Results for 'Conditionals (Logic'

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  1.  91
    The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic.Ernest W. Adams - 1975 - D. Reidel Pub. Co..
    THE INDICATIVE CONDITIONAL. A PROBABILISTIC CRITERION OF SOUNDNESS FOR DEDUCTIVE INFERENCES Our objective in this section is to establish a prima facie case ...
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  2.  85
    On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities: Predicate Logic. [REVIEW]James Hawthorne - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (1):1-34.
    In a previous paper I described a range of nonmonotonic conditionals that behave like conditional probability functions at various levels of probabilistic support. These conditionals were defined as semantic relations on an object language for sentential logic. In this paper I extend the most prominent family of these conditionals to a language for predicate logic. My approach to quantifiers is closely related to Hartry Field's probabilistic semantics. Along the way I will show how Field's semantics differs from (...)
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  3.  33
    Logic of Primary-Conditionals and Secondary-Conditionals.Zhuanghu Liu & Xiaowu Li - 2006 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (4):710-725.
    Firstly, the authors analyzed the properties of primary-onditionals and secondary-conditionals, establishthe minimum system $C2L_{m}$ of primary-conditionals and secondary-conditionals, and then prove some of the formal theorems of the system which have important intuitive meanings. Secondly, the authors constructed the neighborhood semantics, prove the soundness of $C2L_{m}$ , introduce a general concept of canonical model by the neighborhood semantics, and then prove the completeness of $C2L_{m}$ by the canonical model. Finally, according to the technical results of the minimum (...)
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  4.  37
    Preference Logic, Conditionals and Solution Concepts in Games.Johan van Benthem - unknown
    Preference is a basic notion in human behaviour, underlying such varied phenomena as individual rationality in the philosophy of action and game theory, obligations in deontic logic (we should aim for the best of all possible worlds), or collective decisions in social choice theory. Also, in a more abstract sense, preference orderings are used in conditional logic or non-monotonic reasoning as a way of arranging worlds into more or less plausible ones. The field of preference logic (cf. Hansson [10]) studies (...)
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  5.  23
    Contrary to Time Conditionals in Talmudic Logic.M. Abraham, D. M. Gabbay & U. Schild - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (2):145-179.
    We consider conditionals of the form A ⇒ B where A depends on the future and B on the present and past. We examine models for such conditional arising in Talmudic legal cases. We call such conditionals contrary to time conditionals.Three main aspects will be investigated: Inverse causality from future to past, where a future condition can influence a legal event in the past (this is a man made causality).Comparison with similar features in modern law.New types of (...)
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  6.  31
    Why Are There No Conditionals in Aristotle’s Logic?David Ebrey - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (2):185-205.
    Aristotle presents a formal logic in the Prior Analytics in which the premises and conclusions are never conditionals. In this paper I argue that he did not simply overlook conditionals, nor does their absence reflect a metaphysical prejudice on his part. Instead, he thinks that arguments with conditionals cannot be syllogisms because of the way he understands the explanatory requirement in the definition of a syllogism: the requirement that the conclusion follow because of the premises. The key (...)
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  7.  35
    Conditionals and the Logic of Decision.Richard Bradley - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):32.
    In this paper Richard Jeffrey's 'Logic of Decision' is extended by examination of agents' attitudes to the sorts of possibilities identified by indicative conditional sentences. An expression for the desirability of conditionals is proposed and, along with Adams' thesis that the probability of a conditional equals the conditional probability of its antecedent given its consequent, is defended by informally deriving it from Jeffrey's notion of desirability and some weak constraints on rational preference for conditional possibilities. Finally a statement is (...)
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  8.  61
    Classical Logic, Conditionals and “Nonmonotonic” Reasoning.Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  9.  9
    Iterated Descriptor Revision and the Logic of Ramsey Test Conditionals.Sven Ove Hansson - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (4):429-450.
    Two of the major problems in AGM-style belief revision, namely the difficulties in accounting for iterated change and for Ramsey test conditionals, have satisfactory solutions in descriptor revision. In descriptor revision, the input is a metalinguistic sentence specifying the success condition of the operation. The choice mechanism selects one of the potential outcomes in which the success condition is satisfied. Iteration of this operation is unproblematic. Ramsey test conditionals can be introduced without giving rise to the paradoxical results (...)
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  10.  7
    On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals.Robert N. McLaughlin - 1990 - State University of New York Press.
    A formal treatment of the logic of a type of conditional found in natural speech which differs substantially from the material conditional of propositional logic and from the conditionals afforded by theories of possible worlds.
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  11.  20
    On the Logic of General Conditionals.R. N. McLaughlin - 1973 - Philosophical Quarterly 23 (91):133-143.
    The aim of the essay is to devise a logic of conditionality which escapes the paradoxes which arise when the general conditional is identified with the universalization of the material conditional. The assumption I adopt is that the logic of one contingent form differs from that of another to the extent that the two forms have different confirmations and disconfirmations. The logic of conditionals is not, But that of their confirmations and disconfirmations is, At bottom truth-Functional; and the logical (...)
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  12.  82
    On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities.James Hawthorne - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (2):185-218.
    I will describe the logics of a range of conditionals that behave like conditional probabilities at various levels of probabilistic support. Families of these conditionals will be characterized in terms of the rules that their members obey. I will show that for each conditional, →, in a given family, there is a probabilistic support level r and a conditional probability function P such that, for all sentences C and B, 'C → B' holds just in case P[B | (...)
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  13. The Completeness of Some Modal Logics with Circumstantials, Subjunctive Conditionals, Transworld Identity and Dispositional Predicates a Study in the Prolegomena to the Logic of Science.Lennart Åqvist - 1971 - Uppsala Universitet].
     
