Results for 'Competition'

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  1. Entry form.Pif Gold Medal Competition - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press. pp. 400.
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  2. Complexity of meaning, 3 Complexity of processing operations, 3 Conceptual classes, 103 Connectionism, 61, 80, 86, 87.Competition Model - 2005 - Behaviorism 34:83.
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  3.  7
    Re-thinking trust in a performative culture: the case of post-compulsory education.Competitiveness Settlement - 2004 - In Jerome Satterthwaite, Elizabeth Atkinson & Wendy Martin (eds.), The Disciplining of Education: New Languages of Power and Resistance. Trentham Books. pp. 2--69.
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  4.  47
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath (ed.) - 2014 - New York: Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  5.  20
    Competition and its tendency to corrupt philosophy.Yvette Drissen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 1 (9):5–27.
    Competition plays a substantial and structural role in philosophy today. It is therefore remarkable that it has received little systematic ethical scrutiny in the literature until now. This paper aims to contribute to establishing a discussion about competition in the discipline of philosophy by arguing (i) that philosophy is not inherently competitive and (ii) that competition tends to corrupt the practice of philosophy. Regarding (i), I argue that philosophy can best be understood as a cooperative endeavour. The (...)
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  6. Cue competition effects and young children's causal and counterfactual inferences.Teresa McCormack, Stephen Andrew Butterfill, Christoph Hoerl & Patrick Burns - 2009 - Developmental Psychology 45 (6):1563-1575.
    The authors examined cue competition effects in young children using the blicket detector paradigm, in which objects are placed either singly or in pairs on a novel machine and children must judge which objects have the causal power to make the machine work. Cue competition effects were found in a 5- to 6-year-old group but not in a 4-year-old group. Equivalent levels of forward and backward blocking were found in the former group. Children's counterfactual judgments were subsequently examined (...)
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  7. Peer competition and cooperation.Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera - 2018 - In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Basel:
    Peer competition and peer cooperation can be intuitively seen as opposing phenomena. However, depending on multiple factors, they might be complementary. In a population divided into groups, for instance, members of each group may cooperate with their peers in order to compete with neighboring groups. Alternatively, they may compete with their peers as a means of choosing the best cooperative partners and demonstrate that they are reliable cooperative partners. For instance, if subjects can choose with whom they wish to (...)
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  8.  12
    Capitalism: Competition, Conflict, Crises.Anwar Shaikh - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Orthodox economics operates within a hypothesized world of perfect competition in which perfect consumers and firms act to bring about supposedly optimal outcomes. The discrepancies between this model and the reality it claims to address are then attributed to particular imperfections in reality itself. Most heterodox economists seize on this fact and insist that the world is characterized by imperfect competition. But this only ties them to the notion of perfect competition, which remains as their point of (...)
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  9. Competition as cooperation.C. Thi Nguyen - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (1):123-137.
    Games have a complex, and seemingly paradoxical structure: they are both competitive and cooperative, and the competitive element is required for the cooperative element to work out. They are mechanisms for transforming competition into cooperation. Several contemporary philosophers of sport have located the primary mechanism of conversion in the mental attitudes of the players. I argue that these views cannot capture the phenomenological complexity of game-play, nor the difficulty and moral complexity of achieving cooperation through game-play. In this paper, (...)
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  10.  44
    Competition, Redemption, and Hope.Scott Kretchmar - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):101-116.
    Zero-sum aspects of sport have generated a number of ethical concerns and a similar number of defenses or apologetics. The trick has been to find a middle position that neither overly gentrifies sport nor inappropriately emphasizes the significance of winning and losing. One such position would have us focus on the process of trying to win over the fact of having one. It would also ameliorate any harms associated with defeat by pointing out that benefits like achievement, excellence, and moral (...)
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  11. Is Competitive Elite Sport Really Morally Corrupt?Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2017 - Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 75 (1):05–14.
    It has been argued that competitive elite sport both (i) reduces the humanity of athletes by turning them into beings whose sole value is determined in relation to others, and (ii) is motivated by a celebration of the genetically superior and humiliation of the weak. This paper argues that while (i) is a morally reproachable attitude to competition, it is not what competitive elite sport revolves around, and that (ii) simply is not the essence of competitive elite sport. Competitive (...)
