Multiculturalism Cultural diversity has been present in societies for a very long time. In Ancient Greece, there were various small regions with different costumes, traditions, dialects and identities, for example, those from Aetolia, Locris, Doris and Epirus. In the Ottoman Empire, Muslims were the majority, but there were also Christians, Jews, pagan Arabs, and other […].
Gary Francione is an abolitionist: he maintains that we ought to abolish the institutions and practices that support the exploitation of animals. He also believes that veganism is the “moral baseline” — that is, he thinks it’s morally required of nearly everyone in the developed world, and many beyond it. LuisCordeiro-Rodrigues claims that abolitionism is guilty of racism, albeit “racism without racists.” I contend that his arguments for this conclusion aren’t successful.
The Gettier Problem (henceforth GP) is a milestone in contemporary epistemology. Half a century after the philosophical earthquake caused by the well-known Gettier article (1963), solutions continue to appear and the discussion resurfaces. Because we, like many, choose to adopt an optimistic stance towards the possibility of finding a plausible answer to the GP, in this paper we present an unconventional solution to solve it. Crucially, we argue that the only plausible and non-falsifiable definition of the propositional knowledge is the (...) one given by an “open” formula that contains a placeholder or a “variable” – on the third necessary condition – which takes a value according to which, depending on the circumstances, is necessary and sufficient for epistemic success. (shrink)
Abolitionism is an animal rights' philosophy and social movement which has recently begun to grow. It has been largely contested but the criticisms directed at it have usually been articulated outside academia. In this article, I wish to contend that one of the criticisms directed at abolitionism—that it contains racist implications—is correct. I do this by defending the idea that abolitionism engages in what Eduardo Bonilla-Silva classifies as ‘racism without racists’—an unintentional and subtle form of racism. I present three ways (...) in which abolitionism may be considered racist and then address some possible objections to my view. (shrink)
In the last three years, there has been a worldwide increase in integrating African philosophy into the philosophy curricula. Nevertheless, given that African philosophy has been largely neglected by Western academia, many philosophers in the West who do wish to integrate it are unaware of how to do it. This article aims at addressing this issue by offering some recommendations on how to integrate African philosophy into the curricula. Particularly, it offers recommendations based on how the history of ancient philosophy, (...) metaphilosophy, ethics and political philosophy have become integrated. Additionally, there is a recommendation for how to make an entirely new module based on African political philosophy. (shrink)
Marxist Philosophy as an explanation of social reality has, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, been largely neglected. However, some philosophers have contended that it may still be relevant to explain today’s social reality. In this article, I wish to demonstrate precisely that Marxist philosophy can be relevant to understand social reality. To carry out this task, I show that Marxist philosophy of law can offer a sound explanation of Animal law in South Africa. My argument is that South (...) African law is a superstructure that reinforces the power of the animal farming industry in South Africa. That is, the hidden purpose of the law is to benefit the industry. In order to argue for this, I present two sets of arguments. The first set argues that the law facilitates the functioning of the animal farming industry. In the second set of arguments I contend that the law socialises individuals into approving the methods of slaughtering by the animal farming industry. (shrink)
Bob Fischer has written a reply to my article ‘Animal Abolitionism and ‘Racism without Racists’’. In this article, Fischer contends that my arguments whereby animal abolitionism engages in acts of racism without racists are mistaken. I wish to reply to Fischer’s objections in this article, through four sets of contentions: Fischer’s arguments reveal some misunderstandings in terms of the concept of racism and, particularly, of ‘racism without racists’; his arguments also underestimate the burdens suffered by individuals who wish to become (...) vegan; Fischer’s views on infantilisation lead to counter-intuitive conclusions; and Fischer’s counter-argument against my neo-colonial critique of abolitionism misunderstands the points made in my previous article. (shrink)
In many contemporary societies, there is an increasing number of animal welfare sympathizers and activists. In the United States, particularly, there are various individuals who have engaged in activist activities focused on animals. However, since 2006, and under the Animal Enterprise Terrorist Act, some of these activities have been classified as terrorist crimes. Independent of whether such activities are morally justified or not, the AETA law exaggerates these activist actions and can take the shape of silencing and restricting forms of (...) activism that contest the way animals are treated by enterprises. (shrink)
The questions of what makes a just war, what is ethical behavior in a war, and what to do following a war have been mostly discussed taking into consideration Western values.1 Other traditions, such as those carried out in Africa, have been largely neglected and, on many occasions, considered inferior.2 In this article, my objective is to offer an African account of just war theory. In particular, I wish to describe and interpret the intellectual production and war actions of key (...) African thinkers regarding the ethics of starting war, how to act during war, and how to act after war. My strategy for this lies in interpreting the actions and words of two representative African leaders—Nelson Mandela and Amilcar... (shrink)
This edited volume addresses the morality of war from a comparative perspective to develop a cross-cultural and cross-ideological quorum on when it is justifiable to initiate or enter into war and what methods of violence are acceptable once engaged in such a conflict.
