Results for 'Complexity'

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  1. Discovering Complexity Decomposition and Localization as Strategies in Scientific Research.William Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson - 1993 - Princeton.
     
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  2.  64
    Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity, and Policy.Sandra D. Mitchell - 2009 - University of Chicago Press.
    The world is complex, but acknowledging its complexity requires an appreciation for the many roles context plays in shaping natural phenomena. In _Unsimple Truths, _Sandra Mitchell argues that the long-standing scientific and philosophical deference to reductive explanations founded on simple universal laws, linear causal models, and predict-and-act strategies fails to accommodate the kinds of knowledge that many contemporary sciences are providing about the world. She advocates, instead, for a new understanding that represents the rich, variegated, interdependent fabric of many (...)
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  3.  65
    Being Emergence Vs. Pattern Emergence: Complexity, Control, and Goal-Directedness in Biological Systems.Jason Winning & William Bechtel - 2019 - In Sophie Gibb, Robin Hendry & Tom Lancaster (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Emergence. London: pp. 134-144.
    Emergence is much discussed by both philosophers and scientists. But, as noted by Mitchell (2012), there is a significant gulf; philosophers and scientists talk past each other. We contend that this is because philosophers and scientists typically mean different things by emergence, leading us to distinguish being emergence and pattern emergence. While related to distinctions offered by others between, for example, strong/weak emergence or epistemic/ontological emergence (Clayton, 2004, pp. 9–11), we argue that the being vs. pattern distinction better captures what (...)
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  4.  70
    Models and Simulations in the Historical Emergence of the Science of Complexity.Franck Varenne - 2009 - In Ma Aziz-Alaoui & C. Bertelle (eds.), From System Complexity to Emergent Properties. Springer. pp. 3--21.
    As brightly shown by Mainzer [24], the science of complexity has many distinct origins in many disciplines. Those various origins has led to “an interdisciplinary methodology to explain the emergence of certain macroscopic phenomena via the nonlinear interactions of microscopic elements” (ibid.). This paper suggests that the parallel and strong expansion of modeling and simulation - especially after the Second World War and the subsequent development of computers - is a rationale which also can be counted as an explanation (...)
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  5. Consciousness and Complexity.Todd C. Moody - 2003 - Progress in Information, Complexity, and Design 2 (3).
    This essay argues that the complexity of a physical "realizer" of mental states does not get us any closer to understanding consciousness.
     
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  6. Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explains the relationship between intelligence and environmental complexity, and in so doing links philosophy of mind to more general issues about the relations between organisms and environments, and to the general pattern of 'externalist' explanations. The author provides a biological approach to the investigation of mind and cognition in nature. In particular he explores the idea that the function of cognition is to enable agents to deal with environmental complexity. The history of the idea in the (...)
  7.  18
    Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos.Roger Lewin - 1993 - Maxwell Macmillan International.
    Examines the field of complexity science, with sections focusing on how the discipline works within computer simulations, natural ecosystems, and various social systems.
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  8.  37
    Complexity: A Guided Tour.Melanie Mitchell - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    What enables individually simple insects like ants to act with such precision and purpose as a group? How do trillions of individual neurons produce something as extraordinarily complex as consciousness? What is it that guides self-organizing structures like the immune system, the World Wide Web, the global economy, and the human genome? These are just a few of the fascinating and elusive questions that the science of complexity seeks to answer. In this remarkably accessible and companionable book, leading complex (...)
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  9. Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems.Paul Cilliers - 1998 - Routledge.
    Complexity and Postmodernism explores the notion of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. The book integrates insights from complexity and computational theory with the philosophical position of thinkers including Derrida and Lyotard. Paul Cilliers takes a critical stance towards the use of the analytical method as a tool to cope with complexity, and he rejects Searle's superficial contribution to the debate.
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  10.  49
    Complexity and Information: Measuring Emergence, Self‐Organization, and Homeostasis at Multiple Scales.Carlos Gershenson & Nelson Fernandez - 2013 - Complexity 18 (2):29-44.
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  11. Processing Capacity Defined by Relational Complexity: Implications for Comparative, Developmental, and Cognitive Psychology.Graeme S. Halford, William H. Wilson & Steven Phillips - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):803-831.