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  14. A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.Jonathan Bennett - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Conditional sentences are among the most intriguing and puzzling features of language, and analysis of their meaning and function has important implications for, and uses in, many areas of philosophy. Jonathan Bennett, one of the world's leading experts, distils many years' work and teaching into this Philosophical Guide to Conditionals, the fullest and most authoritative treatment of the subject. An ideal introduction for undergraduates with a philosophical grounding, it also offers a rich source of illumination and stimulation for graduate (...)
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  15. The Logic of Conditionals.Ernest Adams - 1965 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 8 (1-4):166 – 197.
    The standard use of the propositional calculus ('P.C.?) in analyzing the validity of inferences involving conditionals leads to fallacies, and the problem is to determine where P.C. may be ?safely? used. An alternative analysis of criteria of reasonableness of inferences in terms of conditions of justification rather than truth of statements is proposed. It is argued, under certain restrictions, that P. C. may be safely used, except in inferences whose conclusions are conditionals whose antecedents are incompatible with the (...)
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  16.  79
    A Semantic Constraint on the Logic of Modal Conditionals.Zsófia Zvolenszky - 2006 - Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Logic and Language (LoLa 9).
  17.  61
    Modal Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals and Dispositional Predicates.Lennart Åqvist - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):1 - 76.
  18.  63
    A Propositional Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals.R. B. Angell - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (3):327-343.
  19.  8
    Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought.M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book shows how these developments have led researchers to view people's conditional reasoning behaviour more as succesful probabilistic reasoning rather ...
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  20. ``Probability and the Logic of Conditionals&Quot.Ernest Adams - 1966 - In Jaakko Hintikka & Patrick Suppes (eds.), Aspects of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland. pp. 165-316.
  21.  17
    A Simplification of the Logic of Conditionals.E. J. Lowe - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (3):357-366.
  22.  29
    Finite Matrices and the Logic of Conditionals.Vann McGee - 1981 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (3):349 - 351.
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  23.  34
    Stalnaker Conditionals and Quantum Logic.Gary M. Hardegree - 1975 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (4):399 - 421.
  24.  14
    Nineteenth Century British Logic on Hypotheticals, Conditionals, and Implication.Francine F. Abeles - 2013 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (1):1-14.
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  25.  10
    Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science, Edited by Crocco G., Del Cerro L. Fariñas, and Herzig A., Studies in Logic and Computation, No. 5, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York 1995, Viii+ 368 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles B. Cross & Donald Nute - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1487-1490.
  26.  9
    Minimal Models Vs. Logic Programming: The Case of Counterfactual Conditionals.Katrin Schulz - 2014 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 24 (1-2):153-168.
    This article aims to propagate Logic Programming as a formal tool to deal with non-monotonic reasoning. In philosophy and linguistics non-monotonic reasoning is modelled using Minimal Models as standard, i.e., by imposing an order (or selection function) on the class of all models and then by defining entailment as only caring about the minimal models of the premises with respect to the order. In this article we investigate the question whether instead of minimal models we should use logic programming to (...)
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  27.  1
    The Logic of Conditionals.Adams Ernest, W. Adams Ernest, Hintikka Jaakko & Suppes Patrick - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):609-611.
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  28.  4
    Review: Ernest Adams, The Logic of Conditionals; Ernest W. Adams, Jaakko Hintikka, Patrick Suppes, Probability and the Logic of Conditionals[REVIEW]Robert Stalnaker - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):609-611.
  29.  6
    A General Propositional Logic of Conditionals.Scott Lehmann - 1979 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (1):77-83.
  30.  1
    Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science, Edited by Crocco G., Del Cerro L. Fariñas, and Herzig A., Studies in Logic and Computation, No. 5, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York 1995, Viii + 368 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles B. Cross & Donald Nute - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1487-1490.
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  31.  1
    Review: R. B. Angell, A Propositional Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals[REVIEW]Nuel D. Belnap - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):464-465.
  32. Angell R. B.. A Propositional Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals.Nuel D. Belnap - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):464-465.
  33. R. N. MCLAUGHLIN "On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals". [REVIEW]K. G. Ferguson - 1991 - History and Philosophy of Logic 12 (2):251.
  34. Adams Ernest. The Logic of Conditionals. Inquiry , Vol. 8 , Pp. 166–197.Adams Ernest W.. Probability and the Logic of Conditionals. Aspects of Inductive Logic, Edited by Hintikka Jaakko and Patrick Suppes, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1966, Pp. 265–316. [REVIEW]Robert Stalnaker - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):609-611.
  35.  94
    The Logic of Conditionals.Horacio Arlo-Costa - unknown - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    entry for the Entry for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007.
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  36. On the Logic of Deontic Conditionals.Andrew J. I. Jones - 1991 - Ratio Juris 4 (3):355-366.
  37. Relevant Logic, Probabilistic Information, and Conditionals.Edwin Mares - 2006 - Logique Et Analyse 49:399-411.
     
