Results for 'Communism and science'

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  1. Communism and the Incentive to Share in Science.Remco Heesen - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (4):698-716.
    The communist norm requires that scientists widely share the results of their work. Where did this norm come from, and how does it persist? Michael Strevens provides a partial answer to these questions by showing that scientists should be willing to sign a social contract that mandates sharing. However, he also argues that it is not in an individual credit-maximizing scientist's interest to follow this norm. I argue against Strevens that individual scientists can rationally conform to the communist norm, even (...)
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  2.  20
    Scientific Sharing, Communism, and the Social Contract.Michael Strevens - 2017 - In Thomas Boyer-Kassem, Conor Mayo-Wilson & Michael Weisberg (eds.), Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge. Oxford University Press. pp. 3--33.
    Research programs regularly compete to achieve the same goal, such as the discovery of the structure of DNA or the construction of a TEA laser. The more the competing programs share information, the faster the goal is likely to be reached, to society's benefit. But the "priority rule"—the scientific norm mandating that the first program to reach the goal in question receive all the credit for the achievement—provides a powerful disincentive for programs to share information. How, then, is the clash (...)
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  3.  3
    Ideology and Science: The Story of Polish Psychology in the Communist Period.Leszek Koczanowicz & Iwona Koczanowicz-Dehnel - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512096550.
    This article presents a fragment of the history of psychology in Poland, discussing its development in the years 1945–56, which saw sweeping political and geographical transformations. In that maelstrom of history, psychology was particularly affected by the effects of geopolitical changes, which led to its symbolic ‘arrest’ in 1952, when psychological practice was prohibited and all psychology courses were abolished at universities. Amnesty was declared only in 1956, with the demise of the so-called Stalinist ‘cult of personality’ and the onset (...)
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  4.  64
    Between Social Science and Social Technology: Toward a Philosophical Foundation for Post-Communist Transformation Studies.Andreas Pickel - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (4):459-487.
    This analysis examines fundamental questions at the intersection of social science and social technology as well as problems of disciplinary divisions and the challenge of cross-disciplinary cooperation. Its theoretical-empirical context is provided by post-communist transformations, a set of profound societal changes in which institutional design plays a central role. The article critically reappraises the contribution of Karl Popper's philosophy to this problem context, examines neoliberalism as social science and social technology, and examines the role of experts and disciplinary (...)
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  5. Christianity, Communism, and the Ideal Society: A Philosophical Approach to Modern Politics.James Kern Feibleman - 1937 - American Mathematical Society.
     
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  6.  6
    Communism And The Nuclear Core.Olga Kuchinskaya - 2006 - Metascience 15 (3):553-555.
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  7. Communism and Social Democracy, 1914-1931.G. D. H. Cole, Carl A. Landauer, Emile Durkheim, Alvin W. Gouldner, Charlotte Sattler & Elizabeth L. Eisenstein - 1960 - Science and Society 24 (4):334-353.
     
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  8.  3
    "Science of Social Structure": Bertrand Russell as Communist and Marxist.Royden Harrison - 1989 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 9 (1):5.
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  9.  47
    Peter J.S. Duncan, Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Revolution, Communism and After.Jonathan Sutton - 2002 - Studies in East European Thought 54 (3):229-230.
  10.  6
    "Class Before Race": British Communism and the Place of Empire in Postwar Race Relations.Evan Smith - 2008 - Science and Society 72 (4):455 - 481.
    The Communist Party of Great Britain, as the largest organization to the left of the Labour Party and an influential body within the trade union movement, occupied an important position in the anti-racist and anti-colonial movements in Britain from the 1920s until the 1970s. As black immigration from the Commonwealth flowed into Britain between the late 1940s and early 1960s, the CPGB was involved in campaigns against racism and for colonial independence. However it continually encountered the difficult task of situating (...)
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  11.  2
    Crises of the Communist and Neoliberal Orders 30 Years Later: A Structural Comparison Between 1975 and 2019 Poland.Tomasz Zarycki - 2020 - Social Science Information 59 (3):484-504.
    This article proposes to look at the current moment in the recent history of the so-called Central-European countries, with Poland as a critical case study, through a structural comparison with an earlier historical cycle, that is one of the first three decades of the communist rule in the region. Thus, I propose to compare the social and economic situation in Poland of circa 1975 with that of 2019, so 30 years after the establishment of a new given political order. The (...)
