Results for 'Complex problem solving'

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  1.  28
    Complex Problem Solving: What It Is and What It Is Not.Dörner Dietrich & Funke Joachim - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Computer-simulated scenarios have been part of psychological research on problem solving for more than 40 years. The shift in emphasis from simple toy problems to complex, more real-life oriented problems has been accompanied by discussions about the best ways to assess the process of solving complex problems. Psychometric issues such as reliable assessments and addressing correlations with other instruments have been in the foreground of these discussions and have left the content validity of complex (...)
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  2.  27
    Editorial: Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach.Wolfgang Schoppek, Annette Kluge, Magda Osman & Joachim Funke - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In a broad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. In turn, this adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics (...)
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  3.  4
    Accelerating Complex Problem-Solving Skills: Problem-Centered Training Design Methods.Raman K. Attri - 2018 - Singapore: Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©.
    This book explains the importance to acquire complex problem-solving in today’s job environment. The book describes how to use five problem-centered methods to design training for real-world complex problem-solving skills. The book briefly describes the five methods in the context of the complex problem-solving skills - Problem-based learning (PBL), Project-based learning, Scenario-based learning (SBL), Case-based learning method (CBL), and Simulation-based learning. The book also specifies six research-based guidelines, and how (...)
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  4.  70
    Analysis of Minimal Complex Systems and Complex Problem Solving Require Different Forms of Causal Cognition.Joachim Funke - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    In the last 20 years, a stream of research emerged under the label of „complex problem solving“ (CPS). This research was intended to describe the way people deal with complex, dynamic, and intransparent situations. Complex computer-simulated scenarios were as stimulus material in psychological experiments. This line of research lead to subtle insights into the way how people deal with complexity and uncertainty. Besides these knowledge-rich, realistic, intransparent, complex, dynamic scenarios with many variables, a second (...)
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  5.  25
    Cross‐National Comparisons of Complex ProblemSolving Strategies in Two Microworlds.C. Dominik Güss, Ma Teresa Tuason & Christiane Gerhard - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (3):489-520.
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  6.  3
    Encoding Effects on Complex Problem Solving.Roger I. Simon - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (2p1):227.
  7.  63
    The Role of Emotions in Complex Problem-Solving.Miriam Spering, Daniel Wagener & Joachim Funke - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19:1252-1261.
    The assumption that positive affect leads to a better performance in simple cognitive tasks has become well established. We address the question whether positive and negative emotions differentially influence performance in complex problem-solving in the same way. Emotions were induced by positive or negative feedback in 74 participants who had to manage a computer-simulated complex problem-solving scenario. Results show that overall scenario performance is not affected, but positive and negative emotions elicit distinguishable problem- (...) strategies: Participants with negative emotions are more focused on the seeking and use of information. We discuss methodological requirements for investigating emotion influences in complex and dynamic cognitive tasks. (shrink)
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  8.  13
    The Role of Emotions in Complex Problem Solving.Miriam Spering, Dietrich Wagener & Joachim Funke - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (8):1252-1261.
    The assumption that positive affect leads to a better performance in simple cognitive tasks has become well established. We address the question whether positive and negative emotions differentially influence performance in complex problem-solving in the same way. Emotions were induced by positive or negative feedback in 74 participants who had to manage a computer-simulated complex problem-solving scenario. Results show that overall scenario performance is not affected, but positive and negative emotions elicit distinguishable problem- (...) strategies: Participants with negative emotions are more focused on the seeking and use of information. We discuss methodological requirements for investigating emotion influences in complex and dynamic cognitive tasks. (shrink)
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  9.  19
    Assessing Complex Problem-Solving Skills with Multiple Complex Systems.Samuel Greiff, Andreas Fischer, Matthias Stadler & Sascha Wüstenberg - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):356-382.
    In this paper we propose the multiple complex systems approach for assessing domain-general complex problem-solving skills and its processes knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. After defining the construct and the formal frameworks for describing complex problems, we emphasise some of the measurement issues inherent in assessing CPS skills with single tasks. With examples of the MicroDYN test and the MicroFIN test, we show how to adequately score problem-solving skills by using multiple tasks. We (...)
