Results for 'Copenhagen interpretation'

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  1. Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Jan Faye - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    As the theory of the atom, quantum mechanics is perhaps the most successful theory in the history of science. It enables physicists, chemists, and technicians to calculate and predict the outcome of a vast number of experiments and to create new and advanced technology based on the insight into the behavior of atomic objects. But it is also a theory that challenges our imagination. It seems to violate some fundamental principles of classical physics, principles that eventually have become a part (...)
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  2.  63
    The Copenhagen Interpretation.Henry Pierce Stapp - 1997 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 18 (2-3):127-154.
    An attempt is made to give a coherent account of the logical essence of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory. The central point is that quantum theory is fundamentally pragmatic, but nonetheless complete. The principal difficulty in understanding quantum theory lies in the fact that its completeness is incompatible with external existence of the space—time continuum of classical physics.
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  3. Who Invented the “Copenhagen Interpretation”? A Study in Mythology.Don Howard - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):669-682.
    What is commonly known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, regarded as representing a unitary Copenhagen point of view, differs significantly from Bohr's complementarity interpretation, which does not employ wave packet collapse in its account of measurement and does not accord the subjective observer any privileged role in measurement. It is argued that the Copenhagen interpretation is an invention of the mid‐1950s, for which Heisenberg is chiefly responsible, various other physicists and philosophers, including (...)
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  4.  6
    Copenhagen Interpretation Can Survive the Upgraded Schrödinger’s Cat Gedankenexperiment.Guang Ping He - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (7):715-726.
    Recently, Frauchiger and Renner proposed a Gedankenexperiment, which was claimed to be able to prove that quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself. Here we show that the conclusions of Frauchiger and Renner actually came from their incorrect description of some quantum states. With the correct description there will be no inconsistent results, no matter which quantum interpretation theory is used. Especially, the Copenhagen interpretation can satisfy all the three assumptions,, and of Frauchiger and Renner (...)
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  5.  29
    Pragmatism, Bohr, and the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Reza Maleeh & Parisa Amani - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):353-367.
    In this article, we argue that although Bohr's version of the Copenhagen interpretation is in line with several key elements of logical positivism, pragmatism is the closest approximation to a classification of the Copenhagen interpretation, whether or not pragmatists directly influenced the key figures of the interpretation. Pragmatism already encompasses important elements of operationalism and logical positivism, especially the liberalized Carnapian reading of logical positivism. We suggest that some elements of the Copenhagen interpretation, (...)
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  6.  61
    The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and Whitehead’s Philosophy of Organism.Henry J. Folse Jr - 1974 - Tulane Studies in Philosophy 23:32-47.
  7.  35
    Towards a Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Willem M. de Muynck - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (5):717-770.
    The Copenhagen interpretation is critically considered. A number of ambiguities, inconsistencies and confusions are discussed. It is argued that it is possible to purge the interpretation so as to obtain a consistent and reasonable way to interpret the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, which is in agreement with the way this theory is dealt with in experimental practice. In particular, the essential role attributed by the Copenhagen interpretation to measurement is acknowledged. For this reason it (...)
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  8. From Yijing to Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Physics.David Leong - manuscript
    In the quest and search for a physical theory of everything from the macroscopic large body matter to the microscopic elementary particles, with strange and weird concepts springing from quantum physics discovery, irreconcilable positions and inconvenient facts complicated physics – from Newtonian physics to quantum science, the question is- how do we close the gap? Indeed, there is a scientific and mathematical fireworks when the issue of quantum uncertainties and entanglements cannot be explained with classical physics. The Copenhagen (...) is an expression of few wise men on quantum physics that was largely formulated from 1925 to 1927 namely by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. From this point on, there is a divergence of quantum science into the realms of indeterminacy, complementarity and entanglement which are principles expounded in Yijing, an ancient Chinese knowledge constructed on symbols, with a vintage of at least 3 millennia, with broken and unbroken lines to form stacked 6-line structure called the hexagram. It is premised on probability development of the hexagram in a space-time continuum. The discovery of the quantization of action meant that quantum physics could not convincingly explain the principles of classical physics. This paper will draw the great departure from classical physics into the realm of