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  12.  20
    “Collective Monitoring, Collective Defense”: Science, Earthquakes, and Politics in Communist China.Fa-ti Fan - 2012 - Science in Context 25 (1):127-154.
    ArgumentThis paper examines the earthquake monitoring and prediction program, called “collective monitoring, collective defense,” in communist China during the Cultural Revolution, a period of political upheavals and natural disasters. Guided by their scientific and political ideas, the Chinese developed approaches to earthquake monitoring and prediction that emphasized mass participation, everyday knowledge, and observations of macro-seismic phenomena. The paper explains the ideas, practices, and epistemology of the program within the political context of the Cultural Revolution. It also suggests possibilities for comparative (...)
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  13.  7
    [Book Review] Anarchosyndicalism, Libertarian Communism, and the State, the Cnt in Zaragoza and Aragon, 1930-1937. [REVIEW]Graham Kelsey - 1993 - Science and Society 57 (4):478-481.
  14.  9
    Philosophy, Science, and Virtual Communism.Andrew Culp - 2015 - Angelaki 20 (4):91-107.
    This paper considers how science, philosophy, and “the virtual” inform the political potential of the communism that emerges within capitalism. It looks to the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in particular What is Philosophy?, to set the terms of an anti-capitalist science and philosophy. Their understanding of the contrasting roles of the virtual in science and philosophy is then used to draw points of distinction between the theories of Manuel DeLanda, Jason Read, and Maurizio (...)
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  15.  1
    Science and Politics During the Cold War – The Controversial Case of Sexology in Communist Romania.Luciana Jinga - 2018 - History of Communism in Europe 9:87-107.
    The paper investigates how formal/informal networks of scientists, while facilitating the scientific West-East transfer in the Cold War context, shaped the scientific field of sexology by imposing personal scientific credos, in a particular national context. The paper shows that in the Cold War context, sexual science was present in Communist Romania, but neither as imitation of the regional scholarship, nor as a simple reproduction of western advancements in the field. The post-war Romanian scholarship in the field of sexology was (...)
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  16.  17
    Narrativity and Legitimation in the Discourse of the Communist Archives: Analysing the Files of “The Burning Bush Organization”.Ioana Ursu - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:155-167.
    Our paper proposes to follow the history of the “Burning Bush”, a spiritual and cultural movement in the 1940s in Romania that had proposed the solution of spiritual resistance to communism through culture and faith. The analysis holds as key-concepts: discourse analysis, narrativity, semantics and hermeneutics, following the discourse of the Securitate’s archives with reference to the Burning Bush in terms of: - conflictual discourses: inquisitor vs. imprisoned; - motives and themes of the incriminatory discourse of the Securitate; - (...)
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  17.  26
    Philosophy, Science, and (Anti-) Communism: The Two Lives of Imre Lakatos.Roberto Festa - 2006 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 4 (1):247-253.
  18.  17
    Medieval Saints and Martyrs as Communist Villains and Heroes: National Days in Czechoslovakia and Hungary During Communism.Andrea Talabér - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:168-192.
    This paper examines the transformation of medieval figures from state “heroes” during the interwar years into “villains” of the Communist state in Czechoslovakia and Hungary through their national day commemorations. I argue that the negative treatment of these medieval heroes was not clear-cut and, especially in Hungary, they enjoyed a comeback of sorts during the second half of the Communist era. This article thus demonstrates, through official commemorative events, that the Communist regimes of Czechoslovakia and Hungary to some extent were (...)
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  19. Hegel and Marx After the Fall of Communism.David MacGregor - 1998 - University of Wales Press.
    The collapse of the Soviet Empire led many to think that communism and perhaps socialism were no longer relevant to the modern world. _Hegel and Marx After the Fall of Communism _presents a balanced discussion for and against the validity of the arguments of two of the most important political philosophers of all time, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx. David MacGregor reinterprets Hegel and Marx’s philosophies, setting out key events in their lives against a backdrop of (...)
     
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  20.  4
    Feminists and the Communist Experience: Continuing Debate.David Laibman - 2003 - Science and Society 67 (4).
  21. Post-Communist Institution-Building and Media Control.Natalya Ryabinska - 2020 - Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 7:73-100.
    This study uses an interdisciplinary perspective to shed light on Ukraine’s continuous problems with media independence, which to date have not allowed Ukraine to become a country with a truly free media: since Ukraine’s independence in 1991 its media have consistently remained only “partly free.” The approach proposed in the paper combines theoretical tools of post-communist media studies with advancements in political science research in regime change and state-building to explore the continuities and changes in the institutional environment for (...)