This paper introduces the logic of evidence and truth \ as an extension of the Belnap–Dunn four-valued logic \. \ is a slightly modified version of the logic \, presented in Carnielli and Rodrigues. While \ is equipped only with a classicality operator \, \ is equipped with a non-classicality operator \ as well, dual to \. Both \ and \ are logics of formal inconsistency and undeterminedness in which the operator \ recovers classical logic for propositions in its scope. (...) Evidence is a notion weaker than truth in the sense that there may be evidence for a proposition \ even if \ is not true. As well as \, \ is able to express preservation of evidence and preservation of truth. The primary aim of this paper is to propose a probabilistic semantics for \ where statements \\) and \\) express, respectively, the amount of evidence available for \ and the degree to which the evidence for \ is expected to behave classically—or non-classically for \ \). A probabilistic scenario is paracomplete when \ + P 1\), and in both cases, \ < 1\). If \ = 1\), or \ = 0\), classical probability is recovered for \. The proposition \, a theorem of \, partitions what we call the information space, and thus allows us to obtain some new versions of known results of standard probability theory. (shrink)
In this article, we propose a belief revision approach for families of (non-classical) logics whose semantics are first-order axiomatisable. Given any such (non-classical) logic , the approach enables the definition of belief revision operators for , in terms of a belief revision operation satisfying the postulates for revision theory proposed by Alchourrrdenfors and Makinson (AGM revision, Alchourrukasiewicz's many-valued logic. In addition, we present a general methodology to translate algebraic logics into classical logic. For the examples provided, we analyse in what (...) circumstances the properties of the AGM revision are preserved and discuss the advantages of the approach from both theoretical and practical viewpoints. (shrink)
The development of technology raises an array of ethical issues related to work. Many of these ethical issues are old issues surfacing under new guises. Technology has not changed the issues, but technology makes the issues' analysis and application more complex. This paper identifies several new ethical issues raised by technological change: computer crime, an over-reliance on computer controlled systems, bio-technical developments, degradation of quality-of-life at work and new categories of work-related injuries. These issues are discussed in the context of (...) management responsibilities and responses. The paper offers a five-step process for the effective management of these ethical issues: Be aware of the issues, develop an ethical framework, be consistent, communicate clearly, stay alert for future developments. (shrink)
Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar un modelo de comprensión tal que permita a la investigación pastoral reflexionar sobre cómo la traditio fidei se puede realizar con el recurso de entornos digitales. Para eso, recurre a la mediología de Régis Debray, reflexionando sobre el modo como los componentes de la cultura digital pueden estar al servicio de la transmisión cultural.
Anticipating the fifth centennial of Vives’ birth in 1992, this is the first comprehensive study of two of Vives’ main works, _De Anima et Vita, Book 3 _and _De Prima Philosophia, _accompanied by the first general biography based on recent research. Juan Luis Vives was a Spanish sixteenth-century humanist who spent most of his life as an exile in England and the Low Countries. _De Anima et Vita, _the third book of which makes up the tract on emotions, represents (...) the culmination of Vives’ effort to understand human nature. Noreña has organized _Vives and the Emotions _into three parts. Part one incorporates recent research on Vives and corrects some of the inaccuracies of Noreña’s 1970 _Luis Vives. _He provides expanded accounts of Vives’ attitude toward Erasmus and religion, his reaction to terminist logic, his social and legal views, and his contributions to Renaissance pedagogy. The second part of the book examines in detail one of Vives’ most philosophical and forgotten tracts, a lengthy summary of his metaphysical views published in 1531 under the title _De Prima Philosophia seu de Intimo Naturae Opificio, _which is probably the most speculative of Vives’ works. Part three compares Vives’ thoughts on emotion to those of Aristotle, some ancient Stoic sources, Saint Thomas, Descartes, and Spinoza, while dividing the entire material under such headings as the nature, the classification, the interaction, and the therapeutic control of emotion. (shrink)