probabilistic realities. The probabilistic nature and reality interpretation had a significant influence on Bohr’s line of thought. Apparently, Bohr realized that speaking of disturbance seemed to indicate that atomic objects were classical particles with definite inherent kinematic and dynamic properties (Hanson, 1959). Disturbances, energy excitation and entanglements are processual evolutionary phases in Yijing. This paper will explore the similarities in quantum physics and the methodological ways where Yijing is pivoted to interpret observable realities involving interactions which are uncontrollable and probabilistic and forms an inseparable unity due to the entanglement, superposition Transgressing disciplinary boundaries in the discussion of Yijing, originally from the Western Zhou period (1000-750 BC), over a period of warring states and the early imperial period (500-200 BC) which was compiled, transcribed and transformed into a cosmological texts with philosophical commentaries known as the “Ten Wings” and closely associated with Confucius (551- 479 BC) with the Copenhagen Interpretation (1925-1927) by the few wise men including Niel Bohr and Werner Heisensberg would seem like a subversive undertaking. Subversive as the interpretations from Yijing is based on wisdom derived from thousands of years from ancient China to recently discovered quantum concepts. The subversive undertaking does seem to violate the sanctuaries of accepted ways in looking at Yijing principles, classical physics and quantum science because of the fortified boundaries that have been erected between Yijing and the sciences. Subversive as this paper may be, it is an attempt to re-cast an ancient framework where indeterminism, complementarity, non-linearity entanglement, superposition and probability interpretation is seen in today quantum’s realities. (shrink)
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  9.  12
    The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and Whitehead’s Philosophy of Organism.Henry J. Folse Jr - 1974 - Tulane Studies in Philosophy 23:32-47.
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  10.  12
    The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and Common Sense.Anto Unt - 2001 - In Rein Vihalemm (ed.), Estonian Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 247--262.
  11. The Copenhagen Interpretation.Peres A. Karl Popper - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (1):23-3.
  12.  78
    Karl Popper and the Copenhagen Interpretation.Asher Peres - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (1):23-34.
    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, (...)
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  13. Constructing the Myth of the Copenhagen Interpretation.Kristian Camilleri - 2009 - Perspectives on Science 17 (1):pp. 26-57.
    According to the standard view, the so-called ‘Copenhagen interpretation’ of quantum mechanics originated in discussions between Bohr and Heisenberg in 1927, and was defended by Bohr in his classic debate with Einstein. Yet recent scholarship has shown Bohr’s views were never widely accepted, let alone properly understood, by his contemporaries, many of whom held divergent views of the ‘Copenhagen orthodoxy’. This paper examines how the ‘myth of the Copenhagen interpretation’ was constructed by situating it in (...)
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  14. Five Cautions for the Copenhagen Interpretation's Critics.Norwood Russell Hanson - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (4):325-337.
    Within the past decade there has grown an acute and highly articulate group of critics of the orthodox interpretation of quantum theory,--the so-called "Copenhagen Interpretation." The writings of people like Bopp, Janossy, and particularly Bohm and Feyerabend, must be taken very seriously indeed. The future of some important discussions in the philosophy and the logic of science rests with these individuals. But they have, in their own writings, occasionally matched the inelegancies of Bohr and Heisenberg with as (...)
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  15.  32
    Classes of Copenhagen Interpretations: Mechanisms of Collapse as Typologically Determinative.James R. Henderson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):1-8.
  16. Quanta Within the Copenhagen Interpretation as Two-Neuro-Algorithm Referents.Larry Vandervert - 1997 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 18 (2-3):229-246.
    Neurological Positivism’s single- and two-neuro-algorithmic referent conceptions of subjective and objective experience respectively are discussed. NP’s account of Bohr and Heisenberg’s Copenhagen interpretation of quantum reality is then described in terms of nonlinear constructions of two-neuro-algorithmic referents that are proposed also to undergird William James’s pragmatic conception of truth. In turn, qualia are depicted as nonlinear single-neuro-algorithmic referents in relation to the two-neuro-algorithmic quantum measurement procedure. Experientially, qualia are described as nonlinear "black twinkling" neuro-flux patterns which in the (...)
     
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  17.  20
    Karl Popper and the Copenhagen Interpretation.Asher Peres - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (1):23-34.
  18. Niels Bohr’s Interpretation and the Copenhagen Interpretation—Are the Two Incompatible?Ravi Gomatam - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):736-748.
    The Copenhagen interpretation, which informs the textbook presentation of quantum mechanics, depends fundamentally on the notion of ontological wave-particle duality and a viewpoint called “complementarity.” In this paper, Bohr's own interpretation is traced in detail and is shown to be fundamentally different from and even opposed to the Copenhagen interpretation in virtually all its particulars. In particular, Bohr's interpretation avoids the ad hoc postulate of wave function ‘collapse' that is central to the Copenhagen (...)