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  22.  5
    Women and Their “Radiant Future”: Construction of Communism in the USSR in Women’s Letters to the Government.Alexandr Fokin - 2017 - History of Communism in Europe 8:285-298.
    In 1961, at the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a new program of the C.P.S.U. was adopted. The adoption of the Third Program of the C.P.S.U. was accompanied by a “nationwide discussion”. People expressed their opinions regarding the draft of the new Program at meetings and lectures and in their letters to various institutions. Naturally, not all the women actively demanded changes; for some there was probably no such thing as “women’s communism”. However, the (...)
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  23.  1
    Paul Betts and Stephen A. Smith , Science, Religion and Communism in Cold War Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Pp. 307. ISBN 978-1-137-54638-8. £60.00. [REVIEW]Fabian Link - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Science 50 (2):373-375.
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  24.  19
    Ivan Pavlov on Communist Dogmatism and the Autonomy of Science in the Soviet Union in the Early 1920s.Kenneth W. Rose, Erwin Levold & Lee R. Hiltzik - 1991 - Minerva 29 (4):463-475.
  25.  11
    Rhetoric and Ritual: Neo-Protestant Women and Gender Equality in Communist Romania.Iemima Ploscariu - 2017 - History of Communism in Europe 8:147-166.
    In communist Romania, as in other Central and East European communist countries, women became fellow workers in the building of the new proletariat state. However, there was a discrepancy between state rhetoric and the treatment of women in reality. Though not the most targeted faith group in communist Romania, neo-Protestant women faced, nevertheless, multiple levels of marginalization, due to their sex and to their religion. These women re-appropriated the state’s gender equality rhetoric and, along with their faith, produced a sense (...)
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  26.  3
    Colonial Revolution and the Communist International, 1919-1924.Stephen White - 1976 - Science and Society 40 (2):173 - 193.
  27.  2
    The Italian Communist Party and the “Lysenko Affair”.Francesco Cassata - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):469-498.
    This article explores the impact of the VASKhNIL conference upon the cultural policy of the Italian Communist Party and Italian communist biology, with particular attention to the period between 1948 and 1951. News of the Moscow session did not appear in the Italian news media until October, 1948, and for the next three years party biologists struggled over whether to translate the official transcript of the proceedings, The Situation in Biological Science, into Italian. This struggle reveals the complex efforts (...)
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  28.  11
    ‘Eurocommunism is Anti-Communism.Enis Sulstarova - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:19-38.
    Following the rift with China, Albania found itself on a lonely road towards pretending to protect the purity of the Marxism-Leninism in Europe. Although diplomatic relations with the West were restricted only to trade, the Albanian Communist leader, Enver Hoxha, was interested in recent developments inside Western Communist parties. Through Eurocommunist theorizations, the parties in Italy, France and Spain abandoned revolutionary aims, incorporated democracy in their ideology and tried to build electoral coalitions with socialist parties and other left-wing forces. By (...)
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  29.  4
    Communism as a Generational Herstory: Reading Post-Stalinist Memoirs of Polish Communist Women.Agnieszka Mrozik - 2017 - History of Communism in Europe 8:261-284.
    The objective of this article is to revise the dominating narrative of communism as male generational history. With the aid of memoirs of communist women, many of whom started their political activity before WWII and belonged to the power-wielding elites of Stalinist Poland, the author shows that the former constituted an integral part of the generation which had planned a revolution and ultimately took over power. Their texts were imbued with a matrilineal perspective on the history of communism: (...)
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  30.  30
    [Book Review] the General Will, Rousseau, Marx, Communism[REVIEW]Keith Graham - 1993 - Science and Society 59 (2):223-225.
    This bold and unabashedly utopian book advances the thesis that Marx's notion of communism is a defensible, normative ideal. However, unlike many others who have written in this area, Levine applies the tools and techniques of analytic philosophy to formulate and defend his radical, political programme. The argument proceeds by filtering the ideals and institutions of Marxism through Rousseau's notion of the 'general will'. Once Rousseau's ideas are properly understood it is possible to construct a community of equals who (...)
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  31.  6
    Remembering Communism.Chamsy el-Ojeili - 2018 - Thesis Eleven 146 (1):128-139.
