Results for 'Communism and science'

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  1.  82
    Communism and the Incentive to Share in Science.Remco Heesen - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (4):698-716.
    The communist norm requires that scientists widely share the results of their work. Where did this norm come from, and how does it persist? Michael Strevens provides a partial answer to these questions by showing that scientists should be willing to sign a social contract that mandates sharing. However, he also argues that it is not in an individual credit-maximizing scientist's interest to follow this norm. I argue against Strevens that individual scientists can rationally conform to the communist norm, even (...)
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  2. Paul R. Josephson, Lenin's Laureate: Zhores Alferov's Life in Communist Science. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 2010. Pp. Ii+307. ISBN 978-0-262-01458-8. £22.95. [REVIEW]Steven J. Main - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (4):614-615.
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  3.  1
    Paul R. Josephson. Lenin's Laureate: Zhores Alferov's Life in Communist Science. 313 Pp., Illus., Figs., Index. Cambridge, Mass./London: MIT Press, 2010. $29.95. [REVIEW]Alexander A. Gurshtein - 2011 - Isis 102 (4):807-808.
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  4.  26
    Between Social Science and Social Technology: Toward a Philosophical Foundation for Post-Communist Transformation Studies.Andreas Pickel - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (4):459-487.
    This analysis examines fundamental questions at the intersection of social science and social technology as well as problems of disciplinary divisions and the challenge of cross-disciplinary cooperation. Its theoretical-empirical context is provided by post-communist transformations, a set of profound societal changes in which institutional design plays a central role. The article critically reappraises the contribution of Karl Popper's philosophy to this problem context, examines neoliberalism as social science and social technology, and examines the role of experts and disciplinary (...)
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  5.  6
    Philosophy, Science, and Virtual Communism.Andrew Culp - 2015 - Angelaki 20 (4):91-107.
    This paper considers how science, philosophy, and “the virtual” inform the political potential of the communism that emerges within capitalism. It looks to the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in particular What is Philosophy?, to set the terms of an anti-capitalist science and philosophy. Their understanding of the contrasting roles of the virtual in science and philosophy is then used to draw points of distinction between the theories of Manuel DeLanda, Jason Read, and Maurizio (...)
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  6.  5
    “Collective Monitoring, Collective Defense”: Science, Earthquakes, and Politics in Communist China.Fa-ti Fan - 2012 - Science in Context 25 (1):127-154.
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  7.  17
    Philosophy, Science, and (Anti-) Communism: The Two Lives of Imre Lakatos.Roberto Festa - 2006 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 4 (1):247-253.
  8.  8
    “Scientists Versus Scholars”: The Prelude to Communist Takeover in Hungarian Science, 1945–1947. [REVIEW]György Péteri - 1993 - Minerva 31 (3):291-325.
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  9.  7
    Ivan Pavlov on Communist Dogmatism and the Autonomy of Science in the Soviet Union in the Early 1920s.Kenneth W. Rose, Erwin Levold & Lee R. Hiltzik - 1991 - Minerva 29 (4):463-475.
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  10.  1
    "Science of Social Structure": Bertrand Russell as Communist and Marxist.Royden Harrison - 1989 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 9 (1).
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  11. The Communist View of Science.R. H. Richens - 1953 - New Blackfriars 34 (395):71-85.
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  12. The Communist Party and Soviet Science.Michael Shortland - 1988 - History of European Ideas 9 (5):611-613.
  13.  8
    Lucian Boia, The Scientific Mythology of Communism.Codruta Cuceu - 2006 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (13):179-181.
    Lucian Boia, The Scientific Mythology of Communism Bucharest, Humanitas Publishing House, 2005.
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  14. Hegel and Marx After the Fall of Communism.David MacGregor - 1998 - University of Wales Press.
    The collapse of the Soviet Empire led many to think that communism and perhaps socialism were no longer relevant to the modern world. _Hegel and Marx After the Fall of Communism _presents a balanced discussion for and against the validity of the arguments of two of the most important political philosophers of all time, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx. David MacGregor reinterprets Hegel and Marx’s philosophies, setting out key events in their lives against a backdrop of (...)
