Results for 'Competence'

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  1. Competence to Know.Lisa Miracchi - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (1):29-56.
    I argue against traditional virtue epistemology on which knowledge is a success due to a competence to believe truly, by revealing an in-principle problem with the traditional virtue epistemologist’s explanation of Gettier cases. The argument eliminates one of the last plausible explanation of Gettier cases, and so of knowledge, in terms of non-factive mental states and non-mental conditions. I then I develop and defend a different kind of virtue epistemology, on which knowledge is an exercise of a competence (...)
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  2. Moral Competence, Moral Blame, and Protest.Matthew Talbert - 2012 - The Journal of Ethics 16 (1):89-109.
    I argue that wrongdoers may be open to moral blame even if they lacked the capacity to respond to the moral considerations that counted against their behavior. My initial argument turns on the suggestion that even an agent who cannot respond to specific moral considerations may still guide her behavior by her judgments about reasons. I argue that this explanation of a wrongdoer’s behavior can qualify her for blame even if her capacity for moral understanding is impaired. A second argument (...)
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  3.  72
    Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge.Ernest Sosa - 2002 - In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 264--287.
    In “Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge,” Ernest Sosa notes that in attempting to account for the conditions for knowledge, externalists have proposed that the justification condition be replaced or supplemented by the requirement that a certain modal relation be obtained between a fact and a subject's belief concerning that fact. While assessing attempts to identify such a relation, he focuses on an account labeled “Cartesian‐tracking”, which accounts for the relation in the form of two conditionals. If a person S believes (...)
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  4. Connectionism, Competence and Explanation.Andy Clark - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (June):195-222.
    A competence model describes the abstract structure of a solution to some problem. or class of problems, facing the would-be intelligent system. Competence models can be quite derailed, specifying far more than merely the function to be computed. But for all that, they are pitched at some level of abstraction from the details of any particular algorithm or processing strategy which may be said to realize the competence. Indeed, it is the point and virtue of such models (...)
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  5.  32
    Numerical Competence in Animals: Definitional Issues, Current Evidence, and a New Research Agenda.Hank Davis & Rachelle Pérusse - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):561-579.
  6. Competence, Practical Rationality and What a Patient Values.Jillian Craigie - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (6):326-333.
    According to the principle of patient autonomy, patients have the right to be self-determining in decisions about their own medical care, which includes the right to refuse treatment. However, a treatment refusal may legitimately be overridden in cases where the decision is judged to be incompetent. It has recently been proposed that in assessments of competence, attention should be paid to the evaluative judgments that guide patients' treatment decisions.In this paper I examine this claim in light of theories of (...)
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  7. Know-How as Competence. A Rylean Responsibilist Account.David Lowenstein - 2017 - Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.
    What does it mean to know how to do something? This book develops a comprehensive account of know-how, a crucial epistemic goal for all who care about getting things right, not only with respect to the facts, but also with respect to practice. It proposes a novel interpretation of the seminal work of Gilbert Ryle, according to which know-how is a competence, a complex ability to do well in an activity in virtue of guidance by an understanding of what (...)
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  8. How Competence Matters in Epistemology.Ernest Sosa - 2010 - Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):465-475.
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  9. Competent Perspectives and the New Evil Demon Problem.Lisa Miracchi - forthcoming - In Julien Dutant (ed.), The New Evil Demon: New Essays on Knowledge, Justification and Rationality. Oxford University PRess.
    I extend my direct virtue epistemology to explain how a knowledge-first framework can account for two kinds of positive epistemic standing, one tracked by externalists, who claim that the virtuous duplicate lacks justification, the other tracked by internalists, who claim that the virtuous duplicate has justification, and moreover that such justification is not enjoyed by the vicious duplicate. It also explains what these kinds of epistemic standing have to do with each other. I argue that all justified beliefs are good (...)
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  10.  50
    Tractable Competence.Marcello Frixione - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (3):379-397.
    In the study of cognitive processes, limitations on computational resources (computing time and memory space) are usually considered to be beyond the scope of a theory of competence, and to be exclusively relevant to the study of performance. Starting from considerations derived from the theory of computational complexity, in this paper I argue that there are good reasons for claiming that some aspects of resource limitations pertain to the domain of a theory of competence.
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  11.  30
    Evidence – Competence – Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi-Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap.Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.
    In this paper we assume that ‘theory’ is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES.A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist (...)
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  12. Competing Epistemic Spaces: How Social Epistemology Helps Explain and Evaluate Vaccine Denialism.Mark Navin - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (2):241-264.
    Recent increases in the rates of parental refusal of routine childhood vaccination have eroded many countries’ “herd immunity” to communicable diseases. Some parents who refuse routine childhood vaccines do so because they deny the mainstream medical consensus that vaccines are safe and effective. I argue that one reason these vaccine denialists disagree with vaccine proponents about the reasons in favor of vaccination is because they also disagree about the sorts of practices that are conducive to good reasoning about healthcare choices. (...)
