Poor nutrition habits have been reported in the childcare setting. While the literature advocates the need to carry out ‘Voice of the Child’ research, few studies have explored this methodology with regard to children and food, in particular in the pre-school setting. This article aims to outline the ethical issues raised by a research ethics committee and to discuss the impact of these issues on a study that hoped to determine the food perceptions of children (aged three to four years) (...) within an ongoing nutrition and lifestyle pre-school project in Ireland. Ethical approval was granted for this study but only upon the clarification of two aspects: that only hedonic symbols previously used in the literature could be included in the study; and that parental consent be obtained from both parents of each child. Children were shown food pictures and asked to use the hedonic symbols to answer questions posed to them on the food. Owing to the ethical constraints imposed by the requirement for two-parent consent, seven children, from a potential sample of 85, were eligible to partake in the study. These children did not seem to understand the hedonic symbols recommended for use by the ethics committee, therefore preventing the collection of in-depth qualitative data. The ethical constraints placed on this study impacted on both its design and its methodology and are discussed in relation to national and international ethical guidance and legislation. Future research with children regarding food choice must balance the need for strict ethical standards with the need to explore children’s views on this subject. (shrink)
Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era provided the first introduction and analysis of contemporary concepts of curriculum development in relation to postmodernism. It challenged educators to transcend purely traditional approaches to curriculum development and instead incorporate various postmodern discourses into their reflection and action in schools. Since publication in 1995, the curriculum studies field has exploded, the very notion of the postmodern has shifted, and the landscape of American schooling has changed dramatically-federal policies like No Child Left Behind have dramatically (...) increased the focus on accountability and consequently what and how teachers teach. The need to understand curriculum in relation to global religions, ethnic relations, multicultural communities, and socio-political interest groups has been magnified. Controversial issues such as biology, gender roles, academic freedom, religion and prayer in schools, gay straight alliances, GLBT literature in the curriculumstudies is theorized. In this much-anticipated and thoroughly updated edition, noted curriculum studies scholar Patrick Slattery tackles these and other issues to reflect on the current state of curriculum development and on where the field may go from here. (shrink)
What is the persuasive basis for the doctrine of universal human rights - rights that pertain to all human beings, regardless of national, racial, or religious affiliation? This essay offers some reflections on the subject by considering the contrasting approaches of two thinkers: Vaclav Havel, the playwright, essayist, human rights advocate, and onetime President of Czechoslovakia; and Henri Bergson, the once influential French philosopher and apostle of creative evolution, unfortunately now often forgotten.
This paper analyses the relationship between religion and the field of medicine and health care in light of other recent studies. Generally, religion and spirituality have a positive impact on disease. For patients diagnosed with malignancies and chronic diseases, religion is an important dimension of healing. From ancient times, God has been considered an inspiration for the physician's knowledge and healing resources. Some authors have proposed a brief history of spiritual and religious states that the doctor can apply to his (...) patient. Religiosity and spirituality allow patients to receive better social support and to benefit greatly from resources provided by religious organizations (cultural activities, jobs, and health care counseling). The two terms "religion" and "spirituality" have different meanings but are always in connection. Many studies emphasize that people with greater religiosity and spirituality have a lower prevalence of depression and suicide, better quality of life, and greater survival. Additionally the article discusses the complementary health care benefits of religious fasting. Caloric and protein restrictions promoted by religious fasting were associated with improvement in control or prophylaxis of many diseases and with longevity. (shrink)
WE wish to call into question the basic objection to the generic status of being: and here we mean by ‘being’, not the act of existence, but essence. It is objected that whereas being contains all its differences, the genus does not do so. This objection is unsupported by the evidence and therefore fails. A concomitant objection that being is analogical and that the genus is univocal also fails, since the genus is itself analogical. The strange thing is that St. (...) Thomas agrees that the genus contains its differences and that it is analogical; yet Thomists deny that being is a genus. St. Thomas compares the relation of being to the categories with that of the genus to the species. He says that the difference is not outside the genus, but is rather a determination of it. He says that the genus is equivocal, not purely so but as being analogical. It is evident, therefore, from what he says, that being as meaning essence, is the supreme genus. (shrink)
This study argues that there is a moral dimension to sensational news. The study assumes that citizens have a moral interest in the community because moral standards play a role in governing social behavior. Some news, labeled as sensational, reflects news of the moral life of the community and is related to the community's moral well-being. This study addresses the problem of making the distinction between such news and news that is sensational for its own sake. This study also suggests (...) a method that journalists can use to responsibly cover stories traditionally associated with press sensationalism. (shrink)
I.—It is a thesis of Christian philosophy that God can bring about anything that does not involve a contradiction in terms. Now a contradietion in terms is denned with reference to an identical proposition. An identical proposition is one in which the predicate is the same as the subject. This is brought about in two ways: one when the predicate is completely identical with the subject, as when you say, ‘A dog is a dog’: two when the predicate is partly (...) identical with the subject as when you say, ‘A black dog is black’, or ‘A dog is an animal’. In both these cases, especially in the latter, it is said that the predicate is included in the idea, or concept or ratio of the subject. If any of these propositions is denied, then you get a simultaneous affirmation and denial of the same thing, of dog, of black, and of animal, respectively, thus producing a contradiction in terms. And not even God can make such propositions true. (shrink)
Those who in the past tended to say that being is a genus, coupled their assertion with the belief that the genus is univocal, thus making being univocal—a position which can easily be overturned. Others failed to distinguish between being as meaning essence, and so divisible into the ten categories, and being as meaning existence. The consequence was that they restricted the Divine Being to a genus of being, thereby denying God’s transcendence. As far as I know, the theory which (...) combines the two doctrines that the genus is analogical and that the being which is held to be a genus is only essence, has never been propounded. It merits investigation. (shrink)
LOGICIANS owe a considerable debt of gratitude to Ogden and Veatch for their highly satisfactory exposition of the problem of existential import in the Square of Opposition and for their stimulating efforts to solve it. The authors gave an apt description of the situation reigning in this field when they said.
While unionization rates have steadily declined in the United States, there has been a renewal of grassroots labor organizing—in many cases connected in some way with religious communities. Attending to such organizing efforts holds the potential to deepen religious-ethical reflection on questions of labor, and these religious-ethical reflections hold the potential to enrich on-the-ground organizing efforts. These opportunities have largely been overlooked. On the one hand, while scholars have recently explored connections between religious ideas and economic ideas, they have often (...) neglected questions of labor. On the other hand, labor studies scholars have often ignored the role of religion, although this is beginning to change. In this introduction we limn the resources available for religious-ethical reflection on questions of labor and we propose a direction that the field could take, bringing together engagement with religious traditions and attunement to grassroots organizing. (shrink)
In what follows I will use the phrase "category term" to mean any term which indicates a species or genus of physical object, as for example "dog" and "animal." I will use the word "category" for a range of types going from ultimate genus to ultimate species, a type being a genus or species.