    Working memory limits are best defined in terms of the complexity of the relations that can be processed in parallel. Complexity is defined as the number of related dimensions or sources of variation. A unary relation has one argument and one source of variation; its argument can be instantiated in only one way at a time. A binary relation has two arguments, two sources of variation, and two instantiations, and so on. Dimensionality is related to the number of (...)
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  12. Complexity and Coherency: Integrating Information in the Brain.Giulio Tononi, Gerald M. Edelman & Olaf Sporns - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (12):474-484.
    The brains of higher mammals are extraordinary integrative devices. Signals from large numbers of functionally specialized groups of neurons distributed over many brain regions are integrated to generate a coherent, multimodal scene. Signals from the environment are integrated with ongoing, patterned neural activity that provides them with a meaningful context. We review recent advances in neurophysiology and neuroimaging that are beginning to reveal the neural mechanisms of integration. In addition, we discuss concepts and measures derived from information theory that lend (...)
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  13.  92
    Components of Cultural Complexity Relating to Emotions: A Conceptual Framework.Radek Trnka, Iva Poláčková Šolcová & Peter Tavel - 2018 - New Ideas in Psychology 51:27-33.
    Many cultural variations in emotions have been documented in previous research, but a general theoretical framework involving cultural sources of these variations is still missing. The main goal of the present study was to determine what components of cultural complexity interact with the emotional experience and behavior of individuals. The proposed framework conceptually distinguishes five main components of cultural complexity relating to emotions: 1) emotion language, 2) conceptual knowledge about emotions, 3) emotion-related values, 4) feelings rules, i.e. norms (...)
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  14.  55
    An Information‐Theoretic Primer on Complexity, Self‐Organization, and Emergence.Mikhail Prokopenko, Fabio Boschetti & Alex J. Ryan - 2009 - Complexity 15 (1):11-28.
  15. Complexity of Admissible Rules.Emil Jeřábek - 2007 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (2):73-92.
    We investigate the computational complexity of deciding whether a given inference rule is admissible for some modal and superintuitionistic logics. We state a broad condition under which the admissibility problem is coNEXP-hard. We also show that admissibility in several well-known systems (including GL, S4, and IPC) is in coNE, thus obtaining a sharp complexity estimate for admissibility in these systems.
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  16.  55
    Quantifiers in TIME and SPACE. Computational Complexity of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language.Jakub Szymanik - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Amsterdam
    In the dissertation we study the complexity of generalized quantifiers in natural language. Our perspective is interdisciplinary: we combine philosophical insights with theoretical computer science, experimental cognitive science and linguistic theories. -/- In Chapter 1 we argue for identifying a part of meaning, the so-called referential meaning (model-checking), with algorithms. Moreover, we discuss the influence of computational complexity theory on cognitive tasks. We give some arguments to treat as cognitively tractable only those problems which can be computed in (...)
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  17.  26
    Complexity Results for Modal Dependence Logic.Peter Lohmann & Heribert Vollmer - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):343-366.
    Modal dependence logic was introduced recently by Väänänen. It enhances the basic modal language by an operator = (). For propositional variables p 1, . . . , p n , = (p 1, . . . , p n-1, p n ) intuitively states that the value of p n is determined by those of p 1, . . . , p n-1. Sevenster (J. Logic and Computation, 2009) showed that satisfiability for modal dependence logic is complete for nondeterministic (...)
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  18. Complexity Science: A "Gray" Science for the "Stuff in Between".Kurt A. Richardson, Paul Cilliers & Michael Lissack - 2001 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 3 (2):6-18.
  19.  34
    The Ethics of Complexity and the Complexity of Ethics.Minka Woermann - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):447-463.
    In this paper, we investigate the implications that a general view of complexity - i.e. the view that complex phenomena are irreducible - hold for our understanding of ethics. In this view, ethics should be conceived of as constitutive of knowledge and identity, rather than as a normative system that dictates right action. Using this understanding, we elaborate on the ethics of complexity and the complexity of ethics. Whilst the former concerns the nature and the status of (...)
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  20.  27
    The Moment of Complexity: Emerging Network Culture.Mark C. Taylor - 2001 - University of Chicago Press.
    "_The Moment of Complexity_ is a profoundly original work. In remarkable and insightful ways, Mark Taylor traces an entirely new way to view the evolution of our culture, detailing how information theory and the scientific concept of complexity can be used to understand recent developments in the arts and humanities. This book will ultimately be seen as a classic."-John L. Casti, Santa Fe Institute, author of _Gödel: A Life of Logic, the Mind, and Mathematics_ The science of complexity (...)
