Results for 'Comprehension'

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  1.  45
    An Integrated Theory of Language Production and Comprehension.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):329-347.
  2.  4
    A Computational Investigation of Sources of Variability in Sentence Comprehension Difficulty in Aphasia.Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan & Frank Burchert - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):161-174.
    We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs. object relative sentences, presented in a (...)
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  3.  50
    Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension.David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as that used in verbally (...)
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  4.  97
    Lexical Norms, Language Comprehension, and the Epistemology of Testimony.Endre Begby - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (3-4):324-342.
    It has recently been argued that public linguistic norms are implicated in the epistemology of testimony by way of underwriting the reliability of language comprehension. This paper argues that linguistic normativity, as such, makes no explanatory contribution to the epistemology of testimony, but instead emerges naturally out of a collective effort to maintain language as a reliable medium for the dissemination of knowledge. Consequently, the epistemologies of testimony and language comprehension are deeply intertwined from the start, and there (...)
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  5.  57
    Bar and Line Graph Comprehension: An Interaction of Top‐Down and Bottom‐Up Processes.Priti Shah & Eric G. Freedman - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3):560-578.
    This experiment investigated the effect of format (line vs. bar), viewers’ familiarity with variables, and viewers’ graphicacy (graphical literacy) skills on the comprehension of multivariate (three variable) data presented in graphs. Fifty-five undergraduates provided written descriptions of data for a set of 14 line or bar graphs, half of which depicted variables familiar to the population and half of which depicted variables unfamiliar to the population. Participants then took a test of graphicacy skills. As predicted, the format influenced viewers’ (...)
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  6.  5
    Maternal Socioeconomic Status Influences the Range of Expectations During Language Comprehension in Adulthood.Melissa Troyer & Arielle Borovsky - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S6).
    In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns, higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence. Moreover, for unexpected sentence endings, individuals from higher (...)
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  7. Maximally Consistent Sets of Instances of Naive Comprehension.Luca Incurvati & Julien Murzi - 2017 - Mind 126 (502).
    Paul Horwich (1990) once suggested restricting the T-Schema to the maximally consistent set of its instances. But Vann McGee (1992) proved that there are multiple incompatible such sets, none of which, given minimal assumptions, is recursively axiomatizable. The analogous view for set theory---that Naïve Comprehension should be restricted according to consistency maxims---has recently been defended by Laurence Goldstein (2006; 2013). It can be traced back to W.V.O. Quine(1951), who held that Naïve Comprehension embodies the only really intuitive conception (...)
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  8.  38
    Resolving Insolubilia: Internal Inconsistency and the Reform of Naïve Set Comprehension- An Addendum.Neil Thompson - 2017 - Philosophy Study 7 (2).
    A further reformulation of Naive Set Comprehension related to that proposed in “Resolving Insolubilia: Internal Inconsistency and the Reform of Naive Set Comprehension” is possible in which contradiction is averted not by excluding sets such as the Russell Set but rather by treating sentences resulting from instantiation of such sets as the Russell Set in their own descriptions as invalid. So the set of all sets that are not members of themselves in this further revision is a valid (...)
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  9.  66
    The Ethics of Managing Affective and Emotional States to Improve Informed Consent: Autonomy, Comprehension, and Voluntariness.Hillel Braude & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (3):149-156.
    Over the past several decades the ‘affective revolution’ in cognitive psychology has emphasized the critical role affect and emotion play in human decision-making. Drawing on this affective literature, various commentators have recently proposed strategies for managing therapeutic expectation that use contextual, symbolic, or emotive interventions in the consent process to convey information or enhance comprehension. In this paper, we examine whether affective consent interventions that target affect and emotion can be reconciled with widely accepted standards for autonomous action. More (...)
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  10.  64
    Sets and Plural Comprehension.Keith Hossack - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):517-539.
    The state of affairs of some things falling under a predicate is supposedly a single entity that collects these things as its constituents. But whether we think of a state of affairs as a fact, a proposition or a possibility, problems will arise if we adopt a plural logic. For plural logic says that any plurality include themselves, so whenever there are some things, the state of affairs of their plural self-inclusion should be a single thing that collects them all. (...)