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  10.  4
    The Role of Emotions in Complex Problem Solving.Miriam Spering, Dietrich Wagener & Joachim Funke - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (8):1252-1261.
    The assumption that positive affect leads to a better performance in simple cognitive tasks has become well established. We address the question whether positive and negative emotions differentially influence performance in complex problem-solving in the same way. Emotions were induced by positive or negative feedback in 74 participants who had to manage a computer-simulated complex problem-solving scenario. Results show that overall scenario performance is not affected, but positive and negative emotions elicit distinguishable problem- (...) strategies: Participants with negative emotions are more focused on the seeking and use of information. We discuss methodological requirements for investigating emotion influences in complex and dynamic cognitive tasks. (shrink)
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  11.  9
    Complex Problem Solving—Single Ability or Complex Phenomenon?Wolfgang Schoppek & Andreas Fischer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  12.  6
    Is It Time for a New Measurement Approach? A Closer Look at the Assessment of Cognitive Adaptability in Complex Problem Solving.Ronny Scherer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  13.  8
    Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.Vera Hagemann & Annette Kluge - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  14.  7
    Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference Between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving.F. Beckmann Jens, P. Birney Damian & Goode Natassia - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  15.  10
    A Longitudinal Study of Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Working Memory and Fluid Reasoning in Childhood Enhance Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence.Samuel Greiff, Sascha Wüstenberg, Thomas Goetz, Mari-Pauliina Vainikainen, Jarkko Hautamäki & Marc H. Bornstein - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  16.  4
    Statistical Analysis of Complex Problem-Solving Process Data: An Event History Analysis Approach.Yunxiao Chen, Xiaoou Li, Jingchen Liu & Zhiliang Ying - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  17.  3
    Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds.Heinz-Martin Süß & André Kretzschmar - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  18. The Role of Spatial Representations in Complex Problem Solving.Lynn A. Cooper - 1988 - In Stephen Schiffer & Susan Steele (eds.), Cognition and Representation. Westview Press. pp. 53--86.
     
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  19. The Role of Motivation in Complex Problem Solving.C. Dominik Güss, Madison Lee Burger & Dietrich Dörner - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  20. Exploring Multiple Goals Balancing in Complex Problem Solving Based on Log Data.Yan Ren, Fang Luo, Ping Ren, Dingyuan Bai, Xin Li & Hongyun Liu - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  21.  9
    Re-Modelling Scientific Change: Complex Systems Frames Innovative Problem Solving.Cliff Hooker - 2018 - Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5 (1):4-12.
    Complex systems are used, studied and instantiated in science, with what con-sequences? To be clear and systematic in response it is necessary to distin-guish the consequences, for science, of science using and studying complex systems, for philosophy of science, of science using and studying complex systems, for philosophy of science, of philosophy of science modelling sci-ence as a complex system. Each of these is explored in turn, especially. While has been least studied, it will be shown (...)
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  22.  19
    Problem Solving, Cognition, and Complex Systems: Differences Between Experts and Novices.Michael J. Jacobson - 2001 - Complexity 6 (3):41-49.
  23.  4
    The Use of Problem-Solving Therapy for Primary Care to Enhance Complex Decision-Making in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Adults.Christopher M. Nguyen, Kuan-Hua Chen & Natalie L. Denburg - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  24.  15
    Interdisciplinary Problem- Solving: Emerging Modes in Integrative Systems Biology.Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):401-418.
    Integrative systems biology is an emerging field that attempts to integrate computation, applied mathematics, engineering concepts and methods, and biological experimentation in order to model large-scale complex biochemical networks. The field is thus an important contemporary instance of an interdisciplinary approach to solving complex problems. Interdisciplinary science is a recent topic in the philosophy of science. Determining what is philosophically important and distinct about interdisciplinary practices requires detailed accounts of problem-solving practices that attempt to understand (...)
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  25.  10
    Problem-Solving Argumentative Patterns in Plenary Debates of the European Parliament.Bart Garssen - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (1):25-43.