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  19.  16
    Inconsistency of the Copenhagen Interpretation.C. I. J. M. Stuart - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (5):591-622.
    The Bohr-Heisenberg scheme, which forms the basis of any current version of the standard or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, is shown to be internally inconsistent. Although the inconsistencies demonstrated here are directly relatable to Einstein's opinion that it is unsatisfactory to interpret physical theory solely in terms of the knowledge gained from experimental outcomes, it is nevertheless shown that Einstein's view requires important modification. The implications of the Bohr-Heisenberg schem's self-inconsistency are discussed in relation to Bell's theorem (...)
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  20.  10
    Naturalizing the Copenhagen Interpretation.G. Szamosi - 1993 - Dialectica 47 (4):305-325.
    SummaryThe problem of quantum measurement is considered in the framework of a naturalized and evolutionary epistemology. Consider two simple textbook observations: a) quantum measurement is an information processing method invented for the purpose of exploring domains of the external world which are not accessible otherwise b) quantum measurement interprets signals from the external world with the help of a computing algorithm invented specifically for this purpose. Replace the words “quantum measurement” and “invented” in a) and b) by “vision” and “evolved (...)
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  21.  94
    Hidden Variables and the Copenhagen Interpretation—A Reconciliation1.Jeffrey Bub - 1968 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):185-210.
  22. The Philosophy of the Copenhagen Interpretation.Rajendra Prasad - 1976 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 3 (3):283-294.
  23. An Examination of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.Ramakrishna Puligandla - 1966 - Dissertation, Rice University
  24.  4
    Classes of Copenhagen Interpretations: Mechanisms of Collapse as Typologically Determinative.James R. Henderson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):1-8.
  25. Niels Bohr's Interpretation and the Copenhagen Interpretation.Ravi Gomatam - unknown
    The Copenhagen interpretation, which informs the textbook presentation of quantum mechanics, depends fundamentally on the notion of ontological wave-particle duality and a viewpoint called “complementarity”. In this paper, Bohr’s own interpretation is traced in detail and is shown to be fundamentally different from and even opposed to the Copenhagen interpretation in virtually all its particulars. In particular, Bohr’s interpretation avoids the ad hoc postulate of wave function ‘collapse’ that is central to the Copenhagen (...)
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  26. The Nature of Einstein's Objections to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Michel Paty - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (1):183-204.
    In what follows, I examine three main points which may help us to understand the deep nature of Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics. After having played a fundamental pioneer role in the birth of quantum physics, Einstein was, as is well known, far less enthusiastic about its constitution as a quantum mechanics and, since 1927, he constantly argued against the pretention of its founders and proponents to have settled a definitive and complete theory. I emphasize first the importance of the (...)
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  27.  42
    On contextual "democratization" of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.Francois-Igor Pris - 2020 - In Второй Международный Конгресс Русского общества истории и философии науки. «Наука как общественное благо.» Том 1. Сборник статей. / ред.: И. Т. Касавин, Л. В. Шиповалова. – Москва: Издательство РОИФН,. Moscow, Russia: pp. 128-131.
  28.  74
    Statistical Explanation in Physics: The Copenhagen Interpretation.Richard Schlegel - 1970 - Synthese 21 (1):65 - 82.
    The statistical aspects of quantum explanation are intrinsic to quantum physics; individual quantum events are created in the interactions associated with observation and are not describable by predictive theory. The superposition principle shows the essential difference between quantum and non-quantum physics, and the principle is exemplified in the classic single-photon two-slit interference experiment. Recently Mandel and Pfleegor have done an experiment somewhat similar to the optical single-photon experiment but with two independently operated lasers; interference is obtained even with beam intensity (...)
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  29.  37
    Popper's Variant of the EPR Experiment Does Not Test the Copenhagen Interpretation.A. Sudbery - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (3):470-476.
  30.  12
    Chaos Meets Quantum Mechanics: Possible Nonlinear Vindication of Einstein's Arguments: Paradoxes of the Copenhagen Interpretation: Nonlinear Parallels.Wm C. McHarris - 2007 - Complexity 12 (4):12-18.
  31.  18
    Heisenberg’s Invention of the Copenhagen Interpretation: Kristian Camilleri: Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: The Physicist as Philosopher. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009, 212 Pp, $81 HB.Jan Faye - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):239-242.
