Results for 'Contractarianism'

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  1.  65
    Contractarianism.Michael Moehler - 2020 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic defense of moral contractarianism as a distinct approach to the social contract. It elucidates, in comparison to moral conventionalism and moral contractualism, the distinct features of moral contractarianism, its scope, and conceptual and practical challenges that concern the relationship between morality and self-interest, the problems of assurance and compliance, rule-following, counterfactualism, and the nexus between morals and politics. It argues that, if appropriately conceived, moral contractarianism is conceptually coherent, empirically sound, and practically (...)
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  2. Contractarianism and Animal Rights.Mark Rowlands - 1997 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3):235–247.
    It is widely accepted, by both friends and foes of animal rights, that contractarianism is the moral theory least likely to justify the assigning of direct moral status to non-human animals. These are not, it is generally supposed, rational agents, and contractarian approaches can grant direct moral status only to such agents. I shall argue that this widely accepted view is false. At least some forms of contractarianism, when properly understood, do, in fact, entail that non-human animals possess (...)
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  3. Contractarianism, Contractualism.Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Contractualism/Contractarianism collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics.
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  4.  42
    Testimonial Contractarianism.Mona Simion - forthcoming - Noûs.
    According to anti-reductionism in the epistemology of testimony, testimonial entitlement is easy to come by: all you need to do is listen to what you are being told. Say you like anti-reductionism; one question that you will need to answer is how come testimonial entitlement comes so cheap; after all, people are free to lie. This paper has two aims: first, it looks at the main anti-reductionist answers to this question and argues that they fail. Second, it goes on a (...)
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  5. Contractarianism and Cooperation.Cynthia A. Stark - 2009 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (1):73-99.
    Because contractarians see justice as mutual advantage, they hold that justice can be rationally grounded only when each can expect to gain from it. John Rawls seems to avoid this feature of contractarianism by fashioning the parties to the contract as Kantian agents whose personhood grounds their claims to justice. But Rawls also endorses the Humean idea that justice applies only if people are equal in ability. It would seem to follow from this idea that dependent persons (such as (...)
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  6. Contractarianism and Secondary Direct Moral Standing for Marginal Humans and Animals.Julia Tanner - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (2):1-16.
    It is commonly thought that neo-Hobbesian contractarianism cannot yield direct moral standing for marginal humans and animals. However, it has been argued that marginal humans and animals can have a form of direct moral standing under neo-Hobbesian contractarianism: secondary moral standing. I will argue that, even if such standing is direct, this account is unsatisfactory because it is counterintuitive and fragile.
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  7. Why Contractarianism?David Gauthier - 1998 - In James Rachels (ed.), Ethical Theory 2: Theories About How We Should Live. Oxford University Press.
     
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  8.  21
    Teleological Contractarianism.Benjamin Sachs - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (1):91-112.
  9.  85
    Contractarianism and Interspecies Welfare Conflicts: Andrew I. Cohen.Andrew I. Cohen - 2009 - Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):227-257.
    In this essay I describe how contractarianism might approach interspecies welfare conflicts. I start by discussing a contractarian account of the moral status of nonhuman animals. I argue that contractors can agree to norms that would acknowledge the “moral standing” of some animals. I then discuss how the norms emerging from contractarian agreement might constrain any comparison of welfare between humans and animals. Contractarian agreement is likely to express some partiality to humans in a way that discounts the welfare (...)
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  10. Political Contractarianism.David Gauthier - 1997 - Journal of Political Philosophy 5 (2):132–148.
  11. Contractarianism and the Scope of Justice.Andreas Esheté - 1974 - Ethics 85 (1):38-49.
  12.  56
    Contractarianism and Norms.Robert Sugden - 1990 - Ethics 100 (4):768-786.
  13. Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement.Peter Vallentyne (ed.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement is the most complete and suggestive contractarian theory of morality since the work of Rawls. In this anthology a number of prominent moral and political philosophers offer a critical assessment of Gauthier's theory and its three main projects: developing a contractarian foundation for morality, defending a theory of rational choice, and supporting the claim that rationality requires one to keep one's agreements. An introduction sets out Gauthier's project, while Gauthier himself has the last word, responding (...)
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  14.  72
    Contractarianism, Other-Regarding Attitudes, and the Moral Standing of Nonhuman Animals.Andrew I. Cohen - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):188–201.
