Results for 'Competing predictions'

998 found
Order:
  1.  45
    Board Age and Gender Diversity: A Test of Competing Linear and Curvilinear Predictions[REVIEW]Muhammad Ali, Yin Lu Ng & Carol T. Kulik - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    The inconsistent findings of past board diversity research demand a test of competing linear and curvilinear diversity–performance predictions. This research focuses on board age and gender diversity, and presents a positive linear prediction based on resource dependence theory, a negative linear prediction based on social identity theory, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear prediction based on the integration of resource dependence theory with social identity theory. The predictions were tested using archival data on 288 large organizations listed on (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  2.  8
    An Experimental Evaluation of Competing Age-Predictions of Future Time Perspective Between Workplace and Retirement Domains.Matthew J. Kerry & Susan E. Embretson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  3.  29
    Choosing From Competing Theories in Computerised Learning.Abraham Meidan & Boris Levin - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):119-129.
    In this paper we refer to a machine learning method that reveals all the if–then rules in the data, and on the basis of these rules issues predictions for new cases. When issuing predictions this method faces the problem of choosing from competing theories. We dealt with this problem by calculating the probability that the rule is accidental. The lower this probability, the more the rule can be `trusted' when issuing predictions. The method was tested empirically (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  59
    Coming Clean: The Impact of Environmental Performance and Visibility on Corporate Climate Change Disclosure. [REVIEW]Cedric Dawkins & John W. Fraas - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (2):303 - 322.
    Previous research provides mixed results on the relationship between corporate environmental performance and the level of voluntary environmental disclosure. We revisit this relation by testing competing predictions from defensive and accommodative approaches to voluntary disclosure with regard to climate change. In particular, we add to the prior literature by determining the extent to which environmental performance and company media visibility interact to prompt voluntary climate change disclosure. Using ordinal regression and Ceres, KLD, and Trucost ratings of S& P (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  5.  27
    Which Evolutionary Model Best Explains the Culture of Honour?Stefan Linquist - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):213-235.
    The culture of honour hypothesis offers a compelling example of how human psychology differentially adapts to pastoral and horticultural environments. However, there is disagreement over whether this pattern is best explained by a memetic, evolutionary psychological, dual inheritance, or niche construction model. I argue that this disagreement stems from two shortcomings: lack of clarity about the theoretical commitments of these models and inadequate comparative data for testing them. To resolve the first problem, I offer a theoretical framework for deriving (...) predictions from each of the four models. In particular, this involves a novel interpretation of the difference between dual inheritance theory and cultural niche construction. I then illustrate a strategy for testing their predictions using data from the Human Relations Area File. Empirical results suggest that the aggressive psychological phenotype typically associated with honour culture is more common among pastoral societies than among horticultural societies. Theoretical considerations suggest that this pattern is best explained as a case of cultural niche construction. (shrink)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6. Torture and Judgments of Guilt.Daniel M. Wegner & Kurt Gray - unknown
    Although torture can establish guilt through confession, how are judgments of guilt made when tortured suspects do not confess? We suggest that perceived guilt is based inappropriately upon how much pain suspects appear to suffer during torture. Two psychological theories provide competing predictions about the link between pain and perceived blame: cognitive dissonance, which links pain to blame, and moral typecasting, which links pain to innocence. We hypothesized that dissonance might characterize the relationship between torture and blame for (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  7.  21
    Would a Basic Income Guarantee Reduce the Motivation to Work? An Analysis of Labor Responses in 16 Trial Programs.Dianne Worku, Mark Barrett, Allison Stepka, Nora A. Murphy & Richard Gilbert - 2018 - Basic Income Studies 13 (2).
    Many opponents of BIG programs believe that receiving guaranteed subsistence income would act as a strong disincentive to work. In contrast, various areas of empirical research in psychology suggest that a BIG would not lead to meaningful reductions in work. To test these competing predictions, a comprehensive review of BIG outcome studies reporting data on adult labor responses was conducted. The results indicate that 93 % of reported outcomes support the prediction of no meaningful work reductions when the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  22
    Status Characteristics and Performance Expectations: A Reformulation.Brent Simpson & Henry A. Walker - 2002 - Sociological Theory 20 (1):24-40.