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    Classicality First: Why Zurek’s Existential Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Implies Copenhagen.Javier Sánchez-Cañizares - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):275-285.
    Most interpretations of Quantum Mechanics alternative to Copenhagen interpretation try to avoid the dualistic flavor of the latter. One of the basic goals of the former is to avoid the ad hoc introduction of observers and observations as an inevitable presupposition of physics. Non-Copenhagen interpretations usually trust in decoherence as a necessary mechanism to obtain a well-defined, observer-free transition from a unitary quantum description of the universe to classicality. Even though decoherence does not solve the problem of (...)
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  33. Copenhagen Versus Bohmian Interpretations of Quantum Theory1. [REVIEW]Barry Loewer - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (2):317-328.
  34.  47
    Copenhagen Computation.N. David Mermin - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (3):511-522.
    I describe a pedagogical scheme devised to teach efficiently to computer scientists just enough quantum mechanics to permit them to understand the theoretical developments of the last decade going under the name of “quantum computation.” I then note that my offbeat approach to quantum mechanics, designed to be maximally efficacious for this specific educational purpose, is nothing other than the Copenhagen interpretation.
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  35.  54
    Decoherence and the Copenhagen Cut.Scott Tanona - 2013 - Synthese 190 (16):3625-3649.
    While it is widely agreed that decoherence will not solve the measurement problem, decoherence has been used to explain the “emergence of classicality” and to eliminate the need for a Copenhagen edict that some systems simply have to be treated as classical via a quantum-classical “cut”. I argue that decoherence still relies on such a cut. Decoherence accounts derive classicality only in virtue of their incompleteness, by omission of part of the entangled system of which the classical-appearing subsystem is (...)
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  36. The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.John G. Cramer - 1986 - Reviews of Modern Physics 58 (3):647-687.
    Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics deals with these problems is reviewed. A new interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, the transactional interpretation, is presented. The basic element of this interpretation is the transaction describing a quantum event as an exchange of advanced and retarded waves, as implied by the work of Wheeler and Feynman, Dirac, and others. The transactional interpretation is explicitly nonlocal and thereby consistent with recent tests of the Bell inequality, yet (...)
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  37.  31
    Underdetermination, Conventionalism and Realism: The Copenhagen Vs. The Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.James T. Cushing - 1993 - In S. French & H. Kamminga (eds.), Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 261--278.
  38. Copenhagen Computation.D. N. - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (3):511-522.
    I describe a pedagogical scheme devised to teach efficiently to computer scientists just enough quantum mechanics to permit them to understand the theoretical developments of the last decade going under the name of ''quantum computation.'' I then note that my offbeat approach to quantum mechanics, designed to be maximally efficacious for this specific educational purpose, is nothing other than the Copenhagen interpretation.
     
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  39.  7
    Does Quantum Theory Redefine Realism? The Neo-Copenhagen View.Peter Stuart Mason - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (2):137-163.
    Foundational attitudes towards quantum theory have recently thrown off much of the old philosophical baggage largely associated with Niels Bohr to which Einstein famously objected, including the central ‘collapse of the wavefunction’ concept. A ‘neo-Copenhageninterpretation, it is suggested, has arisen. This development is placed in its historical context and contrasted to philosophical allegations of anti-realism. The neo-Copenhagen interpretation remains wedded to Heisenberg's uncertainty and observer-dependent values of particles. However a discussion of Nick Herbert's ‘rainbow analogy’ (...)
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  40. The Rhetoric of Antirealism and the Copenhagen Spirit.Mara Beller - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (2):183-204.
    This paper argues against the possibility of presenting a consistent version of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Physics, characterizing its founders' philosophical pronouncements including those on the realism-antirealism issue, as a contingent collection of local, often contradictory, moves in changing theoretical and sociopolitical circumstances. The paper analyzes the fundamental differences of opinion between Bohr and the mathematical physicists, Heisenberg and Born, concerning the foundational doctrine of the "indispensability of classical concepts", and their related disagreements on "quantum reality." The (...)
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  41.  31
    Copenhagen Quantum Mechanics Emerges From a Deterministic Schrödinger Theory in 11 Dimensional Spacetime Including Weak Field Gravitation.G. Doyen & D. Drakova - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (8):959-999.