  15.  42
    Beastly Contractarianism? A Contractarian Analysis of the Possibility of Animal Rights.Chris Tucker & Chris MacDonald - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):31.
    Social Contract theorists and animal advocates seem to have agreed to go their separate ways. Contractarians have avoided attempting to address an issue that seems destined to prove embarrassing for the theory given the current political climate. It is largely thought that contractarianism affirms the meager moral standing commonly attributed to most animals. In the face of this consensus, animal advocates who feel the need to philosophically ground the moral status of animals have turned to other potential sources. This (...)
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  16.  31
    Moral Contractarianism as a Foundation for Interpersonal Morality.Samuel Freeman - 2006 - In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell. pp. 6--57.
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  17.  41
    Contractarianism and the Assumption of Mutual Unconcern.Peter Vallentyne - 1989 - Philosophical Studies 56 (2):187 - 192.
    A contractarian moral theory states that an action (practice, social structure, etc.) is morally permissible if and only if it (or rules to which if conforms) would be agreed to by the members of society under certain circumstances. What people will agree to depends on what their desires are like. Most contractarian theories - for example those of Rawls (1971) and Gauthier (1986) - specify that parties to the agreement are mutually unconcerned (take no interest in each other's interests). Contractarian (...)
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  18. Contractarianism.Geoffrey Sayre-McCord - 2000 - In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell. pp. 247--267.
  19.  40
    Market Contractarianism and the Unanimity Rule*: JULES L. COLEMAN.Jules L. Coleman - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (2):69-114.
    This essay is part of a larger project exploring the extent to which the market paradigm might be usefully employed to explain and in some instances justify nonmarket institutions. The focus of the market paradigm in this essay is the relationship between the idea of a perfectly competitive market and aspects of both the rationality of political association and the theory of collective choice. In particular, this essay seeks to identify what connections, if any, exist between one kind of market (...)
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  20.  45
    Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's "Morals by Agreement.".Daniel M. Farrell - 1993 - Ethics 103 (2):385-387.
  21.  30
    The Limits of Hobbesian Contractarianism.Jody S. Kraus - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 1994 book constitutes a sustained, comprehensive, and rigorous critique of contemporary Hobbesian contractarianism as expounded in the work of Jean Hampton, Gregory Kavka, and David Gauthier. Professor Kraus argues that the attempts by these three philosophers to use Hobbes to answer current political and moral questions fail. The reasons why they fail are related to fundamental problems intrinsic to Hobbesian contractarianism: first, the problem of collective action arising out of the tension in Hobbes's theory between individual and (...)
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  22.  69
    Contractarianism and the "Trolley" Problem1.Alexander Rosenberg - 1992 - Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (3):88-104.
  23.  73
    Orthodox Rational Choice Contractarianism: Before and After Gauthier.Michael Moehler - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (2):113-131.
    In a recent article, Gauthier rejects orthodox rational choice contractarianism in favor of a revisionist approach to the social contract that, according to him, justifies his principle of maximin proportionate gain as a principle of distributive justice. I agree with Gauthier that his principle of maximin proportionate gain cannot be justified by orthodox rational choice contractarianism. I argue, however, that orthodox rational choice contractarianism, before and after Gauthier, is still a viable approach to the social contract, although (...)
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  24. The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy.Jean Hampton (ed.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and (...)
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  25.  17
    Contractarianism / Contractualism.Stephen Darwell (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ Contractualism/Contractarianism_ collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics. With a helpful introduction by Stephen Darwall, examines key topics in the contractarian and contractualist moral theory. Includes six contemporary essays which respond to the classic sources. Includes an insightful discussion of contractualism by Gary Watson. Includes classic excerpts by key figures such (...)
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  26.  2
    Contractarianism / Contractualism.Stephen Darwell (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ _ _Contractualism/Contractarianism_ collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics. With a helpful introduction by Stephen Darwall, examines key topics in the contractarian and contractualist moral theory. Includes six contemporary essays which respond to the classic sources. Includes an insightful discussion of contractualism by Gary Watson. Includes classic excerpts by key figures (...)
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  27.  25
    Contractarianism Gone Wild: Carruthers and the Moral Status of Animals.David Boonin-Vail - 1994 - Between the Species 10 (1):8.
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  28. Mutual Advantage Contractarianism and Future Generations.Gustaf Arrhenius - 1999 - Theoria 65 (1):25-35.
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  29. Rawls, Contractarianism, and Our Moral Intuitions.Spencer D. Carr - 1975 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 56 (1):83.