Hablar de Literatura, pero también de Filosofía, es hablar de la necesidad del hombre para aprehender un lenguaje que escapa a los métodos ordinarios de la comprensión; es su agónica urgencia por comprender el mundo que le rodea. La significación de Jorge Luis Borges desborda una retórica estrictamente concebida en el panorama literario para enquiciarse en las fascinaciones intelectuales de la mitología, la teología o la filosofía, entre otras. La polifacética labor del poeta le sitúa en un lugar privilegiado (...) de la cultura latinoamericana, allá donde los procesos de producción y de recepción del discurso poético advienen terminantes en la modulación de una visión particular de la realidad. Dicho lo cual, esta contribución aborda el estudio de la composición «Los espejos» desde la perspectiva existencialista de Schopenhauer. El mundo como voluntad y representación permite precisar las claves de acceso a la descodificación de la construcción metafórica del espejo en la poética borgiana a través de los conceptos de fantasía y realidad así como de la expresión serena de infinitud y eternidad. Con la representación y la volutas schopenhauerianas como telón de fondo, el estudio de «Los espejos» borgianos comporta una reconsideración de las relaciones entre Literatura y Filosofía, cuyos empréstitos ontológicos y lenguajes quedan sublimados bajo una cobertura teatral de la realidad y del individuo en la escena. (shrink)
Presalt reservoirs of the Santos Basin accounted for more than 50% of Brazilian hydrocarbon production in the first two months of 2019. Its most important reservoirs are found in the Barra Velha Formation; thus understanding its genesis and geologic history is essential. This formation is composed of carbonates deposited in an alkaline lacustrine environment with a multiplicity of facies from boundstones and grainstones to mudstones. We have performed a sedimentary analysis based on the integration of sidewall core samples and well (...) logs from two wells coupled with seismic patterns discrimination to characterize the tectonic and depositional evolution of the Barra Velha Formation in a sector of the Outer High of the Santos Basin in this study. Our method initially consisted of the evaluation of well logs, aiming to identify shallowing and flooding upward cycles of the second and third orders for the paleoenvironmental conceptualization upper rift and sag phases. Then, we defined electrofacies through the integration of SWCs, gamma ray, and acoustic impedance logs using the crossplot approach. Finally, we described seismic patterns throughout the study area and correlated with results from well data analysis. Therefore, the Barra Velha Formation was subdivided into three zones: the lower, intermediate, and upper zones. Well 1 has a facies association characteristic of a proximal and stable environment during deposition, whereas well 2 initially presents in a distal environment sedimentation that evolves to a more proximal setting. This fact evidenced differences with respect to base-level variations indicating compartmentalization within the lacustrine environment of the upper rift and sag phase that corroborated with the detailed seismic pattern interpretation of the study area. (shrink)
"Aranguren: filosofía en la vida y vida en la filosofía" llevó por nombre la exposición sobre la figura y el legado de José Luis L. Aranguren (Ávila 1909- Madrid 1996) que pudo verse desde el 4 de junio al 26 de julio de 2009 en el Pabellón Transatlántico de la Residencia de Estudiantes de Madrid con ocasión del centenario del nacimiento del filósofo abulense.
Resumen: El tema del Otro aparece en la reflexión del filósofo mexicano Luis Villoro ligado de forma concreta a la alteridad indígena, es decir, al ser un “otro sujeto” y un “sujeto otro” del indígena mexicano, a su ser igual que nosotros y, sin embargo, diferente, distinto, en función de su propia perspectiva histórico-cultural. Enmarcamos esta exposición en la filosofía general de Villoro y en las problemáticas tanto teórico-filosóficas como prácticas y ético-políticas del mundo contemporáneo.: In the thought of (...) the Mexican philosopher Luis Villoro, the issue of the Other appears closely related to the indigenous alterity; that is, to the being “another subject” and a “different subject” of the Mexican indigenous people, to his being equal to us and, nonetheless, different, distinct, in function of his own historical-cultural perspective. We frame this exposition in the general philosophy of Villoro and in the theoretical-philosophical as well as the practical and ethical-political problems of the contemporary world. (shrink)
Luis Jiménez Moreno murió en octubre de 2007 a los 77 años de edad. Durante los últimos 30 años perteneció a la Universidad Complutense, de la que llegó a ser catedrático. Había estudiado en Salamanca, Roma, Valencia y Munich. Su tesis doctoral sobre el pensamiento antropológico de Nietzsche fue dirigida por Aranguren. Fue catedrático de instituto en Andújar, Ávila y Badalona, y profesor de universidad en Barcelona y Madrid. El presente artículo recoge los datos fundamentales de su vida, así (...) como toda su obra dividida en libros, artículos, ensayos, conferencias, ponencias y comunicaciones en congresos, seminarios, simposios, reuniones científicas, etc. (shrink)
A questão da clareza e objetividade dos critérios utilizados na avaliação e interpretação dos testes psicológicos é uma das preocupações dos profissionais da Psicologia que trabalham com a avaliação psicológica. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em verificar em que medida os critérios de avaliação..