    Expressions of a current “Marx renaissance”, the three books under review in this article raise crucial questions about memory, knowledge, and power for a new global Left. Traverso’s reflections on Left future-oriented memory, Favilli’s history of Italian Marxism, and Bourrinet’s work on the Dutch and German communist Left explore a variety of “forms of Marxism”. Most centrally, the three works raise still vital questions around Marxism and religion, science and utopia, knowledge and power, nation and globality.
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  32.  3
    ‘Now You See Them, Now You Don’T’. Sexual Deviants and Sexological Expertise in Communist Czechoslovakia.Kateřina Lišková - 2016 - History of the Human Sciences 29 (1):49-74.
    Despite its historical focus on aberrant behavior, sexology barely dealt with sexual deviants in 1950s Czechoslovakia. Rather, sexologists treated only isolated instances of deviance. The rare cases that went to court appeared mostly because they hindered work or harmed the national economy. Two decades later, however, the situation was markedly different. Hundreds of men were labeled as sexual delinquents and sentenced for treatment in special sexological wards at psychiatric hospitals. They endangered society, so it was claimed, by being unwilling or (...)
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  33.  16
    Propaganda Across the Iron Curtain: The Institute of Historical and Socio-Political Research Affiliated to the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and its Network in Italy.Francesco Zavatti - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:83-109.
    This article examines a case study of international Communist propaganda during the Cold War. The Institute of Historical and Socio-Political Research, a historical propaganda organization affiliated to the Romanian Communist Party, succeeded in penetrating the Iron Curtain by distributing its works through a social network provided by the Italian Liberation Movement Institute, and in publishing its works in Italy, with the help of the Gramsci Institute, as well as publishers like Editori Riuniti and Nicola Teti. The ISISP established a mutually (...)
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  34.  27
    Revolutionary Poetry and Liquid Crystal Chemistry: Herman Gorter, Ada Prins and the Interface Between Literature and Science.Hub Zwart - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 23:1-18.
    In the Netherlands, the poet Herman Gorter is mostly known as the author of the neo-romantic poem May and the “sensitivistic” Poems, but internationally he became famous as a propagandist of radical Marxism: the author of influential brochures and of an “open letter” to comrade W.I. Lenin in 1920. During the 1890s, Gorter became increasingly dissatisfied with his poetry, considering it as ego-centric, disinterested and “bourgeois”, unconnected with what was happening in the real world. He wanted to put his poetry (...)
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  35.  2
    Antisemitism and Anti-Communism.André W. M. Gerrits - 1995 - Dialogue and Universalism 5 (11):27-51.
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  36.  12
    The Big Contradiction. Feminism and Communism in the Magazine Lotta Continua. 1968-1978.Graziano Mamone - 2017 - History of Communism in Europe 8:37-61.
    A new feminist ideology can be outlined by examining the magazine “Lotta Continua”, official newspaper of the homonymous Italian extra-parliamentary group. Riots in factories and universities were closely reported in the magazine, which painted a society still affected by strong gender inequalities. Split between an opposition to official communism and the spontaneity of the working class conflict, women emerged from family isolation. The great achievements of the Italian feminist movement were reported according to the point of view of the (...)
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  37. Communist China's Economic Growth and Foreign Trade: Implications for U.S. Policy.Alexander Eckstein, Dwight H. Perkins, Kang Chao, Kenneth R. Walker, Isabel Crook & David Crook - 1967 - Science and Society 31 (3):342-354.
     
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  38. Marx and History: From Primitive Society to the Communist Future.Ross Gandy & William Shaw - 1981 - Science and Society 45 (1):109-111.
     
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  39. The Communist Trials and the American Tradition.John Somerville - 1959 - Science and Society 23 (4):361-363.
  40.  9
    Southern European Communist Parties’ Public Reaction to the 1989/1991 Set of Events in Eastern Europe: Framing the Analysis Through a New Perspective. [REVIEW]Álvaro Cúria - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:199-223.
    This article explains the methodology behind our PhD thesis, that describes how five Southern European Communist parties2 reacted, through their party press, to the events that took place in Eastern Europe from 1989 to 1991, such as the Fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, the deposition of the Romanian dictator in December 1989 or the Soviet Coup d’etat in August 1991. We describe an interdisciplinary methodology which combines elements of history of the present, historiography of Communism and (...)
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  41. Communist China 1955-1959: Policy Documents with Analysis.Robert R. Bowie & John K. Fairbank - 1964 - Science and Society 28 (2):247-249.
  42.  6
    Communism: The Humanist Religion.Charles Li - 1999 - Science and Society 63 (2):243 - 246.
