Results for 'Confirmation bias'

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  1. Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information.Martin Jones & Robert Sugden - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (1):59-99.
    An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. The design – an adaptation of Wason's selection task – reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. It is suggested that (...)
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  2. Illegitimate Values, Confirmation Bias, and Mandevillian Cognition in Science.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axy079.
    In the philosophy of science, it is a common proposal that values are illegitimate in science and should be counteracted whenever they drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions. Drawing on recent cognitive scientific research on human reasoning and confirmation bias, I argue that this view should be rejected. Advocates of it have overlooked that values that drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions can contribute to the reliability of scientific inquiry at the group (...)
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  3.  87
    An Argument for Egalitarian Confirmation Bias and Against Political Diversity in Academia.Uwe Peters - 2020 - Synthese 198 (12):11999-12019.
    It has recently been suggested that politically motivated cognition leads progressive individuals to form beliefs that underestimate real differences between social groups and to process information selectively to support these beliefs and an egalitarian outlook. I contend that this tendency, which I shall call ‘egalitarian confirmation bias’, is often ‘Mandevillian’ in nature. That is, while it is epistemically problematic in one’s own cognition, it often has effects that significantly improve other people’s truth tracking, especially that of stigmatized individuals (...)
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  4. Confirmation Bias Without Rhyme or Reason.Matthias Michel & Megan A. K. Peters - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):2757-2772.
    Having a confirmation bias sometimes leads us to hold inaccurate beliefs. So, the puzzle goes: why do we have it? According to the influential argumentative theory of reasoning, confirmation bias emerges because the primary function of reason is not to form accurate beliefs, but to convince others that we’re right. A crucial prediction of the theory, then, is that confirmation bias should be found only in the reasoning domain. In this article, we argue that (...)
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  5.  10
    Confirmation Bias in Information Search, Interpretation, and Memory Recall: Evidence From Reasoning About Four Controversial Topics.Dáša Vedejová & Vladimíra Čavojová - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-28.
    Confirmation bias is often used as an umbrella term for many related phenomena. Information searches, evidence interpretation, and memory recall are the three main components of the thinking proces...
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  6. What Is the Function of Confirmation Bias?Uwe Peters - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-26.
    Confirmation bias is one of the most widely discussed epistemically problematic cognitions, challenging reliable belief formation and the correction of inaccurate views. Given its problematic nature, it remains unclear why the bias evolved and is still with us today. To offer an explanation, several philosophers and scientists have argued that the bias is in fact adaptive. I critically discuss three recent proposals of this kind before developing a novel alternative, what I call the ‘reality-matching account’. According (...)
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  7.  91
    Confirmation Bias and the (Un)Reliability of Enculturated Religious Beliefs.Paul Carron - 2019 - Southwest Philosophy Review 35 (2):61-63.
  8.  15
    Confirmation Bias in the United States Supreme Court Judicial Database.Anna Harvey & Michael J. Woodruff - unknown
    This paper investigates the possibility of confirmation bias in the United States Supreme Court Judicial Database (USSCJD) issue and judgment codes. We ask whether an opinion issued by a liberal Court is more likely to be assigned a USSCJD issue code that leads to a liberal judgment code, relative to an otherwise similar opinion issued by a conservative Court (and vice versa). Using a sample of cases from the USSCJD that pose comparable issue coding choices, we find that (...)
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  9.  37
    Confirming Confirmation Bias.P. Pollard - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):258-259.
  10.  30
    The Power of Stereotyping and Confirmation Bias to Overwhelm Accurate Assessment: The Case of Economics, Gender, and Risk Aversion.Julie A. Nelson - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (3):211-231.
    Behavioral research has revealed how normal human cognitive processes can tend to lead us astray. But do these affect economic researchers, ourselves? This article explores the consequences of stereotyping and confirmation bias using a sample of published articles from the economics literature on gender and risk aversion. The results demonstrate that the supposedly ‘robust’ claim that ‘women are more risk averse than men’ is far less empirically supported than has been claimed. The questions of how these cognitive biases (...)
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  11.  1
    Characterizing the Influence of Confirmation Bias on Web Search Behavior.Masaki Suzuki & Yusuke Yamamoto - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between confirmation bias, which causes people to preferentially view information that supports their opinions and beliefs, and web search behavior. In an online user study, we controlled confirmation bias by presenting prior information to participants that manipulated their impressions of health search topics and analyzed their behavioral logs during web search tasks. We found that web search users with poor health literacy and negative prior beliefs about the health search (...)