     
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  30.  46
    Order Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Contractarianism and Business Ethics.Christoph Luetge, Thomas Armbrüster & Julian Müller - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):687-697.
    Contract-based approaches have been a focus of attention in business ethics. As one of the grand traditions in political philosophy, contractarianism is founded on the notion that we will never resolve deep moral disagreement. Classical philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, or recent ones like Rawls and Gaus, seek to solve ethical conflicts on the level of social rules and procedures. Recent authors in business ethics have sought to utilize contract-based approaches for their field and to apply it to concrete (...)
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  31.  58
    Why Feminist Contractarianism?Ruth Sample - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (2):257–281.
  32. Justice in the Family: A Defence of Feminist Contractarianism.Linda Radzik - 2005 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):45–54.
    Jean Hampton argues that we can detect exploitation in personal relationships by thinking about what we would agree to were we to set aside the emotional benefits we receive from those relationships. Hampton calls her account "feminist contractarianism," but it has recently been critiqued as decidedly unfeminist, on the grounds that it is hostile to women's interests and women's values. Furthermore, Hampton's requirement that we imaginatively distance ourselves from our emotional connections to our loved ones--the key element in her (...)
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  33.  34
    Virtue Ethics and Contractarianism: Towards a Reconciliation.Bill Shaw - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):297-312.
    The notion of rationality underlying contemporary business and business ethics, or the “rational actor” model of moral decision-making in business, links a roughly utilitarian notion of the good to a contractarian notion of human agency. The “C-Umodel” provides inadequate means for explaining how business people do or ought to behave or think about their behavior, because the notion of rationality upon which it relies is far too narrow a picture of business people’s character. An alternative to these assumptions and to (...)
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  34.  98
    Pure Contractarianism: Promise, Problems, Prospects.Robert Bass - 2000 - Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (2-3):319-332.
    Several different positions are classified as contractarian. Though there are variations among them, they all include the assumption that practical or action-guiding principles, among which are principles of moral justification and of political legitimacy, somehow have their basis in consent. A contractarian may or may not believe that there are other practical principles that are based on or justified by something besides consent. If he believes there are any others, there will be delicate issues to address as to whether they (...)
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  35.  83
    Rights, Indirect Utilitarianism, and Contractarianism: Alan P. Hamlin.Alan P. Hamlin - 1989 - Economics and Philosophy 5 (2):167-188.
    Economic approaches to both social evaluation and decision-making are typically Paretian or utilitarian in nature and so display commitments to both welfarism and consequentialism. The contrast between the economic approach and any rights-based social philosophy has spawned a large literature that may be divided into two branches. The first is concerned with the compatibility of rights and utilitarianism seen as independent moral forces. This branch of the literature may be characterized as an example of the broader debate between the teleological (...)
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  36.  58
    Contractarianism and Climate Change.Michael Moehler - 2020 - In Ben Eggleston & Dale E. Miller (eds.), Moral Theory and Climate Change: Ethical Perspectives on a Warming Planet. Routledge. pp. 139-156.
    Contemporary moral contractarianism originates with Hobbes’s moral theory. When considering the structure of Hobbes’s moral theory, however, it is often argued that moral contractarianism does not justify any specific moral demands concerning questions of climate change because currently no global Leviathan in Hobbes’s sense exists that could enforce any such demands in our world. I do not dispute the fact that currently no global Leviathan in Hobbes’s sense exists in our world. Nevertheless, I argue that Hobbesian moral (...) offers an adequate moral framework to guide our considerations concerning questions of climate change. Methodologically, the approach is sufficiently pluralistic to consider ethical and economic considerations as well as political feasibility constraints. Conceptually, I argue that, despite the fact that currently no global Leviathan in Hobbes’s sense exists in our world, a Hobbesian-inspired modus vivendi is sufficient as a starting point to address some of the most pressing issues of climate change in our world. Specifically, I argue that the shift in climate change negotiations from the Kyoto Protocol to the Paris Agreement could be considered to be guided by reasoning that underlies Hobbesian moral contractarianism. (shrink)
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  37.  1
    Contractarianism and the Project for an Integrative Organizational Ethics.J. van Oosterhout, Ben Wempe & Theo van Willigenburg - 2004 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 15:81-90.
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  38. ‘Constructivism, Contractarianism and Basic Obligations: Kant and Gauthier’.Kenneth R. Westphal - forthcoming - In J.-C. Merle (ed.), Reading Kant’s Doctrine of Right.