     
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  15. Marxism, Science, and the Movement of History.Alan R. Burger, Hyman R. Cohen & David H. Degrood - 1980
     
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  16. Christianity, Communism, and the Ideal Society: A Philosophical Approach to Modern Politics.James Kern Feibleman - 1937 - American Mathematical Society.
     
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  17. L'idéologie de/Dans la Science.Hilary Rose - 1977
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  18.  5
    Freud's 'Lamarckism' and the Politics of Racial Science.Eliza Slavet - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):37 - 80.
    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon (...)
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  19.  17
    Echoes of the Eugenic Movement From Interwar Romania in Communist Pronatalist Practices.Andreea Poenaru - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (4):411-419.
    The present article dwells on the idea of the empowerment of women as it was used by the Communist regime. Eugenics, a field much discussed in inter-war Romania, was the main tool in controlling women. The principles of this science, related to the idea of biology as destiny, were adopted and applied so that the private sphere became public. My thesis is that even if these principles were used in the communist strategy in order to strengthen the nation, in (...)
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  20.  11
    Political Screenings as Trials of Strength: Making the Communist Power/Lessness Real. [REVIEW]Zdeněk Konopásek & Zuzana Kusá - 2006 - Human Studies 29 (3):341 - 362.
    In this paper, we discuss the problem of communist power in so called totalitarian regimes. Inspired by strategies of explanation in contemporary science studies and by the ethnomethodological conception of social order, we suggest that the power of communists is not to be taken as an unproblematic source of explanation; rather, we take this power as something that is itself in need of being explained. We study personal narratives on political screenings that took place in Czechoslovakia in 1970 and (...)
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  21.  3
    The Italian Communist Party and the "Lysenko Affair" (1948-1955).Francesco Cassata - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):469 - 498.
    This article explores the impact of the VASKhNIL conference upon the cultural policy of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and Italian communist biology, with particular attention to the period between 1948 and 1951. News of the Moscow session did not appear in the Italian news media until October, 1948, and for the next three years party biologists struggled over whether to translate the official transcript of the proceedings, The Situation in Biological Science, into Italian. This struggle reveals the complex (...)
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  22.  23
    Science, Marx, and History: Are There Still Research Frontiers?Harold Dorn - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (3):223-254.
    : Half a century of political Marxism and Soviet social science deflected Marxist thought from its canonical sources. Communism and Marxism were so intertwined by events of the twentieth century that it is difficult to see what remains of the latter after the demise of the former. Specifically, three foundational principles--"being determines consciousness," the Asiatic Mode of Production, and "the ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas"--have been corrupted by heartfelt ideological commitments. A review of those (...)
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  23. Marxism and Modern Thought.Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, A. M. Deborin, S. I. Vavilov, IAkov Markovich Uranovskii & V. L. Komarov - 1935 - G. Routledge & Sons.
     
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  24.  17
    The Cold War Context of the Golden Jubilee, Or, Why We Think of Mendel as the Father of Genetics.Audra J. Wolfe - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):389 - 414.
    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both (...)
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  25.  10
    Scientific Sharing: Communism and the Social Contract.Michael Strevens - forthcoming - In Thomas Boyer-Kassem, Conor Mayo-Wilson & Michael Weisberg (eds.), Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
    Research programs regularly compete to achieve the same goal, such as the discovery of the structure of DNA or the construction of a TEA laser. The more the competing programs share information, the faster the goal is likely to be reached, to society's benefit. But the "priority rule"—the scientific norm mandating that the first program to reach the goal in question receive all the credit for the achievement—provides a powerful disincentive for programs to share information. How, then, is the clash (...)
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  26.  2
    Building Biophysics in Mid-Century China: The University of Science and Technology of China.Yi Luk - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (2):201-235.
    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People’s Republic of China since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China. (...)
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  27.  19
    Marx: Later Political Writings.Karl Marx - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Marx: Later Political Writings brings together new translations of Marx's most important texts in political philosophy written after 1848. Marx challenged poitical theory to its very fundamentals, as his works do not follow traditional models for exploring politics theoretically. In his introduction, Terrell Carver situates Marx in a politics of democratic constitutionalism and revolutionary communism. The works are presented here complete, according to the first editions or the earliest manuscript state, and include the Manifesto of the Communist Party, the (...)
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  28. Knowledge, Risk, and Liability. Analysis of a Discussion Continuing Within Science and Technology.Henk Zandvoort - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):469-498.