    The aim of this paper is to describe the way in which argumentative patterns come into being in plenary debate over legislative issues in the European Parliament. What kind of argumentative patterns are to be expected within this macro context? It is shown that the argumentative patterns that come into being in legislative debate in the European Parliament depend for the most part on the problem-solving argumentation that is put forward in the opening speech by the rapporteur of (...)
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  26.  9
    ProblemSolving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.Travis J. Wiltshire, Jonathan E. Butner & Stephen M. Fiore - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):129-167.
    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex (...) were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for identifying data points that qualify as peaks and determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. (shrink)
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  27.  24
    Diverse Knowledges and Competing Interests: An Essay on Socio-Technical Problem-Solving.Vincent di Norcia - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (1):83-98.
    Solving complex socio-technical problems, this paper claims, involves diverse knowledges (cognitive diversity), competing interests (social diversity), and pragmatism. To explain this view, this paper first explores two different cases: Canadian pulp and paper mill pollution and siting nuclear reactors in seismically sensitive areas of California. Solving such socio-technically complex problems involves cognitive diversity as well as social diversity and pragmatism. Cognitive diversity requires one to not only recognize relevant knowledges but also to assess their validity. Finally, (...)
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  28. Intuition and Visualization in Mathematical Problem Solving.Valeria Giardino - 2010 - Topoi 29 (1):29-39.
    In this article, I will discuss the relationship between mathematical intuition and mathematical visualization. I will argue that in order to investigate this relationship, it is necessary to consider mathematical activity as a complex phenomenon, which involves many different cognitive resources. I will focus on two kinds of danger in recurring to visualization and I will show that they are not a good reason to conclude that visualization is not reliable, if we consider its use in mathematical practice. Then, (...)
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  29.  27
    Scenario Visualization: An Evolutionary Account of Creative Problem Solving.Robert Arp - 2008 - Bradford.
    In order to solve problems, humans are able to synthesize apparently unrelated concepts, take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, hypothesize, invent, and engage in other similarly abstract and creative activities, primarily through the use of their visual systems. In _Scenario Visualization_, Robert Arp offers an evolutionary account of the unique human ability to solve nonroutine vision-related problems. He argues that by the close of the Pleistocene epoch, humans evolved a conscious creative problem-solving capacity, which he terms scenario visualization, that (...)
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  30. Group Problem Solving.Patrick R. Laughlin - 2011 - Princeton University Press.
    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within (...)
     
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  31.  28
    Intuitive and Analytical Processes in Insight Problem Solving: A Psycho-Rhetorical Approach to the Study of Reasoning.Laura Macchi & Maria Bagassi - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):53-67.
    Language and thought share a unitary cognitive activity, addressed by an interpretative function. This interpretative effort reveals the assonance between the attribution of meaning to an utterance and the discovery of a solution via restructuring in insight problem solving. We suggest a view of complex integrated analytical thinking, which assumes that thinking processes information in different ways, depending on the characteristics of the tasks the subject has to solve, so that reasoning results in a stepwise, rule-based process (...)
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  32.  56
    A Pattern-Recognition Theory of Search in Expert Problem Solving.Fernand Gobet - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):291 – 313.
    Understanding how look-ahead search and pattern recognition interact is one of the important research questions in the study of expert problem solving. This paper examines the implications of the template theory Gobet & Simon, 1996a , a recent theory of expert memory, on the theory of problem solving in chess. Templates are chunks Chase & Simon, 1973 that have evolved into more complex data structures and that possess slots allowing values to be encoded rapidly. Templates (...)
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  33. Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Anti-Learning of Problem Solving Skills.Magda Osman - unknown
    In problem solving research insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in four experiments participants solved two complex control tasks that were identical in structure but varied in presentation format. Participants learnt either to solve the second task, based on their original learning phase from the first task, or learnt to solve the second task, based on another participant’s learning phase. Experiment 1 showed that, (...)
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  34.  26
    The Effect of Expertise on Collaborative Problem Solving.Timothy J. Nokes-Malach, Michelle L. Meade & Daniel G. Morrow - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):32 - 58.
