problem for the notion that correlations require explanation, encapsulated in Reichenbachʼs principle of common cause. Despite being a hallmark of scientific thought, dropping the principle has been widely regarded as much less bitter medicine than the perceived alternative—dropping relativistic causality. Recently, however, some authors have proposed that modified forms of Reichenbachʼs principle could be maintained even with relativistic causality. Here we break down Reichenbachʼs principle into two independent assumptions—the principle of common (...)
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  40.  2
    On Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and Reichenbach's Notion of Common Cause.G. Hofer-SzabÓ - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):377-399.
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  41.  39
    Common Causes Love to Hide: Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklós Rédei and László E. Szabó: The Principle of the Common Cause. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, Vii+202pp, $99.00 HB. [REVIEW]Chrysovalantis Stergiou - 2015 - Metascience 24 (2):247-251.
    Anything other than paraphrasing the well-known Heraclitean aphorism would not be more appropriate to portray the crux of the contribution of the three philosophers of the Budapest School, Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklós Rédei and Lázló E. Szabó, in the ongoing discussion of the principle of the common cause . Indeed, ‘common causes love to hide’ and for that reason critics and aspirant falsifiers of PCC find correlations which, at a first level of analysis, might lack a common (...)
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    The Principle of Common Cause and Indeterminism: A Review.Iñaki San Pedro & Mauricio Suárez - unknown
    We offer a review of some of the most influential views on the status of Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause for genuinely indeterministic systems. We first argue that the PCC is properly a conjunction of two distinct claims, one metaphysical and another methodological. Both claims can and have been contested in the literature, but here we simply assume that the metaphysical claim is correct, in order to focus our analysis on the status of the methodological claim. We briefly (...)
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  43.  9
    Reichenbach’s Paradise Constructing the Realm of Probabilistic CommonCauses”.Leszek Wronski - 2014 - De Gruyter Open.
    Since its first introduction by Hans Reichenbach, many philosophers have claimed to refute the common cause principle. The situation is not so straightforward, though: validity of the principle remains an open question. The book traces different formulations of the principle, and provides proofs of a few pertinent theorems, settling the relevant questions in various probability spaces. It offers both philosophical insight and mathematical rigor.
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  44.  46
    Two Comments on the Common Cause Principle in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory.Chrysovalantis Stergiou - 2009 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 387--402.
    I present two relatively independent sets of remarks on common causes and the violation of Bell inequalities in algebraic quantum field theory. The first set of remarks concerns the possibility of reconciling Reichenbachian ideas on common causes with quantum field theory in the face of an already known difficulty: the event shown to satisfy statistical relations for being the common cause of two correlated events has been associated with the union, rather than the intersection, of (...)
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  45.  93
    The Principle of the Common Cause, the Causal Markov Condition, and Quantum Mechanics: Comments on Cartwright.Iain Martel - 2008 - In Luc Bovens, Carl Hoefer & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Nancy Cartwright’s Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 242-262.
    Nancy Cartwright believes that we live in a Dappled World– a world in which theories, principles, and methods applicable in one domain may be inapplicable in others; in which there are no universal principles. One of the targets of Cartwright’s arguments for this conclusion is the Causal Markov condition, a condition which has been proposed as a universal condition on causal structures.1 The Causal Markov condition, Cartwright argues, is applicable only in a limited domain of special cases, and thus cannot (...)
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  46. The Common Cause: Postcolonial Ethics and the Practice of Democracy, 1900-1955.Leela Gandhi - 2014 - University of Chicago Press.
    Europeans and Americans tend to hold the opinion that democracy is a uniquely Western inheritance, but in _The Common Cause_, Leela Gandhi recovers stories of an alternate version, describing a transnational history of democracy in the first half of the twentieth century through the lens of ethics in the broad sense of disciplined self-fashioning. Gandhi identifies a shared culture of perfectionism across imperialism, fascism, and liberalism—an ethic that excluded the ordinary and unexceptional. But, she also illuminates an ethic of (...)
     
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  47.  14
    Common Cause Completability of Non-Classical Probability Spaces.Zalán Gyenis & Miklós Rédei - 2017 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual.
    We prove that under some technical assumptions on a general, non-classical probability space, the probability space is extendible into a larger probability space that is common cause closed in the sense of containing a common cause of every correlation between elements in the space. It is argued that the philosophical significance of this common cause completability result is that it allows the defence of the Common Cause Principle against certain attempts of falsification. Some open problems concerning (...)
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  48.  57
    Nonstationary Time Series, Cointegration, and the Principle of the Common Cause.Kevin D. Hoover - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):527-551.
    Elliot Sober ([2001]) forcefully restates his well-known counterexample to Reichenbach's principle of the common cause: bread prices in Britain and sea levels in Venice both rise over time and are, therefore, correlated; yet they are ex hypothesi not causally connected, which violates the principle of the common cause. The counterexample employs nonstationary data—i.e., data with time-dependent population moments. Common measures of statistical association do not generally reflect probabilistic dependence among nonstationary data. I demonstrate the inadequacy of the (...)
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  49.  16
    Why "Noncommuting Common Causes" Don't Explain Anything.Dustin Lazarovici - unknown
    In my commentary, I will argue that the conclusions drawn in the paper Noncommutative causality in algebraic quantum field theory by Gábor Hofer-Szaboó are incorrect. As proven by J.S. Bell, a local common causal explanation of correlations violating the Bell inequality is impossible.
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  50. Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits.Patryk Dziurosz-Serafinowicz - 2012 - Filozofia Nauki 20 (4).
    This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction can be regarded as a rational inferential mechanism that enables us to accept hypotheses that aim to account for the surprising correlations of events. Three arguments are presented in support of common cause abduction: the argument from screening-off, the argument (...)
     
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