Results for 'Conspiracy theories'

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  1. Conspiracy Theories and the Conventional Wisdom Revisited.Charles Pigden - forthcoming - In Olli Loukola (ed.), Secrets and Conspiracies. Rodopi.
    Conspiracy theories should be neither believed nor investigated - that is the conventional wisdom. I argue that it is sometimes permissible both to investigate and to believe. Hence this is a dispute in the ethics of belief. I defend epistemic ‘oughts’ that apply in the first instance to belief-forming strategies that are partly under our control. I argue that the policy of systematically doubting or disbelieving conspiracy theories would be both a political disaster and the epistemic (...)
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  2. Popper Revisited, or What is Wrong with Conspiracy Theories?Charles Pigden - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (1):3-34.
    Conpiracy theories are widely deemed to be superstitious. Yet history appears to be littered with conspiracies successful and otherwise. (For this reason, "cock-up" theories cannot in general replace conspiracy theories, since in many cases the cock-ups are simply failed conspiracies.) Why then is it silly to suppose that historical events are sometimes due to conspiracy? The only argument available to this author is drawn from the work of the late Sir Karl Popper, who criticizes what (...)
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  3. Conspiracy Theories and the Conventional Wisdom.Charles R. Pigden - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):219-232.
    Abstract Conspiracy theories should be neither believed nor investigated - that is the conventional wisdom. I argue that it is sometimes permissible both to investigate and to believe. Hence this is a dispute in the ethics of belief. I defend epistemic “oughts” that apply in the first instance to belief-forming strategies that are partly under our control. But the beliefforming strategy of not believing conspiracy theories would be a political disaster and the epistemic equivalent of selfmutilation. (...)
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  4.  19
    Conspiracy Theories and Their Investigator(S).R. X. Dentith Matthew - 2017 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 6 (4):4-11.
    A reply to Patrick Stokes' 'Reluctance and Suspicion'—itself a reply to an early piece by myself replying to Stokes—in which I clarify what it is I intend when talking about how we should investigate conspiracy theories.
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  5.  84
    Counterfact Conspiracy Theories.Susan Feldman - 2011 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (1):15-24.
    Recent philosophical treatment of conspiracy theories supposes them all to be explanatory, thus overlooking those conspiracy theories whose major purpose is the assertion of ‘hidden facts’ rather than explanation of accepted facts. I call this variety of non-explanatory conspiracy theories “counterfact theories”. In this paper, through the use of examples, including the Obama birth certificate conspiracy theory, I uncover the distinctive reasoning pattern and dialectical strategy of counterfact theories, highlighting their epistemic (...)
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  6.  64
    The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories.Matthew R. X. Dentith - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Conspiracy theories are a popular topic of conversation in everyday life but are often frowned upon in academic discussions. Looking at the recent spate of philosophical interest in conspiracy theories, The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories looks at whether the assumption that belief in conspiracy theories is typically irrational is well founded.
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    The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories.R. X. Dentith Matthew - 2014 - London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Conspiracy theories are a popular topic of conversation in everyday life but are often frowned upon in academic discussions. Looking at the recent spate of philosophical interest in conspiracy theories, ‘The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories’ looks at whether the assumption that belief in conspiracy theories is typically irrational is well founded. -/- ‘The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories’ is aimed at both the philosopher and the non-philosopher. It is a qualified defence (...)
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  8.  58
    Treating Conspiracy Theories Seriously: A Reply to Basham on Dentith.Matthew R. X. Dentith - 2016 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5 (9):1-5.
    A response to Lee Basham's 'The Need for Accountable Witnesses: A Reply to Dentith'.
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  9. In Defence of Conspiracy Theories.Matthew Dentith - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Auckland
    The purpose of this doctoral project is to explore the epistemic issues surrounding the concept of the conspiracy theory and to advance the analysis and evaluation of the conspiracy theory as a mode of explanation. The candidate is interested in the circumstances under which inferring to the truth or likeliness of a given conspiracy theory is, or is not, warranted.
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  10.  21
    Conspiracy Theories on the Basis of the Evidence.Matthew Dentith - 2017 - Synthese:1-19.