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  13.  80
    A Competence Framework for Artificial Intelligence Research.Lisa Miracchi - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (5):588-633.
    ABSTRACTWhile over the last few decades AI research has largely focused on building tools and applications, recent technological developments have prompted a resurgence of interest in building a genuinely intelligent artificial agent – one that has a mind in the same sense that humans and animals do. In this paper, I offer a theoretical and methodological framework for this project of investigating “artificial minded intelligence” that can help to unify existing approaches and provide new avenues for research. I first outline (...)
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  14. Succeeding Competently: Towards an Anti-Luck Condition for Achievement.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (3):394-418.
    ABSTRACTAchievements are among the things that make a life good. Assessing the plausibility of this intuitive claim requires an account of the nature of achievements. One necessary condition for achievement appears to be that the achieving agent acted competently, i.e. was not just lucky. I begin by critically assessing existing accounts of anti-luck conditions for achievements in both the ethics and epistemology literature. My own proposal is that a goal is reached competently, only if the actions of the would-be-achiever make (...)
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  15.  52
    Competing Units of Selection?: A Case of Symbiosis.Sandra D. Mitchell - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (3):351-367.
    The controversy regarding the unit of selection is fundamentally a dispute about what is the correct causal structure of the process of evolution by natural selection and its ontological commitments. By characterizing the process as consisting of two essential steps--interaction and transmission--a singular answer to the unit question becomes ambiguous. With such an account on hand, two recent defenses of competing units of selection are considered. Richard Dawkins maintains that the gene is the appropriate unit of selection and Robert Brandon, (...)
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  16. The Right to a Competent Electorate.Jason Brennan - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (245):700-724.
    The practice of unrestricted universal suffrage is unjust. Citizens have a right that any political power held over them should be exercised by competent people in a competent way. Universal suffrage violates this right. To satisfy this right, universal suffrage in most cases must be replaced by a moderate epistocracy, in which suffrage is restricted to citizens of sufficient political competence. Epistocracy itself seems to fall foul of the qualified acceptability requirement, that political power must be distributed in ways (...)
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  17.  19
    Individual Competencies for Corporate Social Responsibility: A Literature and Practice Perspective.E. R. Osagie, R. Wesselink, V. Blok, T. Lans & M. Mulder - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (2):233-252.
    Because corporate social responsibility can be beneficial to both companies and its stakeholders, interest in factors that support CSR performance has grown in recent years. A thorough integration of CSR in core business processes is particularly important for achieving effective long-term CSR practices. Here, we explored the individual CSR-related competencies that support CSR implementation in a corporate context. First, a systematic literature review was performed in which relevant scientific articles were identified and analyzed. Next, 28 CSR directors and managers were (...)
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  18.  67
    Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultants: In Search of Professional Status in a Post-Modern World.H. Tristram Engelhardt - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (3):129-145.
    The American Society for Bioethics and the Humanities (ASBH) issued its Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation just as it is becoming ever clearer that secular ethics is intractably plural and without foundations in any reality that is not a social–historical construction (ASBH Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation , 2nd edn. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Glenview, IL, 2011 ). Core Competencies fails to recognize that the ethics of health care ethics consultants is not ethics in (...)
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  19.  82
    Conceptual Competence Injustice.Derek Egan Anderson - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (2):210-223.
    This paper identifies the phenomenon of conceptual competence injustice, a form of epistemic injustice that occurs when a marginalized epistemic agent makes a conceptual claim and is illegitimately regarded as having failed to grasp one or more of the concepts expressed in her testimony. The notion of a conceptual claim is given a deflationary account that is coextensive with the class of a priori knowable claims. This study reveals a form of oppression that severely hinders marginalized epistemic agents who (...)
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  20. Communicative Competence and the Architecture of the Mind/Brain.Maurizio Tirassa - 1999 - Brain and Language 68:419-441.
    Cognitive pragmatics is concerned with the mental processes involved in intentional communication. I discuss a few issues that may help clarify the relationship between this area and the broader cognitive science and the contribution that they give, or might give, to each other. Rather than dwelling on the many technicalities of the various theories of communication that have been advanced, I focus on the different conceptions of the nature and the architecture of the mind/brain that underlie them. My aims are, (...)
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  21. Conceptual Competence.James Higginbotham - 1998 - Philosophical Issues 9:149-162.
  22.  63
    Competence and Ability.Eric Vogelstein - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):235-244.
    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of (...)
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  23.  27
    Evidence–Competence–Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi‐Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap.Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.