    Status characteristics theory predicts the emergence and structure of power and prestige orders in task groups from members' status attributes. This paper argues that application of the burden of proof assumption, central to the theory, is inconsistent with a key concept, generalized expectation state. A reformulation is proposed that eliminates the inconsistency and gives competing predictions for a wide range of situations. The reformulation predicts that, when not directly relevant to task performance, specific characteristics (e.g., athletic or analytical (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Predictions and Primitive Ontology in Quantum Foundations: A Study of Examples.Valia Allori, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & Nino Zanghi - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):323-352.
    A major disagreement between different views about the foundations of quantum mechanics concerns whether for a theory to be intelligible as a fundamental physical theory it must involve a ‘primitive ontology’ (PO), i.e. variables describing the distribution of matter in four-dimensional space–time. In this article, we illustrate the value of having a PO. We do so by focusing on the role that the PO plays for extracting predictions from a given theory and discuss valid and invalid derivations of (...). To this end, we investigate a number of examples based on toy models built from the elements of familiar interpretations of quantum theory. (shrink)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  10.  23
    Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement Neurotechnologies.Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):338-348.
    Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  11.  53
    The Inherence Heuristic: An Intuitive Means of Making Sense of the World, and a Potential Precursor to Psychological Essentialism.Andrei Cimpian & Erika Salomon - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (5):461-480.
    We propose that human reasoning relies on an inherence heuristic, an implicit cognitive process that leads people to explain observed patterns (e.g., girls wear pink) in terms of the inherent features of their constituents (e.g., pink is an inherently feminine color). We then demonstrate how this proposed heuristic can provide a unified account for a broad set of findings spanning areas of research that might at first appear unrelated (e.g., system justification, nominal realism, is–ought errors in moral reasoning). By revealing (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  12.  13
    Salient Alternatives in Perspective.Mikkel Gerken, Chad Gonnerman, Joshua Alexander & John P. Waterman - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-19.
    This paper empirically investigates how perspective bears on putative salient alternative effects on knowledge ascriptions. Some theoretical accounts predict salient alternative effects in both first- and third-person perspective conditions. These include semantic accounts such as contextualism [Lewis 1996; DeRose 2009] and psychological accounts such as the epistemic focal bias account [Gerken 2013, 2017]. In contrast, other psychological accounts, such as the egocentric bias account [Nagel, 2010; Alexander et al. 2014] and the deference account [Turri 2017], only have clear predictions (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  41
    Are There General Causal Forces in Ecology?Mark Sagoff - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    In this paper, I adopt the view that if general forces or processes can be detected in ecology, then the principles or models that represent them should provide predictions that are approximately correct and, when not, should lead to the sorts of intervening factors that usually make trouble. I argue that Lotka–Volterra principles do not meet this standard; in both their simple “strategic” and their complex “tactical” forms they are not approximately correct of the findings of the laboratory experiments (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  14.  40
    Donkey Anaphora: The View From Sign Language (ASL and LSF).Philippe Schlenker - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (4):341-395.
    There are two main approaches to the problem of donkey anaphora (e.g. If John owns a donkey , he beats it ). Proponents of dynamic approaches take the pronoun to be a logical variable, but they revise the semantics of quantifiers so as to allow them to bind variables that are not within their syntactic scope. Older dynamic approaches took this measure to apply solely to existential quantifiers; recent dynamic approaches have extended it to all quantifiers. By contrast, proponents of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  15.  92
    Frankfurt’s Unwilling and Willing Addicts.Chandra Sripada - 2017 - Mind 126 (503):781-815.
    Harry Frankfurt’s Unwilling Addict and Willing Addict cases accomplish something fairly unique: they pull apart the predictions of control-based views of moral responsibility and competing self-expression views. The addicts both lack control over their actions but differ in terms of expression of their respective selves. Frankfurt’s own view is that—in line with the predictions of self-expression views—the unwilling addict is not morally responsible for his drug-directed actions while the willing addict is. But is Frankfurt right? In this (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  16.  11
    Addiction and Embodiment.Corinde E. Wiers & Ellen Fridland - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):15-42.