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  12. Reasons, Competition, and Latitude.Justin Snedegar - forthcoming - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    The overall moral status of an option—whether it is required, permissible, forbidden, or something we really should do—is explained by competition between the contributory reasons bearing on that option and the alternatives. A familiar challenge for accounts of this competition is to explain the existence of latitude: there are usually multiple permissible options, rather than a single required option. One strategy is to appeal to distinctions between reasons that compete in different ways. Philosophers have introduced various kinds of (...)
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  13.  48
    Virtual competitions and the gamer’s dilemma.Karim Nader - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):239-245.
    This paper expands Rami Ali’s dissolution of the gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 17:267-274, 2015). Morgan Luck’s gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 11(1):31-36, 2009) rests on our having diverging intuition when considering virtual murder and virtual child molestation in video games. Virtual murder is seemingly permissible, when virtual child molestation is not and there is no obvious morally relevant difference between the two. Ali argues that virtual murder and virtual child molestation are equally permissible/impermissible when considered under different modes of (...)
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  14. The competition for knowledge: Shades of gray and rules of thumb.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (3):50 - 62.
    All research is immersed in the competition for knowledge, but this is not always governed by fairness. In this opinion article, I elaborate on indicators of unfairness to be found in both evaluation guides and evaluation panels, and I spontaneously offer a number of rules of thumb meant to keep it at bay. Although they are explicitly offered to the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and in particular to the evaluation panel for Philosophy, Ethics and Religion of (...)
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  15. Competition over agents with boundedly rational expectations.Ran Spiegler - unknown
    I study a market model in which profit-maximizing firms compete in multidimensional pricing strategies over a consumer, who is limited in his ability to grasp such complicated objects and therefore uses a sampling procedure to evaluate them. Firms respond to increased competition with an increased effort to obfuscate, rather than with more competitive pricing. As a result, consumer welfare is not enhanced and may even deteriorate. Specifically, when firms control both the price and the quality of each dimension, and (...)
     
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  16. Competition and connectionism.Brian MacWhinney - 1989 - In Brian MacWhinney & Elizabeth Bates (eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 442--457.
  17.  76
    Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche.Thomas R. Alley - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible (...)
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  18.  23
    Non-Competition Covenants in Case of a Business Transfer.Virginijus Bitė - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (1):177-198.
    The validity (probability) of non-competition covenants which are typical for business transfer transactions is one of those issues on which discussions go in the international business transfer theory and practice. On one hand, such covenants help ensure the business interests of the buyer, on the other hand, by their nature, they can mean a restriction of competition, which is prohibited by law. This article, based on the analysis of the European Union, the Lithuanian and foreign legislation, case-law and (...)
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  19.  25
    Competition, Value Creation and the Self-Understanding of Business.David Silver - 2016 - Business Ethics Journal Review 4 (10):59-65.
    In defense of his Market Failures Approach to business ethics Joseph Heath relies on an understanding of business as essentially oriented towards competition and profit maximization. In these remarks I defend an alternative understanding of business that is centered on the creation of valuable goods and services. It is preferable because it: (a) creates less pressure to take advantage of vulnerable stakeholders, (b) can readily recognize “beyond compliance” norms that do not relate to efficiency, (c) provides a more meaningful (...)
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  20. Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation.Christopher H. Eliot - 2011 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 3 (20130604):1-16.
    The complexity and heterogeneity of causes influencing ecology’s domain challenge its capacity to generate a general theory without exceptions, raising the question of whether ecology is capable, even in principle, of achieving the sort of theoretical success enjoyed by physics. Weber has argued that competition theory built around the Competitive Exclusion Principle (especially Tilman’s resource-competition model) offers an example of ecology identifying a law-like causal regularity. However, I suggest that as Weber presents it, the CEP is not yet (...)
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  21.  8
    Competitive and Coordinative Interactions between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes.Richard Gawne, Kenneth Z. McKenna & Michael Levin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (8):1900245.
    Large‐scale patterns of correlated growth in development are partially driven by competition for metabolic and informational resources. It is argued that competition between organs for limited resources is an important mesoscale morphogenetic mechanism that produces fitness‐enhancing correlated growth. At the genetic level, the growth of individual characters appears independent, or “modular,” because patterns of expression and transcription are often highly localized, mutations have trait‐specific effects, and gene complexes can be co‐opted as a unit to produce novel traits. However, (...)