    In this paper I present my reflections on the ethics of science as described by Merton and as actually practiced by scientists and technologists. This ethics was the subject of Kuipers' paper "'Default norms' in Research Ethics" (Kuipers 2001). There is an implicit assumption in this ethics, notably in Merton's norm of communism, that knowledge is always, or unconditionally good, and hence that scientific research, and the dissemination of its results, is unconditionally good. I will give here reasons (...)
     
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  29.  14
    [Book Review] the General Will, Rousseau, Marx, Communism[REVIEW]Andrew Levine - 1993 - Science and Society 59 (2):223-225.
    This bold and unabashedly utopian book advances the thesis that Marx's notion of communism is a defensible, normative ideal. However, unlike many others who have written in this area, Levine applies the tools and techniques of analytic philosophy to formulate and defend his radical, political programme. The argument proceeds by filtering the ideals and institutions of Marxism through Rousseau's notion of the 'general will'. Once Rousseau's ideas are properly understood it is possible to construct a community of equals who (...)
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  30.  19
    The Influence of Historical Socialism and Communism on the Shaping of a Society's Economic Ethos: An Exploratory Study of Central and Eastern Europe. [REVIEW]Walton Padelford & Darin W. White - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):109 - 117.
    This study utilizes an exploratory research design to investigate the influence of historical socialism and communism on the shaping of a society's economic ethos. The discussion of ethics and economics has a very long history across multiple disciplines including the founder of modern economics, Adam Smith. However, with the growth of economic science, academic consideration has shifted toward positive analysis while normative analysis has been left mainly to philosophers. By utilizing the newly developed Morality of Profit-Making (MPM) scale, (...)
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  31.  1
    Freud’s Lamarckism’ and the Politics of Racial Science.Eliza Slavet - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):37-80.
    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon (...)
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  32.  26
    The Political Use of Capital Punishment as a Legitimation Strategy of the Communist Regime in Romania, 1944-1958.Radu Stancu - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:106-130.
    In this article, I will describe the evolution of capital punishment and the influence that ideology had during the founding years of Romania’s communist regime, until 1958, when the legislation and application of capital punishment reached its highest peak. Starting with the punishment of war criminals and fascists, I will then describe how the death penalty was used for political motives in a period when the regime had to consolidate, legitimate and fight different enemies. With ups and downs like The (...)
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  33.  3
    “‘Eurocommunism is Anti-Communism”: The Attitude of the Party of Labour of Albania About Western Communism in the Early 1980s.Enis Sulstarova - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:19-38.
    Following the rift with China, Albania found itself on a lonely road towards pretending to protect the purity of the Marxism-Leninism in Europe. Although diplomatic relations with the West were restricted only to trade, the Albanian Communist leader, Enver Hoxha, was interested in recent developments inside Western Communist parties. Through Eurocommunist theorizations, the parties in Italy, France and Spain abandoned revolutionary aims, incorporated democracy in their ideology and tried to build electoral coalitions with socialist parties and other left-wing forces. By (...)
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  34.  16
    Weaving the Narrative Strings of the Communist Regimes – Building Society with Bricks of Stories.Dalia Báthory - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:7-16.
    The long duration of the Communist regime cannot be explained without closely looking at the manners of creating shared meanings and agreement on explanations on the shared historical context. Narratives of legitimation, some easier to depict than others, were almost as important as the use of force in imposing the specific values of the regime. In other words, soft power was the buttress of hard power. But the nuances are numerous, once we put this otherwise obvious remark under closer scrutiny. (...)
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  35.  13
    Becoming in the Age of Proletariat. The Identity Dilemmas of a Communist Intellectual Throughout Autobiographical Texts. Case Study: Tudor Bugnariu.Ștefan Bosomitu - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:17-35.
    Romanian historiography generally states that in Communist Romania there was no intellectual capable of stimulating a “heresy” comparable to those in Yugoslavia, Hungary or Poland. This is almost true. While the Romanian Communist/Workers Party despised intellectuals, even if they were docile and obedient, in the upper echelons of the RCP/RWP one could hardly find true intellectuals. However, there were some cases that can challenge this narrative – Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, Grigore Preoteasa, Miron Constantinescu or Tudor Bugnariu. My paper will discuss the (...)