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  12. Scientists and Confirmation Bias.Ian I. Mitroff - 1981 - In Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.), On Scientific Thinking. Columbia University Press. pp. 170--175.
     
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  13.  11
    Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.Paige Williams, Margaret L. Kern & Lea Waters - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  14.  63
    The Chronometrics of Confirmation Bias: Evidence for the Inhibition of Intuitive Judgements.Edward Jn Stupple & Linden J. Ball - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):89-90.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) claim that the phenomenon of belief bias provides fundamental support for their argumentative theory and its basis in intuitive judgement. We propose that chronometric evidence necessitates a more nuanced account of belief bias that is not readily captured by argumentative theory.
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  15.  16
    Primary Error Detection and Minimization Strategies in Social Cognition: A Reinterpretation of Confirmation Bias Phenomena.James Friedrich - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (2):298-319.
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  16. Null Hypothesis Testing, Confirmation Bias and Strong Inference.M. E. Doherty, R. D. Tweney & C. R. Mynatt - 1981 - In Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.), On Scientific Thinking. Columbia University Press. pp. 262--267.
     
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  17.  14
    The Effect of Metacognitive Self on Confirmation Bias Revealed in Relation to Community and Competence.Piotr Wiśniewski, Yoram Bar-Tal, Magdalena Wyszomirska-Góra & Hanna Brycz - 2014 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 45 (3):306-311.
    The main goal of our study was to investigate the role of insight into one’s own biases in the process of hypothesis validation in accordance to the two fundamental social perception domains on the example of confirmation bias. The study was conducted on a group of 593 participants with the use of a confirmation bias procedure, a free recall procedure and the Metacognitive Self scale. We manipulated with the domain and the value of information given to (...)
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  18. Confirmational Response Bias Among Social Work Journals.William M. Epstein - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (1):9-38.
    This article reports the results of a study of confirmational response bias among social work journals. A contrived research paper with positive findings and its negative mirror image were submitted to two different groups of social work journals and to two comparison groups of journals outside social work. The quantitative results, suggesting bias, are tentative; but the qualitative findings based upon an analysis of the referee comments are clear and consistent. Few referees from prestigious or nonprestcgrous social work (...)
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  19. Seeking Confirmation Is Rational for Deterministic Hypotheses.Joseph L. Austerweil & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (3):499-526.
    The tendency to test outcomes that are predicted by our current theory (the confirmation bias) is one of the best-known biases of human decision making. We prove that the confirmation bias is an optimal strategy for testing hypotheses when those hypotheses are deterministic, each making a single prediction about the next event in a sequence. Our proof applies for two normative standards commonly used for evaluating hypothesis testing: maximizing expected information gain and maximizing the probability of (...)
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  20.  15
    Bias in Human Reasoning: Causes and Consequences.Jonathan St B. T. Evans (ed.) - 1989 - Psychology Press.
    This book represents the first major attempt by any author to provide an integrated account of the evidence for bias in human reasoning across a wide range of disparate psychological literatures. The topics discussed involve both deductive and inductive reasoning as well as statistical judgement and inference. In addition, the author proposes a general theoretical approach to the explanations of bias and considers the practical implications for real world decision making. The theoretical stance of the book is based (...)
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  21. Future bias in action: does the past matter more when you can affect it?Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller, James Norton & Christian Tarsney - 2020 - Synthese 198 (12):11327-11349.
    Philosophers have long noted, and empirical psychology has lately confirmed, that most people are “biased toward the future”: we prefer to have positive experiences in the future, and negative experiences in the past. At least two explanations have been offered for this bias: belief in temporal passage and the practical irrelevance of the past resulting from our inability to influence past events. We set out to test the latter explanation. In a large survey, we find that participants exhibit significantly (...)
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  22. Reflections on "Confirmational Response Bias Among Social Work Journals".June Gary Hopps - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (1):39-45.
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  23.  83
    Evidence and Bias.Nick Hughes - forthcoming - In Clayton Littlejohn & Maria Lasonen Aarnio (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evidence.
    I argue that evidentialism should be rejected because it cannot be reconciled with empirical work on bias in cognitive and social psychology.
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  24.  7
    Evaluating Experts May Serve Psychological Needs: Self-Esteem, Bias Blind Spot, and Processing Fluency Explain Confirmation Effect in Assessing Financial Advisors’ Authority.Tomasz Zaleskiewicz & Agata Gasiorowska - 2021 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 27 (1):27-45.
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  25. Journals Have Obligations, Too: Commentary on "Confirmational Response Bias".Rachelle D. Hollander - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (1):46-49.