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  21.  78
    Computational Complexity of Polyadic Lifts of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language.Jakub Szymanik - 2010 - Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (3):215-250.
    We study the computational complexity of polyadic quantifiers in natural language. This type of quantification is widely used in formal semantics to model the meaning of multi-quantifier sentences. First, we show that the standard constructions that turn simple determiners into complex quantifiers, namely Boolean operations, iteration, cumulation, and resumption, are tractable. Then, we provide an insight into branching operation yielding intractable natural language multi-quantifier expressions. Next, we focus on a linguistic case study. We use computational complexity results to (...)
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  22. From Representation to Emergence: Complexity's Challenge to the Epistemology of Schooling.Deborah Osberg, Gert Biesta & Paul Cilliers - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1):213–227.
    In modern, Western societies the purpose of schooling is to ensure that school-goers acquire knowledge of pre-existing practices, events, entities and so on. The knowledge that is learned is then tested to see if the learner has acquired a correct or adequate understanding of it. For this reason, it can be argued that schooling is organised around a representational epistemology: one which holds that knowledge is an accurate representation of something that is separate from knowledge itself. Since the object of (...)
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  23.  66
    Complexity and Evolution: What Everybody Knows.Daniel W. McShea - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (3):303-324.
    The consensus among evolutionists seems to be that the morphological complexity of organisms increases in evolution, although almost no empirical evidence for such a trend exists. Most studies of complexity have been theoretical, and the few empirical studies have not, with the exception of certain recent ones, been especially rigorous; reviews are presented of both the theoretical and empirical literature. The paucity of evidence raises the question of what sustains the consensus, and a number of suggestions are offered, (...)
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  24.  31
    Functional Complexity in Organisms: Parts as Proxies. [REVIEW]Daniel W. McShea - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):641-668.
    The functional complexity, or the number of functions, of organisms hasfigured prominently in certain theoretical and empirical work inevolutionary biology. Large-scale trends in functional complexity andcorrelations between functional complexity and other variables, such assize, have been proposed. However, the notion of number of functions hasalso been operationally intractable, in that no method has been developedfor counting functions in an organism in a systematic and reliable way.Thus, studies have had to rely on the largely unsupported assumption thatnumber of (...)
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  25.  47
    The Relationship Between Non‐Protein‐Coding DNA and Eukaryotic Complexity.Ryan J. Taft, Michael Pheasant & John S. Mattick - 2007 - Bioessays 29 (3):288-299.
    There are two intriguing paradoxes in molecular biology-the inconsistent relationship between organismal complexity and (1) cellular DNA content and (2) the number of protein-coding genes-referred to as the C-value and G-value paradoxes, respectively. The C-value paradox may be largely explained by varying ploidy. The G-value paradox is more problematic, as the extent of protein coding sequence remains relatively static over a wide range of developmental complexity. We show by analysis of sequenced genomes that the relative amount of non-protein-coding (...)
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  26.  48
    Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Lisa Shank, Eunice Lim & Evelina Fedorenko - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):559-583.
    Syntactic complexity effects have been investigated extensively with respect to comprehension . According to one prominent class of accounts , certain structures cause comprehension difficulty due to their scarcity in the language. But why are some structures less frequent than others? In two elicited-production experiments we investigated syntactic complexity effects in relative clauses and wh-questions varying in whether or not they contained non-local dependencies. In both experiments, we found reliable durational differences between subject-extracted structures and object-extracted structures : (...)
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  27.  73
    Computational Vs. Causal Complexity.Matthias Scheutz - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (4):543-566.
    The main claim of this paper is that notions of implementation based on an isomorphic correspondence between physical and computational states are not tenable. Rather, ``implementation'' has to be based on the notion of ``bisimulation'' in order to be able to block unwanted implementation results and incorporate intuitions from computational practice. A formal definition of implementation is suggested, which satisfies theoretical and practical requirements and may also be used to make the functionalist notion of ``physical realization'' precise. The upshot of (...)
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  28. Complexity Biology-Based Information Structures Can Explain Subjectivity, Objective Reduction of Wave Packets, and Non-Computability.Alex Hankey - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (1):237-250.