    Recent experiments have shown that when individuals with a substance use disorder are confronted with drug-related cues, they exhibit an automatically activated tendency to approach these cues. The strength of the drug approach bias has been associated with clinically relevant measures, such as increased drug craving and relapse, and activations in brain reward areas. Retraining the approach bias by means of cognitive bias modification has been demonstrated to decrease relapse rates in patients with an alcohol use disorder and to reduce (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  38
    Predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism.Thomas Søbirk Petersen - 2014 - Journal of Ethics 18 (2):137-151.
    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss whether some adherents of retributivism give a plausible rationale for punishing offenders more harshly if they, all else being equal, by means of predictions are believed to be (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  18.  14
    University Sports Rivalries Provide Insights on Coalitional Psychology.Daniel J. Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader & Shannon Murphy - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):337-352.
    Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival’s (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19.  16
    What Counts in Grammatical Number Agreement?Laurel Brehm & Kathryn Bock - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):149-169.
    Both notional and grammatical number affect agreement during language production. To explore their workings, we investigated how semantic integration, a type of conceptual relatedness, produces variations in agreement (Solomon & Pearlmutter, 2004). These agreement variations are open to competing notional and lexical-grammatical number accounts. The notional hypothesis is that changes in number agreement reflect differences in referential coherence: More coherence yields more singularity. The lexical-grammatical hypothesis is that changes in agreement arise from competition between nouns differing in grammatical number: (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  20.  32
    Sex Differences in Disgust: Why Are Women More Easily Disgusted Than Men?Laith Al-Shawaf, David M. G. Lewis & David M. Buss - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):149-160.
    Women have consistently higher levels of disgust than men. This sex difference is substantial in magnitude, highly replicable, emerges with diverse assessment methods, and affects a wide array of outcomes—including job selection, mate choice, food aversions, and psychological disorders. Despite the importance of this far-reaching sex difference, sound theoretical explanations have lagged behind the empirical discoveries. In this article, we focus on the evolutionary-functional level of analysis, outlining hypotheses capable of explaining why women have higher levels of disgust than men. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21.  42
    Reasoning in Moral Conflicts.Monica Bucciarelli & Margherita Daniele - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):265-294.
    Following the assumptions of the mental model theory and its account of moral judgements, we argue for a main role of reasoning in moral judgements, especially in dealing with moral conflicts. In four experiments, we invited adult participants to evaluate scenarios describing moral or immoral actions. Our results confirm the predictions deriving from our assumptions: Given a moral or immoral scenario, the manipulation of the propositions which refer to norms and values results in a scenario eliciting a moral conflict (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  22.  25
    Addiction and Embodiment.Ellen Fridland & Corinde E. Wiers - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):15-42.
    Recent experiments have shown that when individuals with a substance use disorder are confronted with drug-related cues, they exhibit an automatically activated tendency to approach these cues. The strength of the drug approach bias has been associated with clinically relevant measures, such as increased drug craving and relapse, and activations in brain reward areas. Retraining the approach bias by means of cognitive bias modification has been demonstrated to decrease relapse rates in patients with an alcohol use disorder and to reduce (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  30
    Artefacts in Experimental Economics: Preference Reversals and the Becker–Degroot–Marschak Mechanism.Francesco Guala - 2000 - Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):47-75.
    Controversies in economics often fizzle out unresolved. One reason is that, despite their professed empiricism, economists find it hard to agree on the interpretation of the relevant empirical evidence. In this paper I will present an example of a controversial issue first raised and then solved by recourse to laboratory experimentation. A major theme of this paper, then, concerns the methodological advantages of controlled experiments. The second theme is the nature of experimental artefacts and of the methods devised to detect (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  24. Incommensurability and Theory Comparison in Experimental Biology.Marcel Weber - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):155-169.
