Results for 'Comparatives'

110 found
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  1.  98
    Quantifiers in Comparatives: A Semantics of Degree Based on Intervals. [REVIEW]Roger Schwarzschild & Karina Wilkinson - 2002 - Natural Language Semantics 10 (1):1-41.
    The sentence Irving was closer to me than he was to most of the others contains a quantifier, most of the other, in the scope a comparative. The first part of this paper explains the challenges presented by such cases to existing approaches to the semantics of the comparative. The second part presents a new analysis of comparatives based on intervals rather than points on a scale. This innovation is analogized to the move from moments to intervals in tense (...)
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  2.  45
    Cross-World Comparatives for Modal Realists.Robert Michels - 2018 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 25 (3):368-391.
    Divers (2014) argues that a Lewisian theory of modality which includes both counterpart theory and modal realism cannot account for the truth of certain intuitively true modal sentences involving cross-world comparatives. The main purpose of this paper is to defend the Lewisian theory against Divers’s challenge by developing a response strategy based on a degree-theoretic treatment of comparatives and by showing that this treatment is compatible with the theory.
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  3.  85
    Chinese Comparatives and Their Implicational Parameters.Jo-Wang Lin - 2009 - Natural Language Semantics 17 (1):1-27.
    This paper argues that superiority comparatives in Mandarin Chinese are all phrasal comparatives that can be directly interpreted, and makes a new suggestion of taking the bǐ-phrase (‘compare-phrase’) to be an adjunct and one constituent, but with bǐ-shells. This syntactic analysis allows one to combine into one phrase various compared constituents that would otherwise not be analyzed as forming a phrase by themselves. Semantically, in extension of work by Heim as well as Bhatt and Takahashi, bǐ is taken (...)
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  4.  39
    Indefinites in Comparatives.Maria Aloni & Floris Roelofsen - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (2):145-167.
    The goal of this paper is to explain the meaning and distribution of indefinites in comparatives, focusing on English some and any and German irgend-indefinites. We consider three competing theories of comparatives in combination with an alternative semantics of some and any, and a novel account of stressed irgend-indefinites. One of the resulting accounts, based on Heim’s analysis of comparatives, predicts all the relevant differences in quantificational force, and explains why free choice indefinites are licensed in (...). (shrink)
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  5.  24
    Nominal Comparatives and Generalized Quantifiers.John Nerbonne - 1995 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (4):273-300.
    This work adopts the perspective of plural logic and measurement theory in order first to focus on the microstructure of comparative determiners; and second, to derive the properties of comparative determiners as these are studied in Generalized Quantifier Theory, locus of the most sophisticated semantic analysis of natural language determiners. The work here appears to be the first to examine comparatives within plural logic, a step which appears necessary, but which also harbors specific analytical problems examined here.Since nominal (...) involve plural and mass reference, we begin with a domain of discourse upon which a lattice structure (Link's) is imposed, and which maps (via abstract dimensions such asweight in kilograms) to concrete measures (in N,R+). The mapping must be homomorphic and Archimedean. Comparisons begin as simple predicates on dimensions or measures; from these we derive classes of predicates on the domain, i.e., generalized determiners (quantifiers), and show, e.g., how monotonicity properties follow in the derivation. This results in a proposal for a logical language which includes derived determiners, and which is an attractive target for semantics interpretation; it also turns out that some interesting comparative determiners are first order, at least when restricted to nonparametric and noncollective predications. (shrink)
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  6.  34
    Reassessing Crosslinguistic Variation in Clausal Comparatives.Junko Shimoyama - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (1):83-113.
    This paper looks at one area of potential crosslinguistic variation in comparatives. It has recently been claimed that Japanese clausal comparatives lack degree abstraction structures in the complement of yori ‘than’. Based on data from several empirical domains such as predicative adjectival comparatives, intensional contexts, and negative islands, this paper shows that Japanese clausal comparatives do not in general contrast with their English counterparts in the way predicted by the above claim. The syntactic and semantic phenomena (...)
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  7.  31
    No More Shall We Part: Quantifiers in English Comparatives.Peter Alrenga & Christopher Kennedy - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (1):1-53.
    It is well known that the interpretation of quantificational expressions in the comparative clause poses a serious challenge for semantic analyses of the English comparative. In this paper, we develop a new analysis of the comparative clause designed to meet this challenge, in which a silent occurrence of the negative degree quantifier no interacts with other quantificational expressions to derive the observed range of interpretations. Although our analysis incorporates ideas from previous analyses, we show that it is able to account (...)
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  8. Coordination and Comparatives.Friederike Moltmann - 1992 - Dissertation, MIT
  9. The Semantics of Comparatives and Other Degree Constructions.Roger Schwarzschild - unknown
    (1) is an example of an adjectival comparative. In it, the adjective important is flanked by more and a comparative clause headed by than. This article is a survey of recent ideas about the interpretation of comparatives, including (i) the underlying semantics based on the idea of a threshold; (ii) the interpretation of comparative clauses that include quantifiers (brighter than on many other days); (iii) remarks on differentials such as much in (1) above: what they do in the comparative (...)
     