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  22. The Competition Account of Achievement‐Value.Ian D. Dunkle - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (4):1018-1046.
    A great achievement makes one’s life go better independently of its results, but what makes an achievement great? A simple answer is—its difficulty. I defend this view against recent, pressing objections by interpreting difficulty in terms of competitiveness. Difficulty is determined not by how hard the agent worked for the end but by how hard others would need to do in order to compete. Successfully reaching a goal is a valuable achievement because it is difficult, and it is difficult because (...)
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  23.  45
    Competitive Irrationality in Transitional Economies: Are Communist Managers Less Irrational?Lance E. Brouthers, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu & Steve Werner - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):397-408.
    Why do marketing managers in the transitional economies of Eastern Europe and China often engage in competitively irrational behavior, choosing pricing strategies that damage competitors’ profits, rather than choosing pricing strategies that improve their firm’s profits? We propose one possible reason, the moral vacuum created by the collapse of communist ideology. We hypothesize and find that managers who experienced formal communist moral ideological indoctrination are less likely to be competitively irrational than the post-communist managers who did not. Implications are discussed.
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  24.  69
    The competition controversy in community ecology.Gregory Cooper - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):359-384.
    There is a long history of controversy in ecology over the role of competition in determining patterns of distribution and abundance, and over the significance of the mathematical modeling of competitive interactions. This paper examines the controversy. Three kinds of considerations have been involved at one time or another during the history of this debate. There has been dispute about the kinds of regularities ecologists can expect to find, about the significance of evolutionary considerations for ecological inquiry, and about (...)
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  25.  16
    Employee Competitive Attitude and Competitive Behavior Promote Job-Crafting and Performance: A Two-Component Dynamic Model.Haifeng Wang, Lei Wang & Chunquan Liu - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:416339.
    While competition has become increasingly fierce in organizations and in the broader market, the research on competition at an individual level is limited. Most existing research focuses on trait competitiveness. We argue that employee competitiveness can be state-like and can be demonstrated as an attitude toward and behavior representative of competition. We therefore propose a dynamic model with two separate components: competitive attitude and competitive behavior. Drawing upon self-determination theory and the person-environment interaction perspective, we examine how (...)
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  26. A Competitive Market in Human Organs.Danny Frederick - 2010 - Libertarian Papers 2:1-21.
    I offer consequentialist and deontological arguments for a competitive market in human organs, from live as well as dead donors. I consider the objections that a market in organs will frustrate altruism, coerce the desperate, expose under-informed agents to unacceptable risks, exacerbate inequality, degrade those who participate in it, involve a kind of slavery, impose invidious costs, and impair third-party choice sets. I show that each of these objections is without merit and that, in consequence, the opposition to markets in (...)
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  27.  11
    Resource competition and reproduction.Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need to manipulate (...)
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  28.  22
    Competition and cooperation among similar representations: Toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors.Qi Chen & Daniel Mirman - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (2):417-430.
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  29.  3
    Competition and Structure: The Political Economy of Collective Decisions: Essays in Honor of Albert Breton.Gianluigi Galeotti, Pierre Salmon & Ronald Wintrobe (eds.) - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this volume, written by well-known economists and other social scientists from North America, Europe and Australia, share to an unusual degree a common concern with the competitive mechanisms that underlie collective decisions and with the way they are embedded in institutional settings. This gives the book a unitary inspiration whose value is clear from the understanding and insights its chapters provide on important theoretical and practical issues such as the social dimension and impact of trust, the management (...)
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  30.  42
    Hypothesis Competition beyond Mutual Exclusivity.Jonah N. Schupbach & David H. Glass - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):810-824.
    Competition between scientific hypotheses is not always a matter of mutual exclusivity. Consistent hypotheses can compete to varying degrees either directly or indirectly via a body of evidence. We motivate and defend a particular account of hypothesis competition by showing how it captures these features. Computer simulations of Bayesian inference are used to highlight the limitations of adopting mutual exclusivity as a simplifying assumption to model scientific reasoning, particularly due to the exclusion of hypotheses that may be true. (...)