    Incommensurability of scientific theories, as conceived by Thomas Kuhnand Paul Feyerabend, is thought to be a major or even insurmountable obstacletothe empirical comparison of these theories. I examine this problem in light ofaconcrete case from the history of experimental biology, namely the oxidativephosphorylation controversy in biochemistry (ca. 1961-1977). After a briefhistorical exposition, I show that the two main competing theories which werethe subject of the ox-phos controversy instantiate some of the characteristicfeatures of incommensurable theories, namely translation failure,non-corresponding predictions, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  25.  44
    Scientific Revolutions Without Paradigm-Replacement and the Coexistence of Competing Paradigms: The Case of Generative Grammar and Construction Grammar. [REVIEW]Stephan Kornmesser - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):91-118.
    In the Kuhnian and Post-Kuhnian Philosophy of Science, it is widely accepted that scientific revolutions always involve the replacement of an old paradigm by a new paradigm. This article attempts to refute this assumption by showing that there are paradigm-constellations that conform to the relation of a scientific revolution in a Kuhnian sense without a paradigm-replacement occurring. The paradigms investigated here are the linguistic paradigms of Generative Grammar and Construction Grammar that, contrary to Kuhn’s conception of a sequence of paradigm-replacements, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26.  27
    Three Aspects of Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology.Feraz Azhar - unknown
    Extracting predictions from cosmological theories that describe a multiverse, for what we are likely to observe in our domain, is crucial to establishing the validity of these theories. One way to extract such predictions is from theory-generated probability distributions that allow for selection effects---generally expressed in terms of assumptions about anthropic conditionalization and how typical we are. In this paper, I urge three lessons about typicality in multiverse settings. Because it is difficult to characterize our observational situation in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  3
    Thermodynamic Deduction Versus Quantum Revolution: The Failure of Richardson's Theory of the Photoelectric Effect.Shaul Katzir - 2006 - Annals of Science 63 (4):447-469.
    Summary Between 1911 and 1914, Owen Richardson formulated a theory of photoelectricity based on thermodynamics and statistical reasoning. Although this theory succeeded in accounting for most of the relevant phenomena and despite the lack of competing causal or descriptive accounts of the phenomena, it failed to attract other physicists. This paper seeks the reasons for the neglect of this theory in contemporary cultures of photoelectric research. Four main causes of neglect are identified: the relatively high number and the nature (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  28.  3
    Disentangling the Relationship Between Sociotropic and Egotropic Trade Attitudes: A Survey Experiment in Japan.Eddie Hearn - forthcoming - Japanese Journal of Political Science:1-12.
    Public support for protection is typically attributed to economic self-interest. Beyond pocketbook anxieties, a competing approach, however, contends that sociotropic attitudes dictate foreign policy preferences. Researchers, however, have faced difficulty in disentangling sociotropic attitudes from pocketbook concerns in observational studies. This article addresses this problem by utilizing a priming experiment to examine the relationship between socio and egotropic attitudes. In line with the predictions of the sociotropic framework, individuals are less certain about the egotropic effects of trade and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  31
    Theory Knitting: An Integrative Approach to Theory Development.David A. Kalmar & Robert J. Sternberg - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (2):153 – 170.
    A close scrutiny of the psychological literature reveals that many psychologists favor a 'segregative' approach to theory development. One theory is pitted against another, and the one that accounts for the data most successfully is deemed the theory of choice. However, an examination of the theoretical debates in which the segregative approach has been pursued reveals a variety of weaknesses to the approach, namely, masking an underlying theoretical indistinguishability of theoretical predictions, causing psychologists to focus unknowingly on different aspects (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30.  56
    The Philosophical Significance of Mendeleev’s Successful Predictions of the Properties of Gallium and Scandium.Michael Akeroyd - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):117-122.
    The philosophical significance of Dmitri Mendeleev’s successful predictions of the properties of gallium and scandium vis a vis the acceptance of the Periodic Table 1874–1886 has been debated recently. This author presents evidence that De Boisbaudran and Cleve both respectively predicted the possible existence of gallium and scandium, but on the basis of the old TRIAD methodology. This suggests that these successful Mendeleev predictions were therefore not independent corroboration of the concept of the Periodic System. Instead the significantly (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  45
    Small Group Predictions on an Uncertain Outcome: The Effect of Nondiagnostic Information.George R. Young II, Kenneth H. Price & Cynthia Claybrook - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (2):149-167.