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  26.  1
    Improving the Quality of Social Welfare Scholarship: Response to "Confirmational Response Bias".John R. Schuerman - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (1):56-61.
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  27. Is Social Work Different? Comments on "Confirmational Response Bias".Ron Westrum - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (1):62-64.
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  28.  35
    Systematicity, Knowledge, and Bias. How Systematicity Made Clinical Medicine a Science.Alexander Bird - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):863-879.
    This paper shows that the history of clinical medicine in the eighteenth century supports Paul Hoyningen-Huene’s thesis that there is a correlation between science and systematicity. For example, James Jurin’s assessment of the safety of variolation as a protection against smallpox adopted a systematic approach to the assessment of interventions in order to eliminate sources of cognitive bias that would compromise inquiry. Clinical medicine thereby became a science. I use this confirming instance to motivate a broader hypothesis, that systematicity (...)
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  29.  1
    Self-Confirming Biased Beliefs in Organizational “Learning by Doing”.Sanghyun Park & Phanish Puranam - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-14.
    Learning by doing, a change in beliefs due to experience, is crucial to the adaptive behaviours of organizations as well as the individuals that inhabit them. In this review paper, we summarise different pathologies of learning noted in past literature using a common underlying mechanism based on self-confirming biased beliefs. These are inaccurate beliefs about the environment that are self-confirming because acting upon these beliefs prevents their falsification. We provide a formal definition for self-confirming biased beliefs as an attractor that (...)
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  30.  2
    White Bias in 3–7-Year-Old Children Across Cultures.Bentley Gibson, Erin Robbins & Philippe Rochat - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 15 (3-4):344-373.
    In three studies we report data confirming and extending the finding of a tendency toward a White preference bias by young children of various ethnic backgrounds. European American preschoolers who identify with a White doll also prefer it to a Black doll. In contrast, same age African American children who identify with a Black doll do not show a significant preference for it over a White doll. These results are comparable in African American children attending either a racially mixed, (...)
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  31.  62
    Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm.Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde - 2002 - Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.
    Using the matching bias example, the aim of the present studies was to show that adults' reasoning biases are due to faulty executive inhibition programming. In the first study, the subjects were trained on Wason's classical card selection task; half were given training in how to inhibit the perceptual matching bias (experimental group) and half in logic without the inhibition component (control group). On the pre- and post-tests, their performance was assessed on the Evans conditional rule falsification task (...)
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  32.  80
    Belief in Robust Temporal Passage (Probably) Does Not Explain Future-Bias.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller, Christian Tarsney & Hannah Tierney - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Empirical work has lately confirmed what many philosophers have taken to be true: people are ‘biased toward the future’. All else being equal, we usually prefer to have positive experiences in the future, and negative experiences in the past. According to one hypothesis, the temporal metaphysics hypothesis, future-bias is explained either by our (tacit) beliefs about temporal metaphysics—the temporal belief hypothesis—or alternatively by our temporal phenomenology—the temporal phenomenology hypothesis. We empirically investigate a particular version of the temporal belief hypothesis (...)
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  33.  29
    What is epistemically wrong with research affected by sponsorship bias? The evidential account.Alexander Reutlinger - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (2):1-26.
    Biased research occurs frequently in the sciences. In this paper, I will focus on one particular kind of biased research: research that is subject to sponsorship bias. I will address the following epistemological question: what precisely is epistemically wrong with biased research of this kind? I will defend the evidential account of epistemic wrongness: that is, research affected by sponsorship bias is epistemically wrong if and only if the researchers in question make false claims about the evidential support (...)
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  34.  52
    How to Assess the Epistemic Wrongness of Sponsorship Bias? The Case of Manufactured Certainty.Jon Leefmann - 2021 - Frontiers In 6 (Article 599909):1-13.
    Although the impact of so-called “sponsorship bias” has been the subject of increased attention in the philosophy of science, what exactly constitutes its epistemic wrongness is still debated. In this paper, I will argue that neither evidential accounts nor social–epistemological accounts can fully account for the epistemic wrongness of sponsorship bias, but there are good reasons to prefer social–epistemological to evidential accounts. I will defend this claim by examining how both accounts deal with a paradigm case from medical (...)