    Gauthier’s contractarianism begins with an idea of a rational deliberator but ‘finds no basis for postulating a moral need for the justification of one’s actions to others. The role of agreement is to address each person’s demand that the constraints of society be justified to him, not a concern that he justify himself to his fellows’ (Gauther 1997, 134–5). He contrasts his view with Scanlon’s contractualism, according to which agreement with others is the core of morality and each agent (...)
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  39.  38
    III—Contractarianism as a Political Morality.Benjamin Sachs - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (1):49-67.
    Contractarianism initially made its mark, in the seventeenth century, as a sort of theory of everything in ethics. But gradually philosophers became convinced that there were resources available outside contractarianism for settling important moral questions—for instance, ideas of human rights and the moral equality of persons. Then Rawls revived contractarianism with a more modest aim—namely, as a theory of justice. But even this agenda for contractarianism has been called into question, most notably by G.A. Cohen, who (...)
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  40.  22
    Contractarianism and Intuition (on the Role of Social Contract Arguments in Theories of Social Justice).Wojciech Sadurski - 1983 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61 (3):231 – 247.
    (1983). Contractarianism and intuition (On the role of social contract arguments in theories of social justice) Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 231-247.
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  41.  6
    The Limits of Hobbesian Contractarianism.Peter Vallentyne - 1995 - Ethics 106 (1):193-194.
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  42. Reconciling Justice and Pleasure in Epicurean Contractarianism.John J. Thrasher - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):423-436.
    Epicurean contractarianism is an attempt to reconcile individualistic hedonism with a robust account of justice. The pursuit of pleasure and the requirements of justice, however, have seemed to be incompatible to many commentators, both ancient and modern. It is not clear how it is possible to reconcile hedonism with the demands of justice. Furthermore, it is not clear why, even if Epicurean contractarianism is possible, it would be necessary for Epicureans to endorse a social contract. I argue here (...)
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  43.  9
    Rationality, Uncertainty, and Unanimity: An Epistemic Critique of Contractarianism.Alexander Schaefer - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):82-117.
    This paper considers contractarianism as a method of justification. The analysis accepts the key tenets of contractarianism: expected utility maximization, unanimity as the criteria of acceptance, and social-scientific uncertainty of modelled agents. In addition to these three features, however, the analysis introduces a fourth feature: a criteria of rational belief formation, viz. Bayesian belief updating. Using a formal model, this paper identifies a decisive objection to contractarian justification. Insofar as contractarian projects approximate the Agreement Model, therefore, they fail (...)
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  44.  18
    Rawlsian Contractarianism: Liberal Equality or Inequality?Virginia Mcdonald - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (sup1):71-94.
    (1977). Rawlsian Contractarianism: Liberal Equality or Inequality? Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 7, Supplementary Volume 3: New Essays on Contract Theory, pp. 71-94.
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  45.  72
    Classical Contractarianism: From Absolutism to Constitutionalism.Martin Harvey - 2003 - International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (4):477-502.
    The fundamental presupposition of political philosophy is that the legitimate rule of one individual over another requires justification: political power may come out of the barrel of a gun but political authority does not. Classically, the philosopher of politics looked to nature. In the seventeenth century, however, the philosophical tide turns in a decidedly different direction: contractarianism. Political society becomes a consensual construct created through the heuristic vehicle of a hypothetical social contract. Simultaneously, within the confines of contractarianism (...)
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  46.  36
    After the Spade Turns: Disagreement, First Principles and Epistemic Contractarianism.Michael P. Lynch - 2016 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (2-3):248-259.
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  47.  23
    Contractarianism in Ethics: Actual Contracts Vs. Hypothetical Contracts.Ronald J. Broach - 1998 - Social Philosophy Today 13:331-347.
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  48.  14
    Contractarianism in Ethics: Actual Contracts Vs. Hypothetical Contracts.Ronald J. Broach - 1998 - Social Philosophy Today 13:331-347.
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  49.  4
    Contractarianism in Ethics: Actual Contracts Vs. Hypothetical Contracts.Ronald J. Broach - 1998 - Social Philosophy Today 13:331-347.
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  50.  2
    Hypothetical Contractarianism and the Disclosure Requirement Problem in Informed Consent.Kenneth T. Cust - 1991 - Journal of Medical Humanities 12 (3):119-138.
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