    Background: how mind functions is subject to continuing scientific discussion. A simplistic approach says that, since no convincing way has been found to model subjective experience, mind cannot exist. A second holds that, since mind cannot be described by classical physics, it must be described by quantum physics. Another perspective concerns mind's hypothesized ability to interact with the world of quanta: it should be responsible for reduction of quantum wave packets; physics producing 'Objective Reduction' is postulated to form the basis (...)
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  29.  23
    Bounded Arithmetic, Propositional Logic, and Complexity Theory.Jan Krajíček - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents an up-to-date, unified treatment of research in bounded arithmetic and complexity of propositional logic, with emphasis on independence proofs and lower bound proofs. The author discusses the deep connections between logic and complexity theory and lists a number of intriguing open problems. An introduction to the basics of logic and complexity theory is followed by discussion of important results in propositional proof systems and systems of bounded arithmetic. More advanced topics are then treated, including (...)
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  30.  34
    Energy Rate Density as a Complexity Metric and Evolutionary Driver.E. J. Chaisson - 2011 - Complexity 16 (3):27-40.
  31. Change Blindness Blindness: Beliefs About the Roles of Intention and Scene Complexity in Change Detection.Melissa R. Beck, Daniel T. Levin & Bonnie Angelone - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):31-51.
    Observers have difficulty detecting visual changes. However, they are unaware of this inability, suggesting that people do not have an accurate understanding of visual processes. We explored whether this error is related to participants’ beliefs about the roles of intention and scene complexity in detecting changes. In Experiment 1 participants had a higher failure rate for detecting changes in an incidental change detection task than an intentional change detection task. This effect of intention was greatest for complex scenes. However, (...)
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  32. A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW]R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures (...)
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  33. Complexity: Hierarchical Structures and Scaling in Physics.R. Badii - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a comprehensive discussion of complexity as it arises in physical, chemical, and biological systems, as well as in mathematical models of nature. Common features of these apparently unrelated fields are emphasised and incorporated into a uniform mathematical description, with the support of a large number of detailed examples and illustrations. The quantitative study of complexity is a rapidly developing subject with special impact in the fields of physics, mathematics, information science, and biology. Because of the variety (...)
     
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  34.  22
    Complexity of Judgment Aggregation.Ulle Endriss, Umberto Grandi & Daniele Porello - 2012 - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 45:481--514.
    We analyse the computational complexity of three problems in judgment aggregation: (1) computing a collective judgment from a profile of individual judgments (the winner determination problem); (2) deciding whether a given agent can influence the outcome of a judgment aggregation procedure in her favour by reporting insincere judgments (the strategic manipulation problem); and (3) deciding whether a given judgment aggregation scenario is guaranteed to result in a logically consistent outcome, independently from what the judgments supplied by the individuals are (...)
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  35.  13
    The Application of the Acoustic Complexity Indices to Ecoacoustic Event Detection and Identification Modeling.A. Farina, N. Pieretti, P. Salutari, E. Tognari & A. Lombardi - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (2):227-246.
    In programs of acoustic survey, the amount of data collected and the lack of automatic routines for their classification and interpretation can represent a serious obstacle to achieving quick results. To overcome these obstacles, we are proposing an ecosemiotic model of data mining, ecoacoustic event detection and identification, that uses a combination of the acoustic complexity indices and automatically extracts the ecoacoustic events of interest from the sound files. These events may be indicators of environmental functioning at the scale (...)
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  36.  11
    Complexity of Networks I: The Set‐Complexity of Binary Graphs.Nikita A. Sakhanenko & David J. Galas - 2011 - Complexity 17 (2):51-64.
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  37. Peirce on Complexity.Jaime Nubiola - 2001 - In Schmitz Walter (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of the IASS-AIS.
    In a world of ever growing specialization, the issue of complexity attracts a good amount of attention from cross-disciplinary points of view as this Congress provides evidence. Charles S. Peirce's thought may help us not only to shoulder once again philosophical responsibility which has been largely abdicated by much of 20th century philosophy, but also to tackle some of the most stubborn contemporary problems. The founder of pragmatism identified one century ago most of these problems, and he also mapped (...)
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  38. An Improbable God Between Simplicity and Complexity: Thinking About Dawkins's Challenge.Philippe Gagnon - 2013 - International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (4):409-433.