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  35.  10
    Local Processing Bias Impacts Implicit and Explicit Memory in Autism.Karine Lebreton, Joëlle Malvy, Laetitia Bon, Alice Hamel-Desbruères, Geoffrey Marcaggi, Patrice Clochon, Fabian Guénolé, Edgar Moussaoui, Dermot M. Bowler, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Francis Eustache, Jean-Marc Baleyte & Bérengère Guillery-Girard - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by atypical perception, including processing that is biased toward local details rather than global configurations. This bias may impact on memory. The present study examined the effect of this perception on both implicit and explicit memory in conditions that promote either local or global processing. The first experiment consisted of an object identification priming task using two distinct encoding conditions: one favoring local processing and the other favoring global processing of drawings. The second experiment (...)
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  36.  13
    Unconscious Gender Bias in Fame Judgments?Axel Buchner & Werner Wippich - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):197-220.
    In two experiments the conditions of, and the processes leading to, gender biases in fame judgments were investigated. In Experiment 1, the gender bias was not reduced in a condition that alerted participants to the gender of the names. In Experiment 2, participants' sex-role orientation, but not their gender, was related to the gender bias. The process dissociation procedure was used in both experiments in an attempt to separate conscious and unconscious memory processes contributing to the gender (...). Using L. L. Jacoby's original measurement model there appeared to be evidence for unconscious influences on the gender bias in fame judgments. Unfortunately, this evidence disappeared when a model was used that takes guessing and, hence, response biases into account, which confirms that measurement models that ignore response biases in the process dissociation procedure may lead to erroneous conclusions. (shrink)
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  37.  15
    Rewarding Collaborative Research: Role Congruity Bias and the Gender Pay Gap in Academe.Christine Wiedman - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 167 (4):793-807.
    Research on academic pay finds an unexplained gender pay gap that has not fully dissolved over time and that appears to increase with years of experience. In this study, I consider how role congruity bias contributes to this pay gap. Bias is more likely to manifest in a context where there is some ambiguity about performance and where stereotypes are stronger. I predict that bias in the attribution of credit for coauthored research leads to lower returns to (...)
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  38.  2
    The Borderline Bias in Explicit Emotion Interpretation.Sylwia Hyniewska, Joanna Dąbrowska, Iwona Makowska, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda & Krystyna Rymarczyk - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Atypical emotion interpretation has been widely reported in individuals with borderline personality disorder ; however, empirical studies reported mixed results so far. We suggest that discrepancies in observations of emotion interpretation by iBPD can be explained by biases related to their fear of rejection and abandonment, i.e., the three moral emotions of anger, disgust, and contempt. In this study, we hypothesized that iBPD would show a higher tendency to correctly interpret these three displays of social rejection and attribute more negative (...)
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  39.  38
    Ethical Dilemmas in Auditing: Dishonesty or Unintentional Bias?Andrés Guiral, Waymond Rodgers, Emiliano Ruiz & José A. Gonzalo - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):151 - 166.
    Moral Seduction Theory suggests that auditors are morally compromised by the perceived consequences of their opinions. The root of the auditing problem appears to result in an unintentional bias rather than in dishonesty. Although important accounting reforms have been taken to deal with auditors' trustworthiness, their lack of independence has not been adequately addressed. The new regulation (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) is a consequence of an incorrect understanding of the main true source of auditor's biases. We have developed a cognitive approach (...)
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  40.  13
    Appointing Women to Boards: Is There a Cultural Bias?Amalia Carrasco, Claude Francoeur, Réal Labelle, Joaquina Laffarga & Emiliano Ruiz-Barbadillo - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (2):429-444.
    Companies that are serious about corporate governance and business ethics are turning their attention to gender diversity at the most senior levels of business . Board gender diversity has been the subject of several studies carried out by international organizations such as Catalyst , the World Economic Forum , and the European Board Diversity Analysis . They all lead to reports confirming the overall relatively low proportion of women on boards and the slow pace at which more women are being (...)
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  41.  28
    Refusing to Budge: A Confirmatory Bias in Decision Making?Lea-Rachel D. Kosnik - 2007 - Mind and Society 7 (2):193-214.
    Confirmatory bias, defined as the tendency to misinterpret new pieces of evidence as confirming previously held hypotheses, can lead to implacable, even incorrect decision making. It is one of the biases, along with anchoring, framing, and other judgment heuristic errors, that may lead to non-optimal behavior. This paper tests for the existence of confirmatory bias behavior in a uniquely economic setting (tax policy) and in a context relatively lacking in ambiguity. It also tests whether the confirmatory bias (...)
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  42.  69
    In Defense of the Vegan Ideal: Rhetoric and Bias in the Nutrition Literature. [REVIEW]Gary E. Varner - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):29-40.
