Results for 'Computation & Information'

326 found
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  1.  59
    Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Susan Stuart (eds.) - 2007 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
    Written by world-leading experts, this book draws together a number of important strands in contemporary approaches to the philosophical and scientific questions that emerge when dealing with the issues of computing, information, cognition and the conceptual issues that arise at their intersections. It discovers and develops the connections at the borders and in the interstices of disciplines and debates. This volume presents a range of essays that deal with the currently vigorous concerns of the philosophy of information, ontology (...)
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  2. Computation Vs. Information Processing: Why Their Difference Matters to Cognitive Science.Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):237-246.
    Since the cognitive revolution, it’s become commonplace that cognition involves both computation and information processing. Is this one claim or two? Is computation the same as information processing? The two terms are often used interchangeably, but this usage masks important differences. In this paper, we distinguish information processing from computation and examine some of their mutual relations, shedding light on the role each can play in a theory of cognition. We recommend that theoristError: Illegal (...)
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  3. Information Processing, Computation, and Cognition.Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino - 2011 - Journal of Biological Physics 37 (1):1-38.
    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and (...)
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  4.  47
    The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation.Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance (...)
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  5.  14
    Intuition, Computation, and Information.Ken Herold - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):85-88.
    Bynum (Putting information first: Luciano Floridi and the philosophy of information. NY: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) identifies Floridi’s focus in the philosophy of information (PI) on entities both as data structures and as information objects. One suggestion for examining the association between the former and the latter stems from Floridi’s Herbert A. Simon Lecture in Computing and Philosophy given at Carnegie Mellon University in 2001, open problems in the PI: the transduction or transception, and how we gain knowledge (...)
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  6. Information Theory, Evolutionary Computation, and Dembski's "Complex Specified Information".Wesley Elsberry & Jeffrey Shallit - 2010 - Synthese 178 (2):237 - 270.
    Intelligent design advocate William Dembski has introduced a measure of information called "complex specified information", or CSI. He claims that CSI is a reliable marker of design by intelligent agents. He puts forth a "Law of Conservation of Information" which states that chance and natural laws are incapable of generating CSI. In particular, CSI cannot be generated by evolutionary computation. Dembski asserts that CSI is present in intelligent causes and in the flagellum of Escherichia coli, and (...)
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  7. INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Mark Burgin (eds.) - forthcoming - World Scientific.
    The book focuses on relations between information and computation. Information is a basic structure of the world, while computation is a process of the dynamic change of information. In order for anything to exist for an individual, the individual must get information on it, either by means of perception or by re-organization of the existing information into new patterns and networks in the brain. With the advent of World Wide Web and a prospect (...)
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  8. Information, Computation, Cognition. Agency-Based Hierarchies of Levels.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic - 2016 - In Vincent Müller (ed.), FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. Zurich: Springer. pp. 139-159.
    This paper connects information with computation and cognition via concept of agents that appear at variety of levels of organization of physical/chemical/cognitive systems – from elementary particles to atoms, molecules, life-like chemical systems, to cognitive systems starting with living cells, up to organisms and ecologies. In order to obtain this generalized framework, concepts of information, computation and cognition are generalized. In this framework, nature can be seen as informational structure with computational dynamics, where an (info-computational) agent (...)
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  9.  37
    Information Processing as an Account of Concrete Digital Computation.Nir Fresco - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):31-60.
    It is common in cognitive science to equate computation (and in particular digital computation) with information processing. Yet, it is hard to find a comprehensive explicit account of concrete digital computation in information processing terms. An information processing account seems like a natural candidate to explain digital computation. But when ‘information’ comes under scrutiny, this account becomes a less obvious candidate. Four interpretations of information are examined here as the basis for (...)
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  10. Susan Stuart & Gordana Dodig Crnkovic : 'Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal'. [REVIEW]Vincent C. Müller - 2009 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 16 (3-4):201-203.