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  10. The Subjective Mode of Comparison: Metalinguistic Comparatives in Greek and Korean.Anastasia Giannakidou - unknown
    In this paper, we present a striking parallel between Greek and Korean in the formation and interpretation of metalinguistic comparatives. The initial observation is that both languages show an empirical contrast between “regular” comparative and metalinguistic comparative realized in (a) the form of a designated metalinguistic comparative MORE; and (b) in the form of THAN employed. We propose (building on our earlier analyses in Giannakidou and Stavrou 2009, Giannakidou and Yoon 2009) that the metalinguistic comparative is perspectival, i.e. it (...)
     
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  11.  45
    On Metalinguistic Comparatives and Negation in Greek.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
    In this paper, we identify a paradigm of metalinguistic comparatives in Greek headed by the preposition para. Para clauses are lexically distinct from other comparatives clauses in Greek (headed by apo, apoti). Building on earlier intuitions, we propose a semantics of metalinguistic MORE as a contrast between two propositions in terms of how appropriate of preferred they are by some individual. Syntactically, metalinguistic comparison appears to behave like a co-ordinate structure with ellipsis in the para-clause. Our account is (...)
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  12. Contextualism, Comparatives and Gradability.Daniel Halliday - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):381 - 393.
    Contextualists about knowledge ascriptions perceive an analogy between the semantics they posit for “know(s)” and the semantics of comparative terms like “tall” and “flat”. Jason Stanley has recently raised a number of objections to this view. This paper offers a response by way of an alternative analogy with modified comparatives, which resolves most of Stanley’s objections. Rather than being ad hoc, this new analogy in fact fits better with platitudes about knowledge and facilitates a better understanding of the semantics (...)
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  13. No NPI Licensing in Comparatives.Anastasia Giannakidou & Suwon Yoon - unknown
    Abstract In this paper, we caution that the comparative is, in fact, not, a licensing environment for NPIs. We show that the appearance of NPIs is much more restricted than previously assumed: strong NPIs do not appear in comparatives, and often NPI- any is confused with free choice any . Strong NPIs are licensed only if an antiveridical function is introduced, such as the negative metalinguistic comparative charari (Giannakidou and Yoon 2009)—but the comparative itself does not contain an antiveridical (...)
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  14. Metalinguistic Comparatives in Greek and Korean: Attitude Semantics, Expressive Content, and Negative Polarity Items.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
    In this paper, we propose an analysis of metalinguistic comparatives (MCs) in Greek and Korean which combines an attitudinal semantics (Giannakidou and Stavrou 2008) with an expressive component. The comparative morpheme supplies the former, and the than-particle supplies the latter. Following Giannakidou and Stavrou, we assume that the MC involves the speaker’s attitude towards the than-proposition— which is deemed less appropriate or preferable— and we discuss novel data from Korean showing a two way distinction between “regular” MCs (signaled by (...)
     
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  15. Comparatives Without Degrees: A Trope-Based Analysis.Friederike Moltmann - unknown
    The most common analyses of comparatives make use of degrees, abstract objects that form a total ordering. In this paper, I will explore a novel analysis of comparatives in which the central notion is not the notion of a degree, but rather the notion of a concrete property manifestation, a particularized property, or a trope, as it is most commonly called in contemporary metaphysics. This trope-based analysis, I argue, has some major conceptual and empirical advantages over a degree-based (...)
     