    Much of the scientific literature on vegetarian nutrition leaves one with the impression that vegan diets are significantly more risky than omnivorous ones, especially for individuals with high metabolic demands (such as pregnant or lactating women and children). But nutrition researchers have tended to skew their study populations toward new vegetarians, members of religious sects with especially restrictive diets and tendencies to eschew fortified foods and medical care, and these are arguably the last people we would expect to thrive on (...)
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  43.  65
    The Virtues of Ingenuity: Reasoning and Arguing Without Bias.Olivier Morin - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):499-512.
    This paper describes and defends the “virtues of ingenuity”: detachment, lucidity, thoroughness. Philosophers traditionally praise these virtues for their role in the practice of using reasoning to solve problems and gather information. Yet, reasoning has other, no less important uses. Conviction is one of them. A recent revival of rhetoric and argumentative approaches to reasoning (in psychology, philosophy and science studies) has highlighted the virtues of persuasiveness and cast a new light on some of its apparent vices—bad faith, deluded confidence, (...)
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  44.  15
    Should We Strive to Make Science Bias-Free? A Philosophical Assessment of the Reproducibility Crisis.Robert Hudson - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (3):389-405.
    Recently, many scientists have become concerned about an excessive number of failures to reproduce statistically significant effects. The situation has become dire enough that the situation has been named the ‘reproducibility crisis’. After reviewing the relevant literature to confirm the observation that scientists do indeed view replication as currently problematic, I explain in philosophical terms why the replication of empirical phenomena, such as statistically significant effects, is important for scientific progress. Following that explanation, I examine various diagnoses of the reproducibility (...)
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  45.  36
    Catechizing the Head and the Heart: An Integrated Model for Confirmation Ministry.Sean M. Salai - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (4):569-595.
    In catechesis for adolescents seeking confirmation in the Roman Catholic Church, a dualistic bias unconsciously dichotomizes objective doctrine and subjective psychology. This is problematic because if a catechist does not communicate mind-independent truth, no seed of Catholic faith will have been planted in a student. At the same time, if a catechist does not affirm a student's subjectivity, the seed cannot find receptive soil. I believe the key to integrating these intellectual and affective elements – the head and (...)
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  46.  4
    Blind Myself: Simple Steps for Editors and Software Providers to Take Against Affiliation Bias.János Tóth - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1875-1877.
    This letter contains suggestions for editors and software providers to help avoid affiliation bias in the initial and concluding stages of the peer review process. Submission management systems have a responsibility to ensure protection against affiliation bias. This can be achieved by automatically withholding the author’s identity and affiliation information from all editors, including the Editor-in-Chief, until a decision about publication has been made. Journals relying on email-based submissions are in a more difficult situation. Not having external support (...)
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  47.  6
    Social Identity-Based Motivation Modulates Attention Bias Toward Negative Information: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.Benoit Montalan, Alexis Boitout, Mathieu Veujoz, Arnaud Leleu, Raymonde Germain, Bernard Personnaz, Robert Lalonde & Mohamed Rebaï - 2011 - Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 1:1-15.
    Research has demonstrated that people readily pay more attention to negative than to positive and/or neutral stimuli. However, evidence from recent studies indicated that such an attention bias to negative information is not obligatory but sensitive to various factors. Two experiments using intergroup evaluative tasks (Study 1: a gender-related groups evaluative task and Study 2: a minimal-related groups evaluative task) was conducted to determine whether motivation to strive for a positive social identity - a part of one's self-concept - (...)
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  48. Rational Polarization.Kevin Dorst - manuscript
    Predictable polarization is everywhere: we can often predict how people’s opinions—including our own—will shift over time. Empirical studies suggest that this is so when evidence is ambiguous. That fact is often thought to demonstrate human irrationality. It doesn’t. Bayesians will predictably polarize iff their evidence is ambiguous. And ours often is: the process of cognitive search—searching a cognitively-accessible space for an item of a particular profile—yields ambiguous evidence that can predictably polarize beliefs, despite being expected to make them more accurate. (...)
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  49. Epistemic Feedback Loops (Or: How Not to Get Evidence).Nick Hughes - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Epistemologists spend a great deal of time thinking about how we should respond to our evidence. They spend far less time thinking about the ways that evidence can be acquired in the first place. This is an oversight. Some ways of acquiring evidence are better than others. Many normative epistemologies struggle to accommodate this fact. In this article I develop one that can and does. I identify a phenomenon – epistemic feedback loops – in which evidence acquisition has gone awry, (...)
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  50.  33
    A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.Zachary Horne, Derek Powell & John Hummel - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (8):1950-1964.
    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues—such as confirmation bias—further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to (...)
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