    Review of: "Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal", Ed. Susan Stuart & Gordana Dodig Crnkovic, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, September 2007, xxiv+340pp, ISBN: 9781847180902, Hardback: £39.99, $79.99 ---- Are you a computer? Is your cat a computer? A single biological cell in your stomach, perhaps? And your desk? You do not think so? Well, the authors of this book suggest that you think again. They propose a computational turn, a turn towards computational explanation and towards the (...)
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  11.  16
    Information and Computation Nets. Investigations Into Info-Computational World.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2009 - Vdm.
    The book presents investigations into the world of info-computational nature, in which information constitutes the structure, while computational process amounts to its change. Information and computation are inextricably bound: There is no computation without informational structure, and there is no information without computational process. Those two complementary ideas are used to build a conceptual net, which according to Novalis is a theoretical way of capturing reality. We apprehend the reality within a framework known as natural (...)
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  12. Information and Computation: Essays on Scientific and Philosophical Understanding of Foundations of Information and Computation.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Mark Burgin (eds.) - 2011 - World Scientific.
    Information is a basic structure of the world, while computation is a process of the dynamic change of information. This book provides a cutting-edge view of world's leading authorities in fields where information and computation play a central role. It sketches the contours of the future landscape for the development of our understanding of information and computation, their mutual relationship and the role in cognition, informatics, biology, artificial intelligence, and information technology. -/- (...)
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  13.  23
    Computation, Information, and the Arrow of Time.Pieter Adriaans, Peter van Emde Boas & Fnwi Illc - 2011 - In S. B. Cooper & Andrea Sorbi (eds.), Computability in Context: Computation and Logic in the Real World. World Scientific.
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  14.  64
    Semantics of Information as Interactive Computation.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2008 - Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics 2008.
    Computers today are not only the calculation tools - they are directly (inter)acting in the physical world which itself may be conceived of as the universal computer (Zuse, Fredkin, Wolfram, Chaitin, Lloyd). In expanding its domains from abstract logical symbol manipulation to physical embedded and networked devices, computing goes beyond Church-Turing limit (Copeland, Siegelman, Burgin, Schachter). Computational processes are distributed, reactive, interactive, agent-based and concurrent. The main criterion of success of computation is not its termination, but the adequacy of (...)
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  15.  6
    Information, Computation, Cognition. Agency-Based Hierarchies of Levels.Dodig-Crnkovic Gordana - 2016 - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Synthese Library 377. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. pp. 139-159.
    This paper connects information with computation and cognition via concept of agents that appear at variety of levels of organization of physical/chemical/cognitive systems – from elementary particles to atoms, molecules, life-like chemical systems, to cognitive systems starting with living cells, up to organisms and ecologies. In order to obtain this generalized framework, concepts of information, computation and cognition are generalized. In this framework, nature can be seen as informational structure with computational dynamics, where an (info-computational) agent (...)
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  16.  13
    Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons, by Christof Koch.Alain Destexhe - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (11):444.
  17.  1
    McCarthy J.. Towards a Mathematical Science of Computation. Information Processing 1962, Proceedings oflFIP Congress 62, Organized by the International Federation for Information Processing, Munich, 27 August-1 September 1962, Edited by Popplewell Cicely M., North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1963, Pp. 21–28.McCarthy John. Problems in the Theory of Computation. Information Processing 1965, Proceedings of IFIP Congress 65, Organized by the International Federation for Information Processing, New York City, May 24–29, 1965, Volume I, Edited by Kalenich Wayne A., Spartan Books, Inc., Washington, D.C., and Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, 1965, Pp. 219–222. [REVIEW]Richard J. Orgass - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):346-347.
  18.  1
    Epistemology as Computation (Information Processing).Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2007 - In Christian Calude (ed.), Randomness & Complexity, From Leibniz to Chaitin. World Scientific Pub Co.