    We construct a world model consisting of a matter field living in 4 dimensional spacetime and a gravitational field living in 11 dimensional spacetime. The seven hidden dimensions are compactified within a radius estimated by reproducing the particle–wave characteristics of diffraction experiments. In the presence of matter fields the gravitational field develops localized modes with elementary excitations called gravonons which are induced by the sources. The final world model treated here contains only gravonons and a scalar matter field. The gravonons (...)
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  42. Green War Banners in Central Copenhagen: A Recent Political Struggle Over Interpretation—And Some Implications for Art Interpretation as Such.Frederik Stjernfelt - 2015 - In Frederik Stjernfelt & Peer F. Bundgaard (eds.), Investigations Into the Phenomenology and the Ontology of the Work of Art. Springer Verlag.
     
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  43.  16
    In Defence of Copenhagenism.Yehudah Freundlich - 1978 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (3):151.
    We rebut the objections to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics presented by Park [9,10], Margenau [10], and Popper [11]. It seems to us that these authors, having adopted different interpretations of quantum mechanics, have been unable to grasp the perspective of the Copenhagenist. They therefore miss the points which the Copenhagenist is making when he: accords a special status to observations in quantum theory; attributes a state vector to an individual system; places restrictions on the simultaneous measurability (...)
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  44. A Farewell to Copenhagen?John Cramer - manuscript
    This column is about experimental tests of the various interpretations of quantum mechanics. The question at issue is whether we can perform experiments that can show whether there is an "observer-created reality" as suggested by the Copenhagen Interpretation, or a peacock’s tail of rapidly branching alternate universes, as suggested by the Many-Worlds Interpretation, or forward-backward in time handshakes, as suggested by the Transactional Interpretation? Until recently, I would have said that this was an impossible task, but (...)
     
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  45. The Minimal Modal Interpretation of Quantum Theory.Jacob Barandes & David Kagan - manuscript
    We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory’s basic dynamical content essentially intact. Much as classical systems have specific states that evolve along definite trajectories through configuration spaces, the traditional formulation of quantum theory permits assuming that closed quantum systems have specific states that evolve unitarily along definite trajectories through Hilbert spaces, and our interpretation extends this (...)
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  46.  48
    From Jena to Copenhagen: Kierkegaard's Relations to German Idealism and the Critique of Autonomy in the Sickness Unto Death: Samuel Loncar.Samuel Loncar - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (2):201-216.
    This article seeks to demonstrate the influence of J. G. Fichte's philosophy on Søren Kierkegaard's theory of the self as he develops it in The Sickness unto Death and to interpret his theory of the self as a religious critique of autonomy. Following Michelle Kosch, it argues that Kierkegaard's theory of the self was developed in part as a critique of idealist conceptions of agency. Moreover, Kierkegaard's view of agency provides a powerful way of understanding human freedom and finitude that (...)
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  47.  65
    A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Klein-Gordon Equation.Michael B. Heaney - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (6):733-746.
    This paper presents a new Symmetrical Interpretation (SI) of relativistic quantum mechanics which postulates: quantum mechanics is a theory about complete experiments, not particles; a complete experiment is maximally described by a complex transition amplitude density; and this transition amplitude density never collapses. This SI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein’s bubble experiment. This SI makes several experimentally testable predictions that differ from the CI, solves one part of the measurement problem, (...)
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  48. An Interpretation of the Formalism of Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Realism.Arthur Jabs - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (3):405-421.
    We present an alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation of the formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The basic difference is that the new inter- pretation is formulated in the language of epistemological realism. It involves a change in some basic physical concepts. Elementary particles are considered as extended objects and nonlocal effects are included. The role of the new concepts in the problems of measurement and of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations is described. Experiments to distinguish the proposed interpretation from (...)
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  49.  25
    Interpretation of the Quantum Formalism and Bell's Theorem.Emilio Santos - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (2):221-241.
    It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell's theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states.“Einstein had great difficulty in reaching a sharp formulation of Bohr's meaning. What hope then (...)
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  50.  12
    How the Natural Interpretation of QM Avoids the Recent No-Go Theorem.Anthony Rizzi - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (3):204-215.
    A recent no-go theorem gives an extension of the Wigner’s Friend argument that purports to prove the “Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself.” The argument is complex and thought provoking, but fails in a straightforward way if one treats QM as a statistical theory in the most fundamental sense, i.e. if one applies the so-called ensemble interpretation. This explanation is given here at an undergraduate level, which can be edifying for experts and students alike. A recent (...)
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