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  11.  9
    Embodiment Effects and Language Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease.Marika De Scalzi, Jennifer Rusted & Jane Oakhill - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):890-917.
    It has been shown that when participants are asked to make sensibility judgments on sentences that describe a transfer of an object toward or away from their body, they are faster to respond when the response requires a movement in the same direction as the transfer described in the sentence. This phenomenon is known as the action compatibility effect. This study investigates whether the ACE exists for volunteers with Alzheimer's disease, whether the ACE can facilitate language comprehension, and also (...)
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  12.  69
    On the Epistemology and Psychology of Speech Comprehension.Dean Pettit - 2009 - Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5 (1).
    How do we know what other speakers say? Perhaps the most natural view is that we hear a speaker's utterance and infer what was said, drawing on our competence in the syntax and semantics of the language. An alternative view that has emerged in the literature is that native speakers have a non-inferential capacity to perceive the content of speech. Call this the perceptual view. The disagreement here is best understood as an epistemological one about whether our knowledge of what (...)
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  13.  95
    Note on Absolute Provability and Cantorian Comprehension.Holger A. Leuz - manuscript
    We will explicate Cantor’s principle of set existence using the Gödelian intensional notion of absolute provability and John Burgess’ plural logical concept of set formation. From this Cantorian Comprehension principle we will derive a conditional result about the question whether there are any absolutely unprovable mathematical truths. Finally, we will discuss the philosophical significance of the conditional result.
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  14.  20
    Comprehension of a Simplified Assent Form in a Vaccine Trial for Adolescents.S. Lee, B. G. Kapogiannis, P. M. Flynn, B. J. Rudy, J. Bethel, S. Ahmad, D. Tucker, S. E. Abdalian, D. Hoffman, C. M. Wilson & C. K. Cunningham - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):410-412.
    Introduction Future HIV vaccine efficacy trials with adolescents will need to ensure that participants comprehend study concepts in order to confer true informed assent. A Hepatitis B vaccine trial with adolescents offers valuable opportunity to test youth understanding of vaccine trial requirements in general. Methods Youth reviewed a simplified assent form with study investigators and then completed a comprehension questionnaire. Once enrolled, all youth were tested for HIV and confirmed to be HIV-negative. Results 123 youth completed the questionnaire (mean (...)
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  15.  59
    Computational Analyses of Multilevel Discourse Comprehension.Arthur C. Graesser & Danielle S. McNamara - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):371-398.
    The proposed multilevel framework of discourse comprehension includes the surface code, the textbase, the situation model, the genre and rhetorical structure, and the pragmatic communication level. We describe these five levels when comprehension succeeds and also when there are communication misalignments and comprehension breakdowns. A computer tool has been developed, called Coh-Metrix, that scales discourse (oral or print) on dozens of measures associated with the first four discourse levels. The measurement of these levels with an automated tool (...)
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  16.  38
    The Significance of Context in Comprehension: The `We Case'. [REVIEW]Carla Bazzanella - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (3):239-254.
    This paper deals with some of the issues raised about the use of context in language, that is,the pragmatic side of the problem; morespecifically it aims to stress the significanceand complexity of context. In real life context is exploited both in production and in comprehension.I will deal here mainly with comprehension:after briefly referring to cognitive contextsand their interaction with knowledge andcomprehension, and touching on the relationbetween language and context, I will analyzethe uses of an indexical pronoun, we,which may (...)
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  17.  13
    Weber et la notion de « compréhension ».Frédéric Gonthier - 2004 - Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 116 (1):35.
    La notion wébérienne de « compréhension » ne se réduit pas à la continuité cognitive que réclament aujourd’hui les « sociologies compréhensives » entre connaissance ordinaire et connaissance scientifique. Elle s’élucide au contraire dans les notions qui appartiennent à son extension logique : le sens subjectivement visé, l’interprétation rationnelle et l’explication causale. On analysera ici ces trois notions coextensives, de même que les différentes formes de circularité qu’elles entretiennent dans la sociologie wébérienne.Weber’s notion of « understanding » cannot, as claimed (...)