    Why do some groups succeed where others fail? We hypothesise that collaborative success is achieved when the relationship between the dyad's prior expertise and the complexity of the task creates a situation that affords constructive and interactive processes between group members. We call this state the zone of proximal facilitation in which the dyad's prior knowledge and experience enables them to benefit from both knowledge-based problem-solving processes (e.g., elaboration, explanation, and error correction) andcollaborative skills (e.g., creating common ground, (...)
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  35. Creative Problem-Solving in Ethics.Anthony Weston - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a uniquely constructive set of tools for engaging complex and controversial ethical problems. Covering such practical methods as diversifying options, lateral thinking, reframing problems, approaching conflicts as creative opportunities, and many others, it shows how to find "room to move" inside even the most challenging ethical problems, and thereby discover new and productive ways to deal with them. The book features numerous exercises and applications that consider a wide range of familiar ethical issues--including the moral status (...)
     
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  36.  48
    Knowledge Integration in Creative Problem Solving.Ron Sun - unknown
    Most psychological theories of problem solving have focused on modeling explicit processes that gradually bring the solver closer to the solution in a mostly explicit and deliberative way. This approach to problem solving is typically inefficient when the problem is too complex, ill-understood, or ambiguous. In such a case, a ‘creative’ approach to problem solving might be more appropriate. In the present paper, we propose a computational psychological model implementing the Explicit-Implicit Interaction (...)
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  37.  6
    Bounded Rationality in Problem Solving: Guiding Search with Domain-Independent Heuristics.Pat Langley, Chris Pearce, Mike Barley & Miranda Emery - 2014 - Mind and Society 13 (1):83-95.
    Humans exhibit the remarkable ability to solve complex, multi-step problems despite their limited capacity for search. We review the standard theory of problem solving, which posits that heuristic guidance makes this possible, but we also note that most studies have emphasized the role of domain-specific heuristics, which are not available for unfamiliar tasks, over more general ones. We describe FPS, a flexible architecture for problem solving that supports a variety of different strategies and heuristics, and (...)
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  38. Moral Attitudes for Non-Cognitivists: Solving the Specification Problem.Gunnar Björnsson & Tristram McPherson - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):1-38.
    Moral non-cognitivists hope to explain the nature of moral agreement and disagreement as agreement and disagreement in non-cognitive attitudes. In doing so, they take on the task of identifying the relevant attitudes, distinguishing the non-cognitive attitudes corresponding to judgements of moral wrongness, for example, from attitudes involved in aesthetic disapproval or the sports fan’s disapproval of her team’s performance. We begin this paper by showing that there is a simple recipe for generating apparent counterexamples to any informative specification of the (...)
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  39.  49
    Simulating Benevolence: Obstructing Systemic Problem Solving.Ellen Urell - 2006 - World Futures 62 (7):524 – 532.
    Traditional methods of evaluating and solving world problems are insufficient to deal with today's issues, which are complex and interconnected, and therefore cannot be understood, or solved, in isolation. The author's study aimed to better understand behaviors that impact systemic problems in the capacity-building community. The resultant theory of simulating benevolence conceptualizes a collection of behaviors where change agents undertake activities that are not in the best interest of community members. Instead, activities satisfy the need for activity, involvement, (...)
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  40.  47
    Ways of Thinking About and Teaching Ethical Problem Solving: Microethics and Macroethics in Engineering. [REVIEW]Joseph R. Herkert - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (3):373-385.
    Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. “Microethics” considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; “macroethics” applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a “micro” focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of (...)
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  41. Multilevel Poetry Translation as a Problem-Solving Task.Pedro Ata & Joao Queiroz - 2016 - Cognitive Semiotics 9 (2):139-147.
    Poems are treated by translators as hierarchical multilevel systems. Here we propose the notion of “multilevel poetry translation” to characterize such cases of poetry translation in terms of selection and rebuilding of a multilevel system of constraints across languages. Different levels of a poem correspond to different sets of components that asymmetrically constrain each other (e. g., grammar, lexicon, syntactic construction, prosody, rhythm, typography, etc.). This perspective allows a poem to be approached as a thinking-tool: an “experimental lab” which submits (...)
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  42.  36
    Is Mathematics Problem Solving or Theorem Proving?Carlo Cellucci - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):183-199.