  43.  17
    The Italian Communist Party and the "Lysenko Affair" (1948-1955).Francesco Cassata - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):469 - 498.
    This article explores the impact of the VASKhNIL conference upon the cultural policy of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and Italian communist biology, with particular attention to the period between 1948 and 1951. News of the Moscow session did not appear in the Italian news media until October, 1948, and for the next three years party biologists struggled over whether to translate the official transcript of the proceedings, The Situation in Biological Science, into Italian. This struggle reveals the complex (...)
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  44.  99
    Echoes of the Eugenic Movement From Interwar Romania in Communist Pronatalist Practices.Andreea Poenaru - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (4):411-419.
    The present article dwells on the idea of the empowerment of women as it was used by the Communist regime. Eugenics, a field much discussed in inter-war Romania, was the main tool in controlling women. The principles of this science, related to the idea of biology as destiny, were adopted and applied so that the private sphere became public. My thesis is that even if these principles were used in the communist strategy in order to strengthen the nation, in (...)
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  45.  15
    Between the Past and the West: Bulgarian Post-Communist Left in Search of Legitimacy.Boris Popivanov - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:177-198.
    Communist successor parties in Central and Eastern Europe have adapted to the new realities according to a popular model differentiating between pragmatic reform and leftist retreat. The Bulgarian Socialist Party, which succeeded the ruling Communists, seems to diverge from this model, neither fully transforming into a Western European social democratic formation nor remaining a Communist one while keeping elements of both. The reasons behind this ambivalent position are examined according to the party’s orientation toward its own past in its three (...)
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  46.  17
    On Two Predictions of the Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe That is What Conditions of Making Accurate Predictions in History Are?Krzysztof Brzechczyn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 38:15-22.
    The decline of communism in Eastern Europe in years 1989-1991 was a big surprise for Western Sovietology. The sudden disappearance of the object of research would undermine the reason of existence of the whole science. For this reason, in the first half of the 90s Western scientists tried to answer following question: why Sovietology was not able to predict the demise of communism. The purpose of my paper is not to make one more analysis of factors responsible (...)
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  47.  29
    Unethical Business Behavior in Post-Communist Russia: Origins and Trends.Alexander Filatov - 1994 - Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (1):11-15.
    Russian is presently in a transition stage between the old centrally administered command economy and a market economy. The result is uncertainty and instability. In such a situation there is both little room and little concern for business ethics. The objective conditions for this include distortions in the systems of supply and exchange, political instability, and judicial ineffectiveness. The subjective conditions include the breakdown of morality under the communist system, and the wide acceptance of “wild” capitalism as a necessary stage (...)
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  48.  8
    Soviet Genetics and the Communist Party: Was It All Bad and Wrong, or None at All?Mikhail Konashev - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (2):1-19.
    The history of genetics and the evolutionary theory in the USSR is multidimensional. Only in the 1920s after the October Revolution, and due in large part to that Revolution, the science of genetics arose in Soviet Russia. Genetics was limited, but not obliterated in the second half of the 1950s, and was restored in the late 1960s, after the resignation of Nikita S. Khrushchev. In the subsequent period, Soviet genetics experienced a resurgence, though one not as successful as geneticists (...)
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  49.  29
    The Influence of Historical Socialism and Communism on the Shaping of a Society’s Economic Ethos: An Exploratory Study of Central and Eastern Europe. [REVIEW]Walton Padelford & Darin W. White - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):109 - 117.
    This study utilizes an exploratory research design to investigate the influence of historical socialism and communism on the shaping of a society's economic ethos. The discussion of ethics and economics has a very long history across multiple disciplines including the founder of modern economics, Adam Smith. However, with the growth of economic science, academic consideration has shifted toward positive analysis while normative analysis has been left mainly to philosophers. By utilizing the newly developed Morality of Profit-Making (MPM) scale, (...)
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  50.  8
    The ‘Westernisation’ of the Communist Elites in Romania: Elite Modernity, Integration and Change.Alexandra Iancu - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:155-173.
    The ministerial recruitment strategies in Communist Romania are a symmetric replica of the elite selection patterns in parliamentary democracies. Starting with the mid-60s, all the major traditional pathways to power formally mirror mechanisms of the elite selection and differentiation, which are commonly encountered in Western democracies. During the Communist regime, “atypical” credentials such as education, academia, and the economic experiences also increased the likelihood of a promotion in public office. Starting from the notable differences between the Romanian elites and those (...)
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