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  18.  22
    Designing Conversational Agents: Effect of Conversational Form on Our Comprehension[REVIEW]Koji Yamashita, Hidekazu Kubota & Toyoaki Nishida - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (2):125-137.
    We have developed a broadcasting agent system, public opinion channel (POC) caster, which generates understandable conversational form from text-based documents. The POC caster circulates the opinions of community members by using conversational form in a broadcasting system on the Internet. We evaluated its transformation rules in two experiments. In experiment 1, we examined our transformation rules for conversational form in relation to sentence length. Twenty-four participants listened to two types of sentence (long sentences and short sentences) with conversational form or (...)
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  19.  47
    Case Studies of Constructivist Comprehension in Software Engineering.Václav Rajlich - 2003 - Brain and Mind 4 (2):229-238.
    Program comprehension is an essential part of software engineering. The paper describes the constructivist theory of comprehension, a process based on assimilation and accommodation of knowledge. Assimilation means that the new facts are either added to the existing knowledge or rejected. Accommodation means that the existing knowledge is reorganized in order to absorb new facts. These processes are illustrated by case studies of knowledge-level reengineering of a legacy program and of incremental change. In both cases, we constructed preliminary (...)
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  20.  18
    Galvin’s “Racing Pawns” Game, Internal Hyperarithmetic Comprehension, and the Law of Excluded Middle.Chris Conidis, Noam Greenberg & Daniel Turetsky - 2013 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (2):233-252.
    We show that the fact that the first player wins every instance of Galvin’s “racing pawns” game is equivalent to arithmetic transfinite recursion. Along the way we analyze the satisfaction relation for infinitary formulas, of “internal” hyperarithmetic comprehension, and of the law of excluded middle for such formulas.
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  21.  7
    Overhearers Use Addressee Backchannels in Dialog Comprehension.Jackson Tolins & Jean E. Fox Tree - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1412-1434.
    Observing others in conversation is a common format for comprehending language, yet little work has been done to understand dialog comprehension. We tested whether overhearers use addressee backchannels as predictive cues for how to integrate information across speaker turns during comprehension of spontaneously produced collaborative narration. In Experiment 1, words that followed specific backchannels were recognized more slowly than words that followed either generic backchannels or pauses. In Experiment 2, we found that when the turn after the backchannel (...)
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  22.  4
    Historical Experience as a Mode of Comprehension.Rodrigo Díaz-Maldonado - forthcoming - Journal of the Philosophy of History.
    _ Source: _Page Count 21 In the past two and a half decades, Frank Ankersmit has developed a complex notion of historical experience. Despite its many virtues it has at least one major difficulty: it implies a sharp separation between experience and language. This essay aims to bridge this gap, while preserving the positive aspects of Ankersmit’s theory. To do this, I will first present the ontological and epistemological implications of Ankersmit’s notion of historical experience. Next, I will present my (...)
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  23.  11
    Rational Comprehension of Arguments in Theoretical Texts: A Program for an Argumentative-Linguistic Approach. [REVIEW]Lev G. Vassiliev - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (1):21-34.
    A method of linguistically-oriented reasoning comprehension is proposed. It is based on semiological principles of text comprehension. Both content and form are essential for comprehending argumentative texts. A text recipient is viewed as a rational judge trying to detect all the components of the argument he/she considers and thus to see if the argument is consistent. Elementary and higher level argumentative units of the text are discovered by applying a modified S. Toulmin's model of argumentative functions. Validity and (...)
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  24.  20
    Computational Exploration of Metaphor Comprehension Processes Using a Semantic Space Model.Akira Utsumi - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (2):251-296.
    Recent metaphor research has revealed that metaphor comprehension involves both categorization and comparison processes. This finding has triggered the following central question: Which property determines the choice between these two processes for metaphor comprehension? Three competing views have been proposed to answer this question: the conventionality view (Bowdle & Gentner, 2005), aptness view (Glucksberg & Haught, 2006b), and interpretive diversity view (Utsumi, 2007); these views, respectively, argue that vehicle conventionality, metaphor aptness, and interpretive diversity determine the choice between (...)