    Research has established that exposure to a combination of diagnostic (i.e., relevant) and nondiagnostic (i.e., irrelevant) information results in predictions that are more regressive than predictions based on diagnostic information (Hackenbrack, 1992; Hoffman and Patton, 1997). This phenomenon has been labeled the dilution effect (e.g., Tetlock and Boettger, 1989) and has been documented when individuals make predictions. This study tests for the dilution effect when small groups make predictions, and examines the effect of using a procedure (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  17
    Using the Bass Model to Analyze the Diffusion of Innovations at the Base of the Pyramid.Kokila Doshi & Ryan Ratcliff - 2016 - Business and Society 55 (2):271-298.
    This research note proposes the Bass Model as an empirical tool for analyzing the diffusion of new product and service innovations in Base of the Pyramid markets. This approach allows researchers to test whether factors that seem theoretically relevant to the speed and trajectory of adoption actually matter empirically. The authors model the growth of three BoP success stories using the Bass Model: Patrimonio Hoy, e-Choupal, and Grameen’s Village Phone. In two of the three cases considered, the Bass Model estimates (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  9
    Effects of Early Cues on the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for Experience‐Based Theories.Fuyun Wu, Elsi Kaiser & Shravan Vasishth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1101-1133.
    We used Chinese prenominal relative clauses to test the predictions of two competing accounts of sentence comprehension difficulty: the experience-based account of Levy () and the Dependency Locality Theory. Given that in Chinese RCs, a classifier and/or a passive marker BEI can be added to the sentence-initial position, we manipulated the presence/absence of classifiers and the presence/absence of BEI, such that BEI sentences were passivized subject-extracted RCs, and no-BEI sentences were standard object-extracted RCs. We conducted two self-paced reading (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  20
    The Doing of a Depth-Investigation.Tim Rogers - 2004 - Journal of Critical Realism 3 (2):238-269.
    Bhaskar has outlined the process of a depth-investigation and claims it is a transcendentally necessary condition for the realisation of the critical naturalist emancipatory project in the human sciences. However, little or no research has been identified as empirically fulfilling the criteria of a depth-investigation, making this claim difficult to evaluate. Given this empirical vacuum, criticisms of, and doubts about, the emancipatory potential of critical naturalism have arisen. In this paper I claim that the ‘theory of action’ is a theory (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  12
    ‘Unaffected by Fortune, Good or Bad’: Context and Reception of Chandrasekhar's Mass–Radius Relationship for White Dwarfs, 1935–1965.François Wesemael - 2010 - Annals of Science 67 (2):205-237.
    The 1935 conflict on the nature of relativistic degeneracy that pitted Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar against Arthur Stanley Eddington is part of astronomical lore. In recountings of the events surrounding the dispute, the complaint is frequently aired that Chandrasekhar, who faced the pre-eminent astrophysicist of his time, did not enjoy the support of the astronomical community, which opted to side instead with Eddington. We reconsider these statements in the light of the published record and argue that the reception of Chandrasekhar's ideas was, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Marx's Theory of Social Forms and Lakatos's Methodology of Scientific Research Programs.Tony Smith - unknown
    economists. According to Rosenberg, Milton Friedman's positive methodology is being supplanted by Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programs (MSRP). At any rate, the Kuhnian wave of the seventies is being swallowed up by the Lakatosian program. (Redman 142) There have been a number of attempts to comprehend mainstream (bourgeois) economics as a Lakatosian research program, or as a set of competing research programs. (Latsis, ed. passim; de Marchi and Blaug, eds.)i In contrast, the extent to which the Marxian study (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  21
    Acoustic Correlates and Perceptual Cues in Speech.James R. Sawusch - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):283-284.
    Locus equations are supposed to capture a perceptual invariant of place of articulation in consonants. Synthetic speech data show that human classification deviates systematically from the predictions of locus equations. The few studies that have contrasted predictions from competing theories yield mixed results, indicating that no current theory adequately characterizes the perceptual mapping from sound to phonetic symbol.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  22
    Some Epistemological Aspects of the Model in Medicine.Edmond A. Murphy - 1978 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (4):273-292.