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  31.  44
    Competitive Learning: From Interactive Activation to Adaptive Resonance.Stephen Grossberg - 1987 - Cognitive Science 11 (1):23-63.
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  32. A competition for consciousness?John G. Taylor - 1996 - Neurocomputing 11:271-96.
  33.  67
    Mixed Competition and Mixed Messages.Pam R. Sailors - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (1):65-77.
    A survey of the philosophy of sport literature reveals that arguments regarding the issue of sex segregation in athletics have been advanced from time to time, but there has been little sustained discussion, no consensus, and no change in existing practice. In this paper, an effort to advance the conversation, I begin with Jane English’s seminal 1978 article as a springboard and employ existing literature on the question of sex segregation in order to raise difficulties with English’s analysis and outline (...)
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  34.  5
    The competitive Buddha: how to up your game in sports, leadership and life.Jerry Lynch - 2021 - Coral Gables: Mango Media.
    The Competitive Buddha is about mastery, leadership, and spirituality. Learn what you need to keep, what you need to discard, and what you need to add to your mental, emotional, and spiritual skill set as an athlete, coach, leader, parent, CEO, or any other performer in life. Understand how Buddhism can help you to be better prepared for sports and life, and how sports and life can teach you about Buddhism. Discover how people from all parts of the world have (...)
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  35. The Competitive Logic of Global Clinical Trials.Adriana Petryna - 2011 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (3):949-974.
    The outsourcing and offshoring of clinical trials has expanded a global field of experimental activity. This essay addresses the competitive logic and social norms by which a field of human subjects research for drug development has taken form. The clinical trials industry and its move to low- and middle-income countries serve as a telescope into the global clinical trial and how it is crafted and made to work in different locales. Lives often depend on new medical commodities as they enter (...)
     
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  36. Competition and Morality.James D. Carlson, Adam D. Bailey & Ronald K. Mitchell - 2013 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 24:2-5.
    We review an argument that proposes two moralities—“everyday” moral norms and “adversarial” moral norms—are required for business contexts. We take issue with an implication of this idea, namely that competitive actions do not need to be in accord with “everyday” moral norms. After showing that the argument for two moralities in business does not succeed, we propose a distinction between two types of competitive actions: principled, those actions which comport with every day morality, and merely self-interested, those actions that do (...)
     
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  37. Good Competition and Drug-Enhanced Performance.Robert L. Simon - 2007 - In William John Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics.
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  38. Competition for consciousness among visual events: The psychophysics of reentrant visual processes.Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 129 (4):481-507.
    Advances in neuroscience implicate reentrant signaling as the predominant form of communication between brain areas. This principle was used in a series of masking experiments that defy explanation by feed-forward theories. The masking occurs when a brief display of target plus mask is continued with the mask alone. Two masking processes were found: an early process affected by physical factors such as adapting luminance and a later process affected by attentional factors such as set size. This later process is called (...)
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  39.  96
    Digraph Competitions and Cooperative Games.René van Den Brink & Peter Borm - 2002 - Theory and Decision 53 (4):327-342.
    Digraph games are cooperative TU-games associated to domination structures which can be modeled by directed graphs. Examples come from sports competitions or from simple majority win digraphs corresponding to preference profiles in social choice theory. The Shapley value, core, marginal vectors and selectope vectors of digraph games are characterized in terms of so-called simple score vectors. A general characterization of the class of (almost positive) TU-games where each selectope vector is a marginal vector is provided in terms of game semi-circuits. (...)
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  40.  55
    Competitive Bluffing: An Examination of a Common Practice and its Relationship with Performance.Rebecca M. Guidice, G. Stoney Alder & Steven E. Phelan - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):535-553.
    Bluffing, a common and consequential form of competitive behavior, has been comparably ignored in the management literature, even though misleading one's rivals is suggested to be an advantageous skill in a multifaceted and highly competitive environment. To address this deficiency and advance scholarship on competitive dynamics, our study investigates the moral reasoning behind competitive bluffing and, using a simulated market-entry game, examines the performance effects of bluffing. Findings suggest that decision makers' views on the ethicality of bluffing competitors differ from (...)
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  41.  22
    Competition, Strategy and Socially and Environmentally Responsible Procurement.Stefan Hoejmose, Stephen Brammer & Andrew Millington - 2008 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:102-112.