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  24. Competing Reasons.Justin Snedegar - forthcoming - In Jessica Brown & Mona Simion (eds.), Reasons, Justification, and Defeat. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter investigates different ways that pro tanto reasons bearing on our options can compete with one another in order to determine the overall normative status of those options. It argues for two key claims: (i) any theory of this competition must include a distinct role for reasons against, in addition to reasons for, and (ii) any theory must allow for comparative verdicts about how strongly supported the options are by the reasons, rather than simply which options are permissible or (...)
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  25. Practical Competence and Fluent Agency.Peter Railton - 2009 - In David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.), Reasons for Action. Cambridge University Press. pp. 81--115.
  26.  88
    Communicative Competence and Theory of Mind in Autism: A Test of Relevance Theory.Francesca G. E. Happé - 1993 - Cognition 48 (2):101-119.
  27. Linguistic Competence and Expertise.Mark Addis - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, it will (...)
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  28. Moral Competence.Susan Dwyer - 1999 - In Kumiko Murasugi & Robert Stainton (eds.), Philosophy and Linguistics. Westview Press. pp. 169--190.
     
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  29.  31
    Competence in Mental Health Care: A Hermeneutic Perspective. [REVIEW]Lazare Benaroyo & Guy Widdershoven - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (4):295-306.
    In this paper we develop a hermeneutic approach to the concept of competence. Patient competence, according to a hermeneutic approach, is not primarily a matter of being able to reason, but of being able to interpret the world and respond to it. Capacity should then not be seen as theoretical, but as practical. From the perspective of practical rationality, competence and capacity are two sides of the same coin. If a person has the capacity to understand the (...)
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  30.  27
    Modelling Competing Legal Arguments Using Bayesian Model Comparison and Averaging.Martin Neil, Norman Fenton, David Lagnado & Richard David Gill - 2019 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 27 (4):403-430.
    Bayesian models of legal arguments generally aim to produce a single integrated model, combining each of the legal arguments under consideration. This combined approach implicitly assumes that variables and their relationships can be represented without any contradiction or misalignment, and in a way that makes sense with respect to the competing argument narratives. This paper describes a novel approach to compare and ‘average’ Bayesian models of legal arguments that have been built independently and with no attempt to make them consistent (...)
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  31. Moral Competence in Nursing Practice.Pantip Jormsri, Wipada Kunaviktikul, Shaké Ketefian & Aranya Chaowalit - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (6):582-594.
    This article presents the derivation of moral competence in nursing practice by identifying its attributes founded on Thai culture. In this process moral competence is formed and based on the Thai nursing value system, including personal, social and professional values. It is then defined and its three dimensions are also identified. Additionally, eight attributes as indicators of moral competence are identified and selected from three basic values. The eight attributes are loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity, responsibility, (...)
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  32.  48
    Determined by Reasons: A Competence Account of Acting for a Normative Reason.Susanne Mantel - 2018 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    This book offers a new account of what it is to act for a normative reason. The first part of the book examines the problems of causal accounts of acting for reasons and suggests to solve them by a dispositional approach. The author argues for a dispositional account which unites epistemic, volitional, and executional dispositions in a complex normative competence. This ‘Normative Competence Account’ allows for more and less reflective ways of acting for normative reasons. The second part (...)
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  33.  17
    Competence and Processing in Children's Grammar of Relative Clauses.Helen Goodluck & Susan Tavakolian - 1982 - Cognition 11 (1):1-27.
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  34.  32
    Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness, and Beneficence: A Multicultural Comparison of the Four Pathways to Meaningful Work.Frank Martela & Tapani J. J. Riekki - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  35.  12
    Mental Competence and Value: The Problem of Normativity in the Assessment of Decision-Making Capacity.Louis C. Charland - 2001 - Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 8 (2):135-145.
    Mental competence, or decision‐making capacity, is an important concept in law, psychiatry, and bioethics. A major problem faced in the development and implementation of standards for assessing mental competence is the issue of objectivity. The problem is that objective standards are hard to formulate and apply. The aim here is to review the limited philosophical literature on the place of value in competence in an attempt to introduce the issues to a wider audience. The thesis that the (...)
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  36.  20
    Autonomy, Competence and Non-Interference.Joseph Roberts - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (3):235-252.
    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon (...)
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  37.  23
    Beyond Competence: Advance Directives in Dementia Research.Karin Roland Jongsma & Suzanne van de Vathorst - 2015 - Monash Bioethics Review 33 (2-3):167-180.
    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are still competent to (...)
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  38.  55
    Competing Responsibly.Ronald Jeurissen - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (2):299-317.