    This essay presents arguments for the claim that in the best of all possible worlds (Leibniz) there are sources of unpredictability and creativity for us humans, even given a pancomputational stance. A suggested answer to Chaitin’s questions: “Where do new mathematical and biological ideas come from? How do they emerge?” is that they come from the world and emerge from basic physical (computational) laws. For humans as a tiny subset of the universe, a part of the new ideas comes as (...)
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  19. Books Etcetera-Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons.Alain Destexhe - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (11):443.
  20. Computation Vs. Information Processing: Why Their Difference Matters to Cognitive Science.Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 41 (3):237-246.
    Since the cognitive revolution, it has become commonplace that cognition involves both computation and information processing. Is this one claim or two? Is computation the same as information processing? The two terms are often used interchangeably, but this usage masks important differences. In this paper, we distinguish information processing from computation and examine some of their mutual relations, shedding light on the role each can play in a theory of cognition. We recommend that theorists (...)
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  21. Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal.F.Susan Stuart & Gordana Dodic-Crnkovic (eds.) - 2007 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
  22.  24
    Information, Physics, and Computation.Subhash C. Kak - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (1):127-137.
    This paper presents several observations on the connections between information, physics, and computation. In particular, the computing power of quantum computers is examined. Quantum theory is characterized by superimposed states and nonlocal interactions. It is argued that recently studied quantum computers, which are based on local interactions, cannot simulate quantum physics.
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  23.  62
    Is Measurement a Black Box? On the Importance of Understanding Measurement Even in Quantum Information and Computation.Michael Dickson - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):1019–1032.
    It has been argued, partly from the lack of any widely accepted solution to the measurement problem, and partly from recent results from quantum information theory, that measurement in quantum theory is best treated as a black box. However, there is a crucial difference between ‘having no account of measurement' and ‘having no solution to the measurement problem'. We know a lot about measurements. Taking into account this knowledge sheds light on quantum theory as a theory of information (...)
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  24.  2
    Emergence, Computation and the Freedom Degree Loss Information Principle in Complex Systems.Ignazio Licata & Gianfranco Minati - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-19.
    We consider processes of emergence within the conceptual framework of the Information Loss principle and the concepts of systems conserving information; systems compressing information; and systems amplifying information. We deal with the supposed incompatibility between emergence and computability tout-court. We distinguish between computational emergence, when computation acquires properties, and emergent computation, when computation emerges as a property. The focus is on emergence processes occurring within computational processes. Violations of Turing-computability such as non-explicitness and (...)
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  25.  7
    Information, Computation and Mind: Who Is in Charge of the Construction?M. J. Schroeder - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):237-240.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition” by Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Upshot: Focusing on the relationship between info-computationalism and constructivism, I point out that there is a need to clarify fundamental concepts such as information, informational structures, and computation that obscure the theses regarding the relationship with constructivist thought. In particular, I wonder how we can reconcile constructivism with the view that all nature is a computational process.
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  26. Information, Causation and Computation.John Collier - unknown -
    Causation can be understood as a computational process once we understand causation in informational terms. I argue that if we see processes as information channels, then causal processes are most readily interpreted as the transfer of information from one state to another. This directly implies that the later state is a computation from the earlier state, given causal laws, which can also be interpreted computationally. This approach unifies the ideas of causation and computation.
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  27.  15
    All Information Processing Entails Computation, or, If R. A. Fisher Had Been a Cognitive Scientist . .Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):637-638.
    We argue that the dynamical and computational hypotheses are compatible and in fact need each other: they are about different aspects of cognition. However, only computationalism is about the information-processing aspect. We then argue that any form of information processing relying on matching and comparing, as cognition does, must use discrete representations and computations defined over them.
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  28.  12
    Information Theory: The Holy Grail of Cortical Computation?James V. Stone - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):698-698.
    Simple hypotheses are intrinsically attractive, and, for this reason, need to be formulated with utmost precision if they are to be testable. Unfortunately, it is hard to see how Phillips & Singer's hypothesis might be unambiguously refuted. Despite this, the authors have provided much evidence consistent with the hypothesis, and have proposed a natural and powerful extension for information theoretic approaches to learning.