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  25.  2
    Timing of Gestures: Gestures Anticipating or Simultaneous With Speech as Indexes of Text Comprehension in Children and Adults.Francesco Ianì, Ilaria Cutica & Monica Bucciarelli - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S6).
    The deep comprehension of a text is tantamount to the construction of an articulated mental model of that text. The number of correct recollections is an index of a learner's mental model of a text. We assume that another index of comprehension is the timing of the gestures produced during text recall; gestures are simultaneous with speech when the learner has built an articulated mental model of the text, whereas they anticipate the speech when the learner has built (...)
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  26.  65
    Comprehension of Simple Quantifiers. Empirical Evaluation of a Computational Model.Jakub Szymanik & Marcin Zajenkowski - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (3):521-532.
    We examine the verification of simple quantifiers in natural language from a computational model perspective. We refer to previous neuropsychological investigations of the same problem and suggest extending their experimental setting. Moreover, we give some direct empirical evidence linking computational complexity predictions with cognitive reality.<br>In the empirical study we compare time needed for understanding different types of quantifiers. We show that the computational distinction between quantifiers recognized by finite-automata and push-down automata is psychologically relevant. Our research improves upon hypothesis and (...)
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  27.  9
    Moving Words: Dynamic Representations in Language Comprehension.Rolf A. Zwaan, Carol J. Madden, Richard H. Yaxley & Mark E. Aveyard - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):611-619.
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  28.  10
    Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension.H. K. Blumenfeld & V. Marian - 2011 - Cognition 118 (2):245-257.
  29.  6
    Predicted Errors in Children's Early Sentence Comprehension.Y. Gertner & C. Fisher - 2012 - Cognition 124 (1):85-94.
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  30.  83
    Uncertainty Reduction as a Measure of Cognitive Load in Sentence Comprehension.Stefan L. Frank - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):475-494.
    The entropy-reduction hypothesis claims that the cognitive processing difficulty on a word in sentence context is determined by the word's effect on the uncertainty about the sentence. Here, this hypothesis is tested more thoroughly than has been done before, using a recurrent neural network for estimating entropy and self-paced reading for obtaining measures of cognitive processing load. Results show a positive relation between reading time on a word and the reduction in entropy due to processing that word, supporting the entropy-reduction (...)
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  31.  25
    Bimodal Bilinguals Co-Activate Both Languages During Spoken Comprehension.A. Shook & V. Marian - 2012 - Cognition 124 (3):314-324.
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  32.  9
    Learning to Attend: A Connectionist Model of Situated Language Comprehension.Marshall R. Mayberry, Matthew W. Crocker & Pia Knoeferle - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (3):449-496.
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  33.  10
    The Wind Chilled the Spectators, but the Wine Just Chilled: Sense, Structure, and Sentence Comprehension.Mary Hare, Jeffrey L. Elman, Tracy Tabaczynski & Ken McRae - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):610-628.
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  34.  7
    Interpretation‐Based Processing: A Unified Theory of Semantic Sentence Comprehension.Raluca Budiu & John R. Anderson - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (1):1-44.
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  35. Semantics and Comprehension.Herbert H. Clark - 1976 - Mouton.
     
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  36.  70
    Effects of Comprehension on Retention of Prose.D. James Dooling & Roy Lachman - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):216.
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  37.  3
    Modeling Knowledge‐Based Inferences in Story Comprehension.Stefan L. Frank, Mathieu Koppen, Leo G. M. Noordman & Wietske Vonk - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (6):875-910.
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  38.  7
    Some Context Effects in the Speeded Comprehension of Sentences.D. James Dooling - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):56.
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  39.  5
    Extension and Comprehension in Logic.Joseph C. Frisch - 1969 - New York: Philosophical Library.
  40.  13
    Comprehension and Recall of Sentences.Samuel A. Bobrow & Gordon H. Bower - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):455.
  41.  16
    Second-Order Positive Comprehension and Frege's Basic Law V.Liu Jingxian - 2012 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 7 (3):367-377.
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  42.  6
    Simultaneous Vision and Audition: The Comprehension of Prose Passages with Varying Levels of Difficulty.G. H. Mowbray - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (5):365.