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  38.  61
    Opposite Conditionals and Deontic Logic.P. B. Downing - 1961 - Mind 70 (280):491-502.
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  39.  27
    Obligation, Conditionals, and the Logic of Conditional Obligation.James E. Tomberlin - 1989 - Philosophical Studies 55 (1):81 - 92.
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  40.  30
    Book Review:The Logic of Conditionals Ernest W. Adams. [REVIEW]Ian F. Carlstrom & Christopher S. Hill - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (1):155-.
  41. The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic.Ernest W. Adams - 1981 - Noûs 15 (3):432-436.
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  42.  4
    Fictionalism and the Logic of “as If” Conditionals.Claudio Pizzi - 1999 - In L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum. pp. 293--310.
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  43. The Logic of Conditionals.W. Adams Ernest - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (1):155-158.
     
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  44. The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic.W. Adams Ernest - 1978 - Mind 87 (348):619-623.
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  45. ADAMS, E. W. "The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic". [REVIEW]D. Edgington - 1978 - Mind 87:619.
     
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  46. On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals.Robert N. Mclaughlin - 1991 - Mind 100 (3):403-406.
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  47. On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals.R. N. Mclaughlin - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (2):337-338.
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  48.  28
    Conditionals.Woods Michael - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Conditionals has at its center an extended essay on this problematic and much-debated subject in the philosophy of language and logic, which the widely respected Oxford philosopher Michael Woods had been preparing for publication at the time of his death in 1993. It appears here edited by his eminent colleague David Wiggins, and is accompanied by a commentary specially written by a leading expert on the topic, Dorothy Edgington. This masterly and original treatment of conditionals will demand the (...)
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  49.  5
    A Priori True and False Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & Philip N. Johnson‐Laird - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):1003-1030.
    The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 (...) and provided their own justifications, which tended to be explanations rather than logical justifications. In Experiment 3, the participants also evaluated as possible or impossible each of the four cases in the partitions of 16 conditionals: A and C, A and not-C, not-A and C, not-A and not-C. These evaluations corroborated the model theory. We consider the implications of these results for theories of reasoning based on logic, probabilistic logic, and suppositions. (shrink)
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  50. Causation and Conditionals.Ernest Sosa (ed.) - 1974 - Oxford University Press.
    Mackie, J. L. Causes and conditions.--Taylor, R. The metaphysics of causation.--Scriven, M. Defects of the necessary condition analysis of causation.--Kim, J. Causes and events: Mackie on causation.--Anscombe, G. E. M. Causality and determination.--Davidson, D. Causal relations.--Wright, G. H. von. On the logic and epistemology of the causal relation.--Ducasse, C. J. On the nature and the observability of the causal relation.--Sellars, W. S. Counterfactuals.--Chisholm, R. M. Law statements and counterfactual inference.--Rescher, N. Belief-contravening suppositions and the problem of contrary-to-fact conditionals.--Stalnaker, R. (...)
     
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