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  16.  41
    Degreeless Comparatives: The Semantics of Differential Verbal Comparatives in Mandarin Chinese.Xiao Li - 2015 - Journal of Semantics 32 (1):fft013.
    This article studies a type of comparative in Mandarin Chinese, which has rarely been discussed in the literature (Cheng 1966). I refer to them as Differential Verbal Comparatives (DVCs). I show that DVCs, unlike Chinese adjectival and adverbial comparatives, allow differentials that are definite DPs, for example, Jane Eyre he Pride and Prejudice ‘Jane Eyre and Pride and Prejudice’. Based on this fact and other empirical differences between DVCs and adjectival/adverbial comparatives in Mandarin Chinese, I motivate and (...)
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  17.  45
    Feldman’s Account of Death’s Badness, and Life-Death Comparatives.John M. Collins - 2005 - Southwest Philosophy Review 21 (2):83-99.
    Deprivation accounts of death's badness, such as Feldman’s (1992), that purport to avoid questionable life-death comparatives Silverstein warns against (1980) by comparing only the values of various alternative life-wholes, implicitly depend upon assigning greater comparative value to periods of these life-wholes (for the person who lives) than is assigned to periods when the person is not alive, and thus are simply special cases of the problematic life-death comparative. Life-death comparatives undermine any deprivation account if (1) there is no (...)
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  18.  27
    Interpreting English Comparatives.Keith Allan - 1986 - Journal of Semantics 5 (1):1-50.
    This paper attempts to clarify the way in which we interpret English comparatives. It shows that recognition of a comparative depends primarily on the recognition of the comparative operator, cl. The cl has two constituents (1) a comparative marker which, because there are less than a dozen of them, makes cl readily recognizable; and (2) a scale marker. I argue that comparisons are made on a particular scale, and that scales have a supra end and a sub end; the (...)
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  19.  12
    Investigating the Form-Meaning Mapping in the Acquisition of English and Japanese Measure Phrase Comparatives.Tomoe Arii, Kristen Syrett & Takuya Goro - 2017 - Natural Language Semantics 25 (1):53-90.
    We present a set of experiments investigating how English- and Japanese-speaking children interpret Measure Phrase comparatives. We show that despite overt cues to the comparative interpretation, children representing both languages diverge from their adult counterparts in that they access a non-adult-like ‘absolute measurement’ interpretation. We propose to account for their response pattern by appealing to proposals by Svenonius and Kennedy and Sawada and Grano that Meas in the head of the DegP, which houses the differential, selects for an absolute (...)
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  20.  11
    Elaboration d'une base de données d'exemples de structures comparatives : de la grille d'annotation au système d'interrogation.Frédérique Melanie-Becquet & Catherine Fuchs - 2011 - Corpus (Laboratoire Language) 10:273-295.
    Le présent article retrace les étapes qui ont présidé à l’élaboration d’une base de données d’exemples de structures à subordonnées comparatives du français. Ce travail a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet « Structures à Subordonnées Comparatives du français » (SCF). Piloté par le laboratoire LaTTiCe sous la direction de C. Fuchs, ce projet a réuni des membres de quatre laboratoires français : B. Combettes et A. Kuyumcuyan (ATILF, Nancy), C. Guimier (CRISCO, Caen), N. Fournier et M. (...)
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  21.  67
    The Interpretation of Functional Heads: Using Comparatives to Explore the Mass/Count Distinction: Articles.Alan C. Bale & David Barner - 2009 - Journal of Semantics 26 (3):217-252.
    Comparative judgments for mass and count nouns yield two generalizations. First, all words that can be used in both mass and count syntax always denote individuals when used in count syntax but never when used in mass syntax. Second, some mass nouns denote individuals while others do not. In this article, we show that no current theory of mass–count semantics can capture these two facts and argue for an alternative theory that can. We propose that lexical roots are not specified (...)
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  22.  34
    Scope and Comparatives.Richard K. Larson - 1988 - Linguistics and Philosophy 11 (1):1 - 26.
  23. Comparatives and Degrees.Adam Morton - 1984 - Analysis 44 (1):16 - 20.
    I describe a way of handling comparative adjectives "a is P-er than b", in terms of degrees "a has P to degree d". I defend this approach against attacks due to C J F Williams in an article in the same issue of *Analysis*, by tracing his objections to the assumption that degrees must be linearly ordered. Since this abstract is written years later, I can mention that some of the ideas were taken further in my Hypercomparatives. Synthese 111, 1997, (...)
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  24. Implicit Versus Explicit Comparatives.Robert Van Rooij - 2010 - In Paul Egre & Nathan Klinedinst (eds.), Vagueness and Language Use. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  25.  75
    Comparatives, Superlatives, and Resolution.Jean Mark Gawron - 1995 - Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (4):333 - 380.
  26. Comparatives and the Reducibility of Relations.I. L. Humberstone - 1995 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 (2):117-141.
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  27.  42
    Subject-Auxiliary Inversion in Comparatives and PF Output Constraints.Jason Merchant - unknown
    This paper establishes the novel generalization that Subject -Auxiliary Inversion in comparative clauses requires the co-presence of VP-ellipsis, and argues that this peculiar fact follows from a disjunctive formulation of an ECP that applies at PF. The analysis relies crucially on the presence of an intermediate trace of the A'-moved comparative operator at the edge of VP, which is subject to the ECP at PF, and which interacts with the head movement involved in SAI. This trace is unlicensed in structures (...)
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  28. Comparatives.C. J. F. Williams - 1984 - Analysis 44 (1):15 - 16.
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  29.  36
    Comparatives in Counterpart Theory: Another Approach.Graeme Forbes - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):37 - 42.
    The article considers whether arguments involving sentences that make cross-world comparisons ("I could have been taller than I actually am") are better handled by counterpart theory than by standard modal semantics. The author describes a modal object-language in which such statements may be symbolized and gives both a Kripkean and a counterpart-theoretic semantics for it.
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  30. Comparatives in Counterpart Theory: Another Approach.F. Graeme - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):37-42.
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  31.  80
    A Note on Wittgenstein and Cyclical Comparatives.Dennis Jay Packard - 1975 - Analysis 36 (1):37 - 40.
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  32. Implicit Comparatives and the Sorites.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2006 - History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (1):1-8.
    A person with one dollar is poor. If a person with n dollars is poor, then so is a person with n + 1 dollars. Therefore, a person with a billion dollars is poor. True premises, valid reasoning, a false a conclusion. This is an instance of the Sorites-paradox. (There are infinitely many such paradoxes. A man with an IQ of 1 is unintelligent. If a man with an IQ of n is unintelligent, so is a man with an IQ (...)
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  33.  22
    The Algebraic Structure of Amounts: Evidence From Comparatives.Daniel Lassiter - 2010 - In T. Icard & R. Muskens (eds.), Interfaces: Explorations in Logic, Language and Computation. Springer Berlin. pp. 38--56.
  34.  77
    [Comparatives and Degrees]: Comment.C. J. F. Williams - 1984 - Analysis 44 (1):20 -.
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  35.  15
    Adjectives, Comparatives, and Syllogisms.Janellen Huttenlocher, E. Tory Higgins & Herbert H. Clark - 1971 - Psychological Review 78 (6):487-504.
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  36. Comparatives Combined with Additive Particles.Carla Umbach - unknown
     