    SummaryCertain revolutionary changes in medicine—measurement, chemistry, genetics—have led to recasting both the criteriology and the conceptualization of the terms of discourse. But advances along this path rest no longer on naive observation but intimately and inextricably involve modeling, that is, a system of inference which derives no immediate warrant from the primordial data of the senses. This system is not totally new in quality, since all “fact” involves interpretation of data; nor is it entirely new in having heuristic value in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  3
    Criminal Theory in the Twentieth Century.George P. Fletcher - 2001 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 2 (1).
    The theoretical inquiry into the foundations of criminal law in the twentieth century, in both civil and common law traditions, is assayed by the consideration of seven main currents or trends. First, the structure of offenses is examined in light of the bipartite, tripartite, and quadripartite modes of analysis. Second, competing theories of culpability - normative and descriptive - are weighed in connection with their important ramifications for the presumption of proof and the allocation of the burden of persuasion (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  4
    Calcul Sau Credinta? Aplicatii Ale Teoriei Alegerii Rationale in Studiul Religiei.Mihnea Vasilescu - 2002 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 1 (2):183-193.
    The theory of rational choice is one of the most recent paradigms for the study of religion that strongly argues against previously dominant approaches such as the secularization thesis. The theory relies on more or less acceptable assumptions drawn from economic models of rational behavior, and offers interesting explanations or predictions supported by an impressive amount of data. The innovative approach introduced by the advocates or rational choice is a shift in focus from the demand side to the supply (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  2
    The Doing of a Depth-Investigation: Implications for the Emancipatory Aims of Critical Naturalism.Tim Rogers - 2004 - Journal of Critical Realism 3 (2):238-269.
    Bhaskar has outlined the process of a depth-investigation and claims it is a transcendentally necessary condition for the realisation of the critical naturalist emancipatory project in the human sciences. However, little or no research has been identified as empirically fulfilling the criteria of a depth-investigation, making this claim difficult to evaluate. Given this empirical vacuum, criticisms of, and doubts about, the emancipatory potential of critical naturalism have arisen. In this paper I claim that the ‘theory of action’ is a theory (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. A New Approach To The Incommensurability Of Scientific Paradigms In T. Kuhn’s Theory.Andrei Zavaliy - 2007 - Analytica 1:82-96.
    The notion of incommensurability as applied to competing scientific theories was challenged on various grounds ever since the publication of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . Kuhn’s critics argue that the notion of incommensurability is either incoherent , or false . This paper challenges both interpretations. I attempt to show that the claim that scientific paradigms are incommensurable implies neither that the one cannot be translated into another’s ‘language’, nor that they cannot be compared to each other with regard (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  76
    Understanding Polls and Predictions.Koshy Tharakan - 2004 - Seminar (539).
  44.  11
    Balancing Competing Interests and Obligations in Mental Health‐Care Practice and Policy.Jeffrey Kirby - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):699-707.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  6
    Individual and Group Predictions of Item Difficulty for Free Learning.Benton J. Underwood - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):673.
  46.  14
    Multiple Predictions in Choice Reaction Time: A Serial Memory Scanning Interpretation.Michael J. Hacker & James V. Hinrichs - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):999.
  47.  8
    Comparison of Predictions and Estimates in a Probability Learning Situation.E. D. Neimark & E. H. Shuford - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):294.
  48.  16
    Effects of Competing Reactions on the Conditioning Curve for Bar Pressing.William K. Estes - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (2):200.
  49.  17
    Effect of Probability of Competing Responses in Probabilistic Verbal Acquisition.Mathew Erdelyi, Barbara Watts & James F. Voss - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (4):323.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  15
    Evaluating Cardiovascular Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis Based on Competing Risks Markov Chains and Additive Regression Models.Rosalba Rosato, G. Ciccone, S. Bo, G. F. Pagano, F. Merletti & D. Gregori - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (3):422-428.
1 — 50 / 998