    In this paper we examine the effects of different competitive conditions on the determination and evaluation of strategies of corporatesocial responsibility (CSR). Although the mainstream of current thinking in business ethics recognizes that a firm should invest in social responsibility, the normative theory on how specific competitive conditions affect a firm’s social responsibility remains underdeveloped. Intensity of competition, risks to reputation and the regulatory environment determine the competitive conditions of a firm. Our central thesis is that differential strength of competition (...)
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  39. Evaluating Competing Theories Via a Common Language of Qualitative Verdicts.Wulf Gaertner & Nicolas Wüthrich - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    Kuhn claimed that several algorithms can be defended to select the best theory based on epistemic values such as simplicity, accuracy, and fruitfulness. In a recent paper, Okasha :83–115, 2011) argued that no theory choice algorithm exists which satisfies a set of intuitively compelling conditions that Arrow had proposed for a consistent aggregation of individual preference orderings. In this paper, we put forward a solution to avoid this impossibility result. Based on previous work by Gaertner and Xu, we suggest to (...)
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  40. Performance Vs. Competence in Human–Machine Comparisons.Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 41.
    Does the human mind resemble the machines that can behave like it? Biologically inspired machine-learning systems approach “human-level” accuracy in an astounding variety of domains, and even predict human brain activity—raising the exciting possibility that such systems represent the world like we do. However, even seemingly intelligent machines fail in strange and “unhumanlike” ways, threatening their status as models of our minds. How can we know when human–machine behavioral differences reflect deep disparities in their underlying capacities, vs. when such failures (...)
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  41.  11
    Ethical Competence.Kathleen Lechasseur, Chantal Caux, Stéphanie Dollé & Alain Legault - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301666777.
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  42.  13
    America COMPETES at 5 Years: An Analysis of Research-Intensive Universities’ RCR Training Plans.Trisha Phillips, Franchesca Nestor, Gillian Beach & Elizabeth Heitman - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (1):227-249.
    This project evaluates the impact of the National Science Foundation's policy to promote education in the responsible conduct of research. To determine whether this policy resulted in meaningful RCR educational experiences, our study examined the instructional plans developed by individual universities in response to the mandate. Using a sample of 108 U.S. institutions classified as Carnegie “very high research activity”, we analyzed all publicly available NSF RCR training plans in light of the consensus best practices in RCR education that were (...)
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  43.  44
    Competence to Make Treatment Decisions in Anorexia Nervosa: Thinking Processes and Values.Jacinta Tan, Anne Stewart, Ray Fitzpatrick & R. A. Hope - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (4):267-282.
  44.  19
    Democratic Competence in Normative and Positive Theory: Neglected Implications of “the Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics”.Jeffrey Friedman - 2006 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 18 (1-3):1-43.
    ?The Nature of Belief Systems? sets forth a Hobson's choice between rule by the politically ignorant masses and rule by the ideologically constrained?which is to say, the doctrinaire?elites. On the one hand, lacking comprehensive cognitive structures, such as ideological ?belief systems,? with which to understand politics, most people learn distressingly little about it. On the other hand, a spiral of conviction seems to make it difficult for the highly informed few to see any aspects of politics but those that confirm (...)
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  45. Competing with Integrity in International Business.Richard T. Degeorge - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):6-36.
     
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  46.  37
    Addiction, Competence, and Coercion.Steve Matthews - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Research 39:199-234.
    In what sense is a person addicted to drugs or alcohol incompetent, and so a legitimate object of coercive treatment? The standard tests for competence do not pick out the capacity that is lost in addiction: the capacity to properly regulate consumption. This paper is an attempt to sketch a justificatory framework for understanding the conditions under which addicted persons may be treated against their will. These conditions rarely obtain, for they apply only when addiction is extremely severe and (...)
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  47.  19
    Ethical Competence.K. Kulju, M. Stolt, R. Suhonen & H. Leino-Kilpi - 2016 - Nursing Ethics 23 (4):401-412.
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  48.  2
    Cultural Competence as New Racism: Working as Intended?Ranita Ray & Georgiann Davis - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):20-22.
    Berger and Miller offer a strong argument for how cultural competence in medical education reinforces the racial structures that it purports to address. As social scientists with expertise i...
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  49.  67
    Competence and Trust in Choice Architecture.Evan Selinger & Kyle Powys Whyte - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):461-482.
    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein’s Nudge advances a theory of how designers can improve decision-making in various situations where people have to make choices. We claim that the moral acceptability of nudges hinges in part on whether they can provide an account of the competence required to offer nudges, an account that would serve to warrant our general trust in choice architects. What needs to be considered, on a methodological level, is whether they have clarified the competence required (...)
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  50.  36
    Competence to Make Treatment Decisions in Anorexia Nervosa: Thinking Processes and Values.Jacinta Oa Tan, Tony Hope, Anne Stewart & Raymond Fitzpatrick - 2006 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology: Ppp 13 (4):267.
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