    This paper examines how competition and competitive strategy influence companies’ propensity to engage in socially and environmentally responsible procurement processes (SERP). We interview 141 British procurement managers, on their perception of their company’s competitive strategy and the competitive environment in which they operating in. In addition, participants were asked how important responsible procurement was for their overall business and their strategy.Our results suggest that companies that produce a differentiated product engage in relatively proactive SERP process, compared to their counterparties, (...)
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  42.  8
    Competitive Governments: An Economic Theory of Politics and Public Finance.Albert Breton - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Competitive Governments, explores in a systematic way the hypothesis that governments are internally competitive, that they are competitive in their relations with each other and in their relations with other institutions in society which, like them, supply consuming households with goods and services. Breton contends that competition not only serves to bring the political system to an equilibrium, but it also leads to a revelation of the households' true demand functions for publicly provided goods and services and to the (...)
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  43. Competitive Equilibrium: Theory and Applications.Bryan Ellickson - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    The development of general equilibrium theory represents one of the greatest advances in economic analysis in the latter half of the twentieth century. This book, intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, provides a broad introduction to competitive equilibrium analysis with an emphasis on concrete applications. The first three chapters are introductory in nature, paving the way for the more advanced second half of the book. Relative to the competition, it is much more 'user friendly' while offering exceptionally broad (...)
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  44.  80
    The perverse effects of competition on scientists' work and relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, (...)
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  45.  13
    Do Competitive Environments Lead to the Rise and Spread of Unethical Behavior? Parallels from Enron.Brian W. Kulik, Michael J. O’Fallon & Manjula S. Salimath - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):703-723.
    While top-down descriptors have received much attention in explaining corruption, we develop a grassroots model to describe structural factors that may influence the emergence and spread of an individual’s (un)ethical behavior within organizations. We begin with a discussion of the economics justification of the benefits of competition, a rationale used by firms to adopt structural aides such as the ‹stacking’ practice that was implemented at Enron. We discuss and develop an individual-level theory of planned behavior, then extend it to (...)
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  46.  10
    Competition and its tendency to corrupt philosophy.Yvette Drissen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 9 (1):5-27.
    Competition plays a substantial and structural role in philosophy today. It is therefore remarkable that it has received little systematic ethical scrutiny in the literature until now. This paper aims to contribute to establishing a discussion about competition in the discipline of philosophy by arguing that philosophy is not inherently competitive and that competition tends to corrupt the practice of philosophy. Regarding, I argue that philosophy can best be understood as a cooperative endeavour. The idea that philosophy (...)
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  47.  63
    Do competitive environments lead to the rise and spread of unethical behavior? Parallels from enron.Brian W. Kulik, Michael J. O’Fallon & Manjula S. Salimath - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):703 - 723.
    While top-down descriptors have received much attention in explaining corruption, we develop a grassroots model to describe structural factors that may influence the emergence and spread of an individual’s (un)ethical behavior within organizations. We begin with a discussion of the economics justification of the benefits of competition, a rationale used by firms to adopt structural aides such as the ‹stacking’ practice that was implemented at Enron. We discuss and develop an individual-level theory of planned behavior, then extend it to (...)
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  48.  21
    Good Competition and Drug-Enhanced.Robert L. Simon - 2007 - In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 245.
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  49.  52
    Competitive Processes in Cross‐Situational Word Learning.Daniel Yurovsky, Chen Yu & Linda B. Smith - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):891-921.
    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition. Competitive mechanisms would allow learners to find the signal in noisy input and would help to explain the speed with which learners succeed in statistical learning tasks. Because cross-situational word learning provides information at (...)
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  50.  19
    Competitiveness and Legitimation: The Logic of Companies going Green in Geographical Clusters.Javier Martínez-del-Río & José Céspedes-Lorente - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):131-146.
    This study analyzes the logic behind the development of environmental responsiveness in companies that are located in geographical clusters. Drawing on previous research, we contend that competitiveness and legitimation are important sources of variation in these companies’ environmental responses. In particular, the companies’ perceived rivalry, competition tracking capabilities, interaction with industry associations and network embeddedness influence their competitiveness and legitimation motivations for environmental responsiveness. We used structural equation modeling to test these hypotheses on a sample of 251-clustered agricultural firms (...)
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