    The question that is the subject of this article is not intended to be a sociological or statistical question about the practice of today’s mathematicians, but a philosophical question about the nature of mathematics, and specifically the method of mathematics. Since antiquity, saying that mathematics is problem solving has been an expression of the view that the method of mathematics is the analytic method, while saying that mathematics is theorem proving has been an expression of the view that (...)
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  43.  25
    Use of a "Coping-Modeling, Problem-Solving" Program in Business Ethics Education.Sheldene K. Simola - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):383 - 401.
    During the last decade, scholars have identified a number of factors that pose significant challenges to effective business ethics education. This article offers a "coping-modeling, problem-solving" (CMPS) approach (Cunningham, 2006) as one option for addressing these concerns. A rationale supporting the use of the CMPS framework for courses on ethical decisionmaking in business is provided, following which the implementation processes for this program are described. Evaluative data collected from N = 101 undergraduate business students enrolled in a third (...)
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  44.  60
    Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving.Magda Osman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, both (...)
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  45.  15
    The Phenomenology of Problem Solving.Jeffrey Yoshimi - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (3):391-409.
    _ Source: _Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 391 - 409 The author outlines a provisional phenomenology of problem solving. He begins by reviewing the history of problem-solving psychology, focusing on the Gestalt approach, which emphasizes the influence of prior knowledge and the occurrence of sudden insights. He then describes problem solving as a process unfolding in a field of consciousness against a background of unconscious knowledge, which encodes action patterns, schemata, and affordances. A global (...)
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  46. Virtuality as a Basis for Problem Solving?Gianni Degli Antoni & Rita Pizzi - 1991 - AI and Society 5 (3):239-245.
    This paper is an attempt to develop a paradigm in problem solving where the notion of virtuality plays a central role. Following a brief discussion on virtual simulation, the paper attempts to identify a notion of virtuality based on the identification of the self (man or computer) with the problem solver. It is shown that such an identification/distinction possibly violates some general principle of the problem environment.To deal with this violation, a new problem is generated (...)
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  47.  32
    Humanist and Nonhumanist Aspects of Technologies as Problem Solving Physical Instruments.Sadjad Soltanzadeh - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):139-156.
    A form of metaphysical humanism in the field of philosophy of technology can be defined as the claim that besides technologies’ physical aspects, purely human attributes are sufficient to conceptualize technologies. Metaphysical nonhumanism, on the other hand, would be the claim that the meanings of the operative words in any acceptable conception of technologies refer to the states of affairs or events which are in a way or another shaped by technologies. In this paper, I focus on the conception of (...)
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  48.  16
    The Diagnostic Power of the Stages of Critical Discussion in the Analysis and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Discussions.M. A. van Rees - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (4):457-470.
    In this article, the pragma-dialectical model of a critical discussion is demonstrated to provide a useful instrument for discovering causes of an unsatisfactory development of problem-solving discussions. First a sketch is given of the development of a problem-solving discussion which, in the opinion of the participants themselves, developed in an unsatisfactory fashion. Then it is argued that this development can be traced back to flaws in the execution of the stages of a critical discussion.
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  49.  39
    Pragma-Dialectical Analysis and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Discussion.M. A. van Rees - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (4):465-479.
    In this article, after arguing that present approaches to improving problem-solving discussions for various reasons are not satisfactory, I turn to the pragma-dialectic approach to argumentative discourse to derive a normative framework that can serve as a point of departure to enhance the quality of problem-solving discussions. I then show how this approach can be used as analytical and evaluative instrument that can help the analyst to establish whether participants in actual practice act in a fashion (...)
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  50.  19
    Understanding, Problem-Solving, and Conscious Reflection.Andrei Mărăşoiu - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (1):71-81.
    According to Zagzebski, understanding something is justified by the exercise of cognitive skills and intellectual virtues the knower possesses. Zagzebski develops her view by suggesting that “understanding has internalist conditions for success”. Against this view, Grimm raises an objection: what justifies understanding is the reliability of the processes by which we come to understand, and we need not be aware of the outcome of all reliable processes. Understanding is no exception, so, given that understanding something results from reliable processes, we (...)
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