    Richard Dawkins has popularized an argument that he thinks sound for showing that there is almost certainly no God. It rests on the assumptions (1) that complex and statistically improbable things are more difficult to explain than those that are not and (2) that an explanatory mechanism must show how this complexity can be built up from simpler means. But what justifies claims about the designer’s own complexity? One comes to a different understanding of order and of simplicity (...)
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  39.  27
    Changing Philosophy Through Technology: Complexity and Computer-Supported Collaborative Argument Mapping.Michael H. G. Hoffmann - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):167-188.
    Technology is not only an object of philosophical reflection but also something that can change this reflection. This paper discusses the potential of computer-supported argument visualization tools for coping with the complexity of philosophical arguments. I will show, in particular, how the interactive and web-based argument mapping software “AGORA-net” can change the practice of philosophical reflection, communication, and collaboration. AGORA-net allows the graphical representation of complex argumentations in logical form and the synchronous and asynchronous collaboration on those “argument maps” (...)
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  40. Complexity in Language Acquisition.Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. (...)
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  41. Simply Complexity: A Clear Guide to Complexity Theory.Neil F. Johnson - 2009 - Oneworld.
    What exactly is complexity science? Two's company, three is complexity ; Disorder rules, OK? ; Chaos and all that jazz ; Mob mentality ; Getting connected -- What can complexity science do for me? Forecasting financial markets ; Tackling traffic networks and climbing the corporate ladder ; Looking for Mr./Mrs. Right ; Coping with conflict : next-generation wars and global terrorism -- Catching a cold, avoiding super-flu and curing cancer ; The mother of all complexities : our (...)
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  42.  48
    Complexity and Evolution: A Study of the Growth of Complexity in Organic and Cultural Evolution. [REVIEW]Börje Ekstig - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (3):263-278.
    In the present paper I develop a model of the evolutionary process associated to the widespread although controversial notion of a prevailing trend of increasing complexity over time. The model builds on a coupling of evolution to individual developmental programs and introduces an integrated view of evolution implying that human culture and science form a continuous extension of organic evolution. It is formed as a mathematical model that has made possible a quantitative estimation in relative terms of the growth (...)
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  43.  21
    Complexity of Networks II: The Set Complexity of Edge‐Colored Graphs.Tomasz M. Ignac, Nikita A. Sakhanenko & David J. Galas - 2012 - Complexity 17 (5):23-36.
  44.  16
    Image Characterization and Classification by Physical Complexity.Hector Zenil, Jean‐Paul Delahaye & Cédric Gaucherel - 2012 - Complexity 17 (3):26-42.
  45. The Formation of the Self. Nietzsche and Complexity.Paul Cilliers, Tanya de Villiers & Vasti Roodt - 2002 - South African Journal of Philosophy 21 (1):1-17.
    The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between the formation of the self and the worldly horizon within which this self achieves its meaning. Our inquiry takes place from two perspectives: the first derived from the Nietzschean analysis of how one becomes what one is; the other from current developments in complexity theory. This two-angled approach opens up different, yet related dimensions of a non-essentialist understanding of the self that is none the less neither arbitrary nor (...)
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  46.  18
    Facing Up to Complexity: Implications for Our Social Experiments.Ronnie Hawkins - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):775-814.
    Biological systems are highly complex, and for this reason there is a considerable degree of uncertainty as to the consequences of making significant interventions into their workings. Since a number of new technologies are already impinging on living systems, including our bodies, many of us have become participants in large-scale “social experiments”. I will discuss biological complexity and its relevance to the technologies that brought us BSE/vCJD and the controversy over GM foods. Then I will consider some of the (...)
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  47.  26
    Philosophy and Complexity.Gil Santos - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (4):681-686.
    Some relevant distinctions between the notions of complexity, non-linearity, self-organization and emergence are addressed.
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  48.  12
    Computationally Tractable Pairwise Complexity Profile.Yaneer Bar‐Yam & Dion Harmon - 2013 - Complexity 18 (5):20-27.
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  49. The Complexity of Science.H. P. P. Lotter - 1999 - Koers 64 (4):499-520.
    In this article I present an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems. As a result of the spectacular expansion in scientific disciplines, the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what counts as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can give an (...)
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  50.  37
    Energy Rate Density. II. Probing Further a New Complexity Metric.E. J. Chaisson - 2011 - Complexity 17 (1):44-63.
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