    Conspiracy theories are often portrayed as unwarranted beliefs, typically supported by suspicious kinds of evidence. Yet contemporary work in Philosophy argues provisional belief in conspiracy theories is at the very least understandable---because conspiracies occur---and that if we take an evidential approach, judging individual conspiracy theories on their particular merits, belief in such theories turns out to be warranted in a range of cases. -/- Drawing on this work, I examine the kinds of evidence (...)
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  11. Conspiracy Theories and Conspiracy Theorizing.Steve Clarke - 2002 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2):131-150.
    The dismissive attitude of intellectuals toward conspiracy theorists is considered and given some justification. It is argued that intellectuals are entitled to an attitude of prima facie skepticism toward the theories propounded by conspiracy theorists, because conspiracy theorists have an irrational tendency to continue to believe in conspiracy theories, even when these take on the appearance of forming the core of degenerating research program. It is further argued that the pervasive effect of the "fundamental (...)
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  12. Of Conspiracy Theories.Brian L. Keeley - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):109-126.
    As the end of the Millennium approaches, conspiracy theories are increasing in number and popularity. In this short essay, I offer an analysis of conspiracy theories inspired by Hume's discussion of miracles. My first conclusion is that whereas Hume can argue that miracles are, by definition, explanations we are not warranted in believing, there is nothing analytic that will allow us to distinguish good from bad conspiracy theories. There is no a priori method for (...)
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  13.  5
    Conspiracy Theories and the Paranoid Style: Do Conspiracy Theories Posit Implausibly Vast and Evil Conspiracies?Hagen Kurtis - forthcoming - Social Epistemology:1-17.
    In the social science literature, conspiracy theories are commonly characterized as theories positing a vast network of evil and preternaturally effective conspirators, and they are often treated, either explicitly or implicitly, as dubious on this basis. This characterization is based on Richard Hofstadter’s famous account of ‘the paranoid style’. However, many significant conspiracy theories do not have any of the relevant qualities. Thus, the social science literature provides a distorted account of the general category ‘ (...) theory’, conflating it with a subset of that category that encourages unfairly negative evaluations of conspiracy theories. Generally, when evaluating theories, one should focus on the most plausible versions; the merit of a theory is independent of the existence of less plausible versions of it. By ignoring this and glossing over important distinctions, many academics, especially in the social sciences, have misclassified many conspiracy theories and in doing so have contributed to an epistemically unfair depiction of them. Further, even theories that genuinely fit the description of ‘the paranoid style’ cannot be completely dismissed on that basis. All conspiracy theories ought to be judged on the totality of their individual merits. (shrink)
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  14. Conspiracy Theories and Official Stories.David Coady - 2003 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2):197-209.
    Conspiracy theories have a bad reputation. This is especially true in the academy and in the media. Within these institutions, to describe someone as a conspiracy theorist is often to imply that his or her views should not be taken seriously. Perhaps this accounts for the fact that philosophers have tended to ignore the topic, despite the enduring appeal of conspiracy theories in popular culture. Recently, however, some philosophers have at least treated conspiracy theorists (...)
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  15.  21
    Someone is Pulling the Strings: Hypersensitive Agency Detection and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Karen M. Douglas, Robbie M. Sutton, Mitchell J. Callan, Rael J. Dawtry & Annelie J. Harvey - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (1):57-77.
    We hypothesised that belief in conspiracy theories would be predicted by the general tendency to attribute agency and intentionality where it is unlikely to exist. We further hypothesised that this tendency would explain the relationship between education level and belief in conspiracy theories, where lower levels of education have been found to be associated with higher conspiracy belief. In Study 1 participants were more likely to agree with a range of conspiracy theories if (...)
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  16.  86
    Conspiracy Theories and Ethics.Juha Räikkä - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:651-659.
    Political conspiracy theorists have done a lot of good in the past; undoubtedly they will do a lot of good in the future too. However, it is important to point out that conspiracy theories may have adverse consequences too. Political conspiracy theorizing, as a public activity, may lead to harmful scapegoating and its implications may be racist and fascist rather than democratic. Conspiracy theories may undermine trust in political institutions. Certain conspiracy theories (...)
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  17. Conspiracy Theories of Quantum Mechanics.Peter J. Lewis - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):359-381.