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  37.  21
    Phrasal and Clausal Comparatives in Greek and the Abstractness of Syntax.Jason Merchant http://homeuchicagoedu/~merchant/publicationshtml - manuscript
  38.  42
    Modal Metaphysics and Comparatives.Peter Milne - 1992 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 70 (3):248 – 262.
  39.  14
    More About "Adjectives, Comparatives, and Syllogisms": A Reply to Huttenlocher and Higgens.Herbert H. Clark - 1971 - Psychological Review 78 (6):505-514.
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  40.  14
    L'Urbanisation En Amerique du Nord Et En Europe Occidentale : Notes Comparatives.Jean Gottmann - 1963 - Social Sciences Information 2 (3):33-52.
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  41. Semantics of Comparatives.Christopher Kennedy - 2006 - In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier.
     
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  42.  29
    On Some Greek Comparatives.J. Strachan - 1902 - The Classical Review 16 (08):397-398.
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  43.  29
    Counterparts and Comparatives.Peter Milne - 1993 - Analysis 53 (2):82 - 92.
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  44.  33
    Comparatives.P. T. Geach - 1983 - Philosophia 13 (3-4):235-246.
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  45.  9
    Observations Comparatives Sur la Reconnaissance, la Discrimination Et L'Association.No Authorship Indicated - 1896 - Psychological Review 3 (1):110-111.
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  46.  12
    Observations Comparatives Sur la Reconnaissance, la Discrimination Et L'Association.B. Bourdon - 1895 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 40:153 - 185.
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  47.  7
    Indianité. Études historique et comparatives sur la pensée indienneIndianite. Etudes historique et comparatives sur la pensee indienne.Ludwik Sternbach & O. Lacombe - 1981 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (4):480.
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  48.  7
    La Fresque Romane: La Route de Saint-Jacques, de Tours À León. Etudes Comparatives. Janine Wettstein.Walter Cahn - 1979 - Speculum 54 (2):438-440.
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  49.  10
    GUERET, Michel, ROBINET, André, TOMBEUR, Paul, Spinoza, Éthica. Concordances, Index, Liste des Fréquences, Tables Comparatives.Jean-Dominique Robert - 1978 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 34 (2):219-220.
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  50. Études comparatives sur la Poésie grecque d'Homère à Manassès.B. Aleksic - 1998 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 16 (1):85-92.
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