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  36.  13
    Medieval Saints and Martyrs as Communist Villains and Heroes: National Days in Czechoslovakia and Hungary During Communism.Andrea Talabér - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:168-192.
    This paper examines the transformation of medieval figures from state “heroes” during the interwar years into “villains” of the Communist state in Czechoslovakia and Hungary through their national day commemorations. I argue that the negative treatment of these medieval heroes was not clear-cut and, especially in Hungary, they enjoyed a comeback of sorts during the second half of the Communist era. This article thus demonstrates, through official commemorative events, that the Communist regimes of Czechoslovakia and Hungary to some extent were (...)
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  37.  2
    Between the Past and the West: Bulgarian Post-Communist Left in Search of Legitimacy.Boris Popivanov - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:177-198.
    Communist successor parties in Central and Eastern Europe have adapted to the new realities according to a popular model differentiating between pragmatic reform and leftist retreat. The Bulgarian Socialist Party, which succeeded the ruling Communists, seems to diverge from this model, neither fully transforming into a Western European social democratic formation nor remaining a Communist one while keeping elements of both. The reasons behind this ambivalent position are examined according to the party’s orientation toward its own past in its three (...)
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  38.  2
    Propaganda Across the Iron Curtain: The Institute of Historical and Socio-Political Research Affiliated to the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and its Network in Italy.Francesco Zavatti - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:83-109.
    This article examines a case study of international Communist propaganda during the Cold War. The Institute of Historical and Socio-Political Research, a historical propaganda organization affiliated to the Romanian Communist Party, succeeded in penetrating the Iron Curtain by distributing its works through a social network provided by the Italian Liberation Movement Institute, and in publishing its works in Italy, with the help of the Gramsci Institute, as well as publishers like Editori Riuniti and Nicola Teti. The ISISP established a mutually (...)
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  39.  12
    On Two Predictions of the Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe That is What Conditions of Making Accurate Predictions in History Are?Krzysztof Brzechczyn - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 38:15-22.
    The decline of communism in Eastern Europe in years 1989-1991 was a big surprise for Western Sovietology. The sudden disappearance of the object of research would undermine the reason of existence of the whole science. For this reason, in the first half of the 90s Western scientists tried to answer following question: why Sovietology was not able to predict the demise of communism. The purpose of my paper is not to make one more analysis of factors responsible (...)
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  40.  8
    Narrativity and Legitimation in the Discourse of the Communist Archives: Analysing the Files of “The Burning Bush Organization”.Ioana Ursu - 2014 - History of Communism in Europe 5:155-167.
    Our paper proposes to follow the history of the “Burning Bush”, a spiritual and cultural movement in the 1940s in Romania that had proposed the solution of spiritual resistance to communism through culture and faith. The analysis holds as key-concepts: discourse analysis, narrativity, semantics and hermeneutics, following the discourse of the Securitate’s archives with reference to the Burning Bush in terms of: - conflictual discourses: inquisitor vs. imprisoned; - motives and themes of the incriminatory discourse of the Securitate; - (...)
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  41.  12
    'A Most Interesting Chapter in the History of Science' Intellectual Responses to Alfred Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.Donna J. Drucker - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (1):75-98.
    There were three broad categories of academic responses to Alfred Kinsey’s Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Kinsey, Pomeroy and Martin, 1948): method; findings; and broader reflections on the book’s place in American social life and democracy. This article focuses primarily on archival academic responses to Kinsey’s work that appeared in the year following the book’s publication. Many academics agreed that some aspects of Kinsey’s method were flawed and that his interpretations sometimes overreached his raw data. Nonetheless, they also agreed (...)
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  42. Issues in Marxist Philosophy.John Mepham & D. H. Ruben - 1981 - Science and Society 45 (1):93-97.
     
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  43.  9
    Educational simulation: teaching tool for Science, Technology and Society Education in the discipline of Philosophy and Society.Graciela López-Chávez Martínez & Chávez Hernández - 2013 - Humanidades Médicas 13 (2):480-497.
    El perfeccionamiento de la disciplina Filosofía y Sociedad en la Educación Superior es una de la exigencias en los Lineamientos al VI Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba lo cual contribuye a la preparación de un profesional a la altura de los cambios científico tecnológicos que actualmente despliega la Educación Médica Superior cubana. Para el logro de este propósito se aplicó la simulación educativa como herramienta didáctica avanzada en temas de Ciencia Tecnología y Sociedad en la disciplina Filosofía y Sociedad, (...)