    It has long been recognized that a local hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics can in principle be constructed, provided one is willing to countenance pre-measurement correlations between the properties of measured systems and measuring devices. However, this ‘conspiratorial’ approach is typically dismissed out of hand. In this article I examine the justification for dismissing conspiracy theories of quantum mechanics. I consider the existing arguments against such theories, and find them to be less than conclusive. I suggest (...)
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  18. Conspiracy Theories and the Internet: Controlled Demolition and Arrested Development.Steve Clarke - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):167-180.
    Abstract Following Clarke (2002), a Lakatosian approach is used to account for the epistemic development of conspiracy theories. It is then argued that the hypercritical atmosphere of the internet has slowed down the development of conspiracy theories, discouraging conspiracy theorists from articulating explicit versions of their favoured theories, which could form the hard core of Lakatosian research pro grammes. The argument is illustrated with a study of the “controlled demolition” theory of the collapse of (...)
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  19.  52
    Conspiracy Theories and Fortuitous Data.J. Buenting & J. Taylor - 2010 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (4):567-578.
    We offer a particularist defense of conspiratorial thinking. We explore the possibility that the presence of a certain kind of evidence—what we call "fortuitous data"—lends rational credence to conspiratorial thinking. In developing our argument, we introduce conspiracy theories and motivate our particularist approach (§1). We then introduce and define fortuitous data (§2). Lastly, we locate an instance of fortuitous data in one real world conspiracy, the Watergate scandal (§3).
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  20.  11
    Conspiracy Theories as Stigmatized Knowledge.Michael Barkun - forthcoming - Diogenes.
    Most conspiracy theories exist as part of “stigmatized knowledge” – that is, knowledge claims that have not been accepted by those institutions we rely upon for truth validation. Not uncommonly, believers in conspiracy theories also accept other forms of stigmatized knowledge, such as unorthodox forms of healing and beliefs about Atlantis and UFOs. Rejection by authorities is for them a sign that a belief must be true. However, the linkage of conspiracy theories with stigmatized (...)
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  21. Introduction: Conspiracy Theories.David Coady - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):131-134.
    There has been a lively philosophical debate about the nature of conspiracy theories and their epistemic status going on for some years now. This debate has shed light, not only on conspiracy theories themselves, but also, in the process, on a variety of issues in social epistemology, political philosophy, and the philosophy of religion.
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  22.  16
    Conspiracy Theories and Stylized Facts.Kurtis Hagen - 2011 - Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 21 (2):3-22.
    In an article published in the Journal of Political Philosophy, Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule argue that the government and its allies ought to activelyundermine groups that espouse conspiracy theories deemed “demonstrably false.” They propose infiltrating such groups in order to “cure” conspiracy theorists by treating their “crippled epistemology” with “cognitive diversity.” They base their proposal on an analysis of the “causes” of such conspiracy theories, which emphasizes informational and reputational cascades. Some may regard their (...)
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  23.  43
    Critical Citizens or Paranoid Nutcases: On the Epistemology of Conspiracy Theories.Daniel Cohnitz - 2017 - Utrecht: Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen.
  24.  92
    Radically Socialized Knowledge and Conspiracy Theories.Neil Levy - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):181-192.
    Abstract The typical explanation of an event or process which attracts the label ‘conspiracy theory’ is an explanation that conflicts with the account advanced by the relevant epistemic authorities. I argue that both for the layperson and for the intellectual, it is almost never rational to accept such a conspiracy theory. Knowledge is not merely shallowly social, in the manner recognized by social epistemology, it is also constitutively social: many kinds of knowledge only become accessible thanks to the (...)
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  25. Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures.Cass R. Sunstein & Adrian Vermeule - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):202-227.
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  26.  65
    Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate.David Coady (ed.) - 2007 - Ashgate.
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  27.  6
    Analytic Thinking Reduces Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Viren Swami, Martin Voracek, Stefan Stieger, Ulrich S. Tran & Adrian Furnham - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):572-585.
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  28.  11
    The Semiotic Logic of Signification of Conspiracy Theories.Mari-Liis Madisson - 2014 - Semiotica 2014 (202).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2014 Heft: 202 Seiten: 273-300.
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  29. Denying Science: Conspiracy Theories, Media Distortions, and the War Against Reality.John Grant - 2011 - Prometheus Books.