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  43.  12
    Pierderea timpului ca instrument de comprehensiune în eseurile lui Mircea Eliade/ The Loss of Time as Comprehension Tool in the Essays of Mircea Eliade.Elvira Groza - 2005 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 4 (10):211-218.
    This article analyses the concept of “the loss of time” in the essays of Mircea Eliade. This concept is shown to be an instrument of knowledge and a form of freedom that saves the human being from falling into historicity, and opens a point of access towards authenticity. The article critically discusses the temporal alternatives of the modern human being: capitalized time, free time, and personal time. The loss of time is subsequently shown to be both a technique for obtaining (...)
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  44.  16
    Forward Models and Their Implications for Production, Comprehension, and Dialogue.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):377-392.
    Our target article proposed that language production and comprehension are interwoven, with speakers making predictions of their own utterances and comprehenders making predictions of other people's utterances at different linguistic levels. Here, we respond to comments about such issues as cognitive architecture and its neural basis, learning and development, monitoring, the nature of forward models, communicative intentions, and dialogue.
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  45. Embodied Cognition and Linguistic Comprehension.Daniel Weiskopf - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):294-304.
    Traditionally, the language faculty was supposed to be a device that maps linguistic inputs to semantic or conceptual representations. These representations themselves were supposed to be distinct from the representations manipulated by the hearer’s perceptual and motor systems. Recently this view of language has been challenged by advocates of embodied cognition. Drawing on empirical studies of linguistic comprehension, they have proposed that the language faculty reuses the very representations and processes deployed in perceiving and acting. I review some of (...)
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  46. Production and Comprehension of Gestures Between Orang-Utans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in a Referential Communication Game.Richard Moore, Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2015 - PLoS ONE:pone.0129726.
    Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the ‘communicator’ could see but not obtain hidden food, the ‘donor’ could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they responded only (...)
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  47. Cognitive Effort and Effects in Metaphor Comprehension: Relevance Theory and Psycholinguistics.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr & Markus Tendahl - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (3):379–403.
    This paper explores the trade-off between cognitive effort and cognitive effects during immediate metaphor comprehension. We specifically evaluate the fundamental claim of relevance theory that metaphor understanding, like all utterance interpretation, is constrained by the presumption of optimal relevance (Sperber and Wilson, 1995, p. 270): the ostensive stimulus is relevant enough for it to be worth the addressee's effort to process it, and the ostensive stimulus is the most relevant one compatible with the communicator's abilities and preferences. One important (...)
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  48.  16
    Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension.Roger Levy - 2008 - Cognition 106 (3):1126-1177.
  49. Psychological and Computational Models of Language Comprehension.David Pereplyotchik - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):31-72.
    In this paper, I argue for a modified version of what Devitt calls the Representational Thesis. According to RT, syntactic rules or principles are psychologically real, in the sense that they are represented in the mind/brain of every linguistically competent speaker/hearer. I present a range of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for the claim that the human sentence processing mechanism constructs mental representations of the syntactic properties of linguistic stimuli. I then survey a range of psychologically plausible computational models of (...) and show that they are all committed to RT. I go on to sketch a framework for thinking about the nature of the representations involved in sentence processing. My claim is that these are best characterized not as propositional attitudes but, rather, as subpersonal states whose representational properties are determined by their functional role. Finally, I distinguish between explicit and implicit representations and argue that the latter can be drawn on as data by the algorithms that constitute our sentence processing routines. I conclude that skepticism concerning the psychological reality of grammars cannot be sustained. (shrink)
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  50.  44
    Source-Goal Asymmetries in Motion Representation: Implications for Language Production and Comprehension.Anna Papafragou - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):1064-1092.
    Recent research has demonstrated an asymmetry between the origins and endpoints of motion events, with preferential attention given to endpoints rather than beginnings of motion in both language and memory. Two experiments explore this asymmetry further and test its implications for language production and comprehension. Experiment 1 shows that both adults and 4-year-old children detect fewer within-category changes in source than goal objects when tested for memory of motion events; furthermore, these groups produce fewer references to source than goal (...)
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