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  44.  1
    The ‘Westernisation’ of the Communist Elites in Romania: Elite Modernity, Integration and Change.Alexandra Iancu - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:155-173.
    The ministerial recruitment strategies in Communist Romania are a symmetric replica of the elite selection patterns in parliamentary democracies. Starting with the mid-60s, all the major traditional pathways to power formally mirror mechanisms of the elite selection and differentiation, which are commonly encountered in Western democracies. During the Communist regime, “atypical” credentials such as education, academia, and the economic experiences also increased the likelihood of a promotion in public office. Starting from the notable differences between the Romanian elites and those (...)
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  45.  14
    The "Trial" of Lee Benson: Communism, White Chauvinism, and the Foundations of the "New Political History" in the United States.Gerald Zahavi - 2003 - History and Theory 42 (3):332–362.
    Lee Benson was one of the first American political historians to suggest a “systematic” revision of traditional political history with its emphasis on narrow economic class analysis, narrative arguments, and over-reliance on qualitative research methodologies. This essay presents Benson’s contributions to the “new political history”—an attempt to apply social-science methods, concepts, and theories to American political history—as a social, cultural, and political narrative of Cold War-era American history. Benson belonged to a generation of ex-Communist American historians and political scientists (...)
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  46.  6
    The Unity and Diversity of the World and the Differentiation and Integration of Knowledge: (Results of the Third Nationwide Conference on Philosophical Problems of Contemporary Science).A. D. Ursul - 1982 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 20 (4):3-34.
    The development of science and the acceleration of technological progress are given central attention by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The party contends that the building of a new society without science is simply inconceivable; and in this connection, as was emphasized in the main report at the conference, presented by P. N. Fedoseev, Vice President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, special attention is being devoted to the development of the basic sciences, which play an (...)
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  47.  3
    Problems of Criticism of Revisionist Conceptions of the Revolution in Science and Technology.V. I. Mazu - 1976 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):78-82.
    In order to consistently and effectively overcome attempts at revisionist vulgarization of revolutionary theory, which now pursue an active parasitic existence on the process of cognition of the essence and consequences of the revolution in science and technology, great importance should be attached to a correct understanding of the objective logic of the origin and development of contemporary revisionist conceptions. Analysis of the right-wing and "left-wing" revisionist deviations that the communist movement encounters shows that revisionist thought goes through a (...)
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  48.  6
    There is No Forbidden Zone in Science.Hu Ping & Wang Ruisheng - 1979 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 11 (1):92-102.
    Science, the proud son of the era and the crystallization of man's wisdom, is inlaid in the crown of our times like a lustrous and brilliant pearl. Social science discloses to mankind the general law governing the development of society and leads it in marching forward to the higher stages of social system - socialist society and communist society. Natural science creates for mankind tremendous productive forces like miracles, enabling the human race to live a life in (...)
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  49. Southern European Communist Parties’ Public Reaction to the 1989/1991 Set of Events in Eastern Europe: Framing the Analysis Through a New Perspective. [REVIEW]Álvaro Cúria - 2016 - History of Communism in Europe 7:199-223.
    This article explains the methodology behind our PhD thesis, that describes how five Southern European Communist parties2 reacted, through their party press, to the events that took place in Eastern Europe from 1989 to 1991, such as the Fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, the deposition of the Romanian dictator in December 1989 or the Soviet Coup d’etat in August 1991. We describe an interdisciplinary methodology which combines elements of history of the present, historiography of Communism and (...)
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  50. Political Screenings as Trials of Strength: Making the Communist Power/Lessness Real.Zdeněk Konopásek & Zuzana Kusá - 2006 - Human Studies 29 (3):341-362.
    In this paper, we discuss the problem of communist power in so called totalitarian regimes. Inspired by strategies of explanation in contemporary science studies and by the ethnomethodological conception of social order, we suggest that the power of communists is not to be taken as an unproblematic source of explanation; rather, we take this power as something that is itself in need of being explained. We study personal narratives on political screenings that took place in Czechoslovakia in 1970 and (...)
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