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  29. 10th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation (WoLLIC '2003): Co-Sponsored by the Association for Symbolic Logic, Ouro Preto (Minas Gerais), Brazil July 29-August 1, 2003. [REVIEW]Ruy J. G. B. de Queiroz - 2004 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (2):295-296.
  30.  49
    Conference on Information-Theoretic Approaches to Logic, Language, and Computation.Jeffrey C. Alexander - 1996 - History of the Human Sciences 18:21.
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  31.  85
    Information and Computation.Tim Fernando - unknown -
    Situations serving as worlds as well as events in linguistic semantics are formulated as strings recording observations over discrete time. This formulation is applied to a linear temporal logic, in line with L. Schubert’s distinction between described and characterized situations. The distinction is developed topologically and computationally, and linked to the opposition between truth-conditional and proof-conditional semantics. For a finitary handle on quantification, strings are associated with situations not only on the basis of observation but also through derivation and constraint (...)
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  32.  15
    Quantum Computation: A Quantum Leap Towards Understanding Neural Information Processing. [REVIEW]Peter J. Marcer - 1989 - AI and Society 3 (4):332-335.
  33.  8
    Information Theory, Evolutionary Computation, and Dembski’s “Complex Specified Information”.Wesley Elsberry & Jeffrey Shallit - 2010 - Synthese 178 (2):237-270.
  34.  18
    Book Review: Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. By Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000, I–Xxv+676 Pp., $42.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW]Stanley P. Gudder - 2001 - Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1665-1667.
  35.  11
    Second Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation (WoLLIC'95).Ruy Jgb de Queiroz & C. A. Alto - 1996 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 4 (2):309-344.
  36.  7
    Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Ruy De Queiroz & Angus Macintyre - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 152 (1):1-2.
  37.  24
    Information-Oriented Computation With.Varol Akman - unknown -
    While situation theory and situation semantics (Barwise and Perry 1983) provide an appropriate framework for a realistic model-theoretic treatment of natural language, serious thinking on their `computational' aspects has only recently started (Black 1993, Nakashima et al. 1988). Existing proposals mainly o er a Prolog- or Lisp-like programming environment with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of situation theory. In this paper, we introduce a computational medium (called BABY-SIT) based on situations (T n and Akman 1994a, T n and (...)
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  38.  26
    The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Computation - D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Eds.); Germany, 2000, 314pp, US$ 54, ISBN 3-540-66778-. [REVIEW]A. Duwell - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (2):331-334.
  39.  2
    9th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.R. J. G. B. de Queiroz - 2002 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 10 (6):679-688.
  40.  3
    The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Computation.Armond Duwell - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (2):331-334.
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  41.  1
    21st Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Ulrich Kohlenbach, Pablo Barceló & Ruy de Queiroz - 2015 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 23 (5):848-859.
  42.  3
    18th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation (Wollic 2011).Lev Beklemishev, Ruy de Queiroz & Andre Scedrov - 2012 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1):152-153.
  43.  3
    14th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation (Wollic 2007).Alex Borgida & Alessandra Carbone - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):160-161.
  44.  3
    Perception, Information, and Computation.S. Ullman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):408.
  45.  9
    Fodor's New Theory of Computation and Information.J. Andrew Brook & Robert J. Stainton - unknown -
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  46.  1
    9th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Rio de Janeiro & Ruy J. G. B. de Queiroz - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):121-122.
  47.  1
    Fourth Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.R. J. G. B. de Queiroz - 1997 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 5 (6):859-927.
  48.  1
    Second Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Ruy J. G. B. de Queiroz - 1996 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 4 (2):309-344.
  49.  1
    8th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Ruy J. G. B. de Queiroz - 2002 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (2):319-320.
  50.  1
    11th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation.Ruy J. G. B. de Queiroz - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (1):120-121.
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