    Unless we think, we aren't -- God told me to deny -- "The law is an ass" -- Thoroughly uncomplementary -- Puffing the product -- Paying with their lives -- The Antivaxers -- The AIDS "controversy" -- Selfish help -- Dissent about descent -- We're (badly) designed -- No safe classroom? -- Evilution -- Eugenically speaking -- Social Darwinism -- It's the ecology, stupid -- So, what was the weather like in 2010? -- Global weirding -- Marketing climate denialism -- (...)
     
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  30. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire.Martin Bruder, Peter Haffke, Nick Neave, Nina Nouripanah & Roland Imhoff - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  31.  6
    Matthew Dentith, The Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 190 Pp., US$100 , ISBN 9781137363152. [REVIEW]Paul Butterfield - 2016 - Dialectica 70 (4):627-632.
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  32.  2
    Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures &Ast;: Symposium on Conspiracy Theories.Sunstein Cassr - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):202-227.
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  33.  7
    Of Conspiracy Theories.Brian L. Keeley - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):109.
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  34.  37
    Conspiracy Theories.Neil Levy - 2004 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 24 (1-2):47-48.
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  35.  54
    Conspiracy Theories of Consciousness.Greg Jarrett - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 96 (1):45-58.
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  36. Fortuitous Data and Conspiracy Theories.Joel Buenting & Jason Taylor - forthcoming - Journal of the Philosophy of Social Sciences.
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  37.  52
    On Political Conspiracy Theories.Juha Räikkä - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):185-201.
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  38. Conspiracy Theories: Szondi on Hölderlin's Jacobinism.Russell A. Berman - 2007 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2007 (140):116-129.
     
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  39.  37
    Conspiracy Theories.David Coady - 2007 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4 (2):131-134.
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  40.  13
    Conspiracy Theories of Representation.N. Carroll - 1987 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 17 (3):395-412.
  41.  2
    Disraeli, Freud, and Jewish Conspiracy Theories.L. J. Rather - 1986 - Journal of the History of Ideas 47 (1):111.
  42. Of Conspiracy Theories.K. Brian - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):109-126.
     
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  43. Conspiracy Theories[REVIEW]Levy Neil - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 24 (1-2):47-48.
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  44. Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate. [REVIEW]Levy Neil - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 24 (1/2):47-48.
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  45. Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate. [REVIEW]Levy Neil - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 24 (1/2):47-48.
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  46. The Sarrazin Effect: The Presence of Absurd Statements in Conspiracy Theories Makes Canonical Information Less Plausible.Marius Hans Raab, Nikolas Auer, Stefan A. Ortlieb & Claus-Christian Carbon - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  47. On Political Conspiracy Theories &Ast.R.äikkä Juha - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):185-201.
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  48. Girl in the Cellar: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Investigation of Belief in Conspiracy Theories About the Kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch.Stefan Stieger, Nora Gumhalter, Ulrich S. Tran, Martin Voracek & Viren Swami - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  49. When Inferring to a Conspiracy Might Be the Best Explanation.Matthew R. X. Dentith - 2016 - Social Epistemology 30 (5-6):572-591.
    Conspiracy theories are typically thought to be examples of irrational beliefs, and thus unlikely to be warranted. However, recent work in Philosophy has challenged the claim that belief in conspiracy theories is irrational, showing that in a range of cases, belief in conspiracy theories is warranted. However, it is still often said that conspiracy theories are unlikely relative to non-conspiratorial explanations which account for the same phenomena. However, such arguments turn out to (...)
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  50. Complots of Mischief.Charles Pigden - 2006 - In David Coady (ed.), Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate. Ashgate. pp. 139-166.
    In Part 1, I contend (using Coriolanus as my mouthpiece) that Keeley and Clarke have failed to show that there is anything intellectually suspect about conspiracy theories per se. Conspiracy theorists need not commit the ‘fundamental attribution error’ there is no reason to suppose that all or most conspiracy theories constitute the cores of degenerating research programs, nor does situationism - a dubious doctrine in itself - lend any support to a systematic skepticism about (...) theories. In Part 2. I argue (in propria persona) that the idea that there is something suspect about conspiracy theories is one of the most dangerous and idiotic superstitions to disgrace our political culture. (shrink)
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