It is still a matter of controversy whether the Principle of the Common Cause (PCC) can be used as a basis for sound causal inference. It is thus to be expected that its application to quantum mechanics should be a correspondingly controversial issue. Indeed the early 90’s saw a flurry of papers addressing just this issue in connection with the EPR correlations. Yet, that debate does not seem to have caught up with the most recent literature on causal inference (...) generally, which has moved on to consider the virtues of a generalised PCC-inspired condition, the so-called Causal Markov Condition (CMC). In this paper we argue that the CMC is an appropriate benchmark for debating possible causal explanations of the EPR correlations. But we go on to take issue with some pronouncements on EPR by defenders of the CMC. (shrink)
It follows from Bell’s theorem and quantum mechanics that the detection of a particle of an entangled pair can (somehow) “force” the other distant particle of the pair into a well-defined state (which is equivalent to a reduction of the state vector): no property previously shared by the particles can explain the predicted quantum correlations. This result has been corroborated by experiment, although some loopholes still remain. However, it has not been experimentally proved—and it is far from obvious—that the (...) absence of detection, as in null-result (NR) experiments could have the very same effect. In this paper a way to try to bridge this gap is suggested. (shrink)
It is known that the global state of a composite quantum system can be completely determined by specifying correlations between measurements performed on subsystems only. Despite the fact that the quantum correlations thus suffice to reconstruct the quantum state, we show, using a Bell inequality argument, that they cannot be regarded as objective local properties of the composite system in question. It is well known since the work of Bell, that one cannot have locally preexistent values for all (...) physical quantities, whether they are deterministic or stochastic. The Bell inequality argument we present here shows this is also impossible for correlations among subsystems of an individual isolated composite system. Neither of them can be used to build up a world consisting of some local realistic structure. As a corrolary to the result we argue that entanglement cannot be considered ontologically robust. The Bell inequality argument has an important advantage over others because it does not need perfect correlations but only statistical correlations. It can therefore easily be tested in currently feasible experiments using four particle entanglement. (shrink)
The interpretation of the violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities is revisited, in relation with the notion of extension of QM predictions to unmeasurable correlations. Such extensions are compatible with QM predictions in many cases, in particular for observables with compatibility relations described by tree graphs. This implies classical representability of any set of correlations 〈A i 〉, 〈B〉, 〈A i B〉, and the equivalence of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities to a non void intersection between the ranges of values for the (...) unmeasurable correlation 〈A 1 A 2〉 associated to different choices for B. The same analysis applies to the Hardy model and to the “perfect correlations” discussed by Greenberger, Horne, Shimony and Zeilinger. In all the cases, the dependence of an unmeasurable correlation on a set of variables allowing for a classical representation is the only basis for arguments about violations of locality and causality. (shrink)
Following Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics as complementarity, this article argues that quantum mechanics may be seen as a theory of, in N. David Mermin's words, “correlations without correlata,” understood here as the correlations between certain physical events in the classical macro world that at the same time disallow us to ascertain their quantum-level correlata.
We study the correlations (and alignment as a particular case) existent between the fragments originated in a decaying process when the daughter particles interact. The interaction between the particles is modeled using the potential of coupled oscillators, which can be treated analytically. This approach can be considered as a first step towards the characterization of realistic interacting decaying systems, an archetypal process in physics. The results presented here also suggest the possibility of manipulating correlations using external fields, a (...) technique that could be useful to provide sources of entangled massive particles. (shrink)
In this paper I demonstrate that the quantum correlations of polarization observables used in Bell’s argument against local realism have to be interpreted as conditional quantum correlations. By taking into account additional sources of randomness in Bell’s type experiments, i.e., supplementary to source randomness, I calculate the complete quantum correlations. The main message of the quantum theory of measurement is that complete correlations can be essentially smaller than the conditional ones. Additional sources of randomness diminish (...) class='Hi'>correlations. One can say another way around: transition from unconditional correlations to conditional can increase them essentially. This is true for both classical and quantum probability. The final remark is that classical conditional correlations do not satisfy Bell’s inequality. Thus we met the following conditional probability dilemma: either to use the conditional quantum probabilities, as was done by Bell and others, or complete quantum correlations. However, in the first case the corresponding classical conditional correlations need not satisfy Bell’s inequality and in the second case the complete quantum correlations satisfy Bell’s inequality. Thus in neither case we have a problem of mismatching of classical and quantum correlations. The whole structure of Bell’s argument was based on identification of conditional quantum correlations with unconditional classical correlations. (shrink)
The theory of branching space-times is designed as a rigorous framework for modelling indeterminism in a relativistically sound way. In that framework there is room for "funny business", i.e., modal correlations such as occur through quantummechanical entanglement. This paper extends previous work by Belnap on notions of "funny business". We provide two generalized definitions of "funny business". Combinatorial funny business can be characterized as "absence of prima facie consistent scenarios", while explanatory funny business characterizes situations in which no localized (...) explanation of inconsistency can be given. These two definitions of funny business are proved to be equivalent, and we provide an example that shows them to be strictly more general than the previously available definitions of "funny business". (shrink)
Very large databases are a major opportunity for science and data analytics is a remarkable new field of investigation in computer science. The effectiveness of these tools is used to support a “philosophy” against the scientific method as developed throughout history. According to this view, computer-discovered correlations should replace understanding and guide prediction and action. Consequently, there will be no need to give scientific meaning to phenomena, by proposing, say, causal relations, since regularities in very large databases are enough: (...) “with enough data, the numbers speak for themselves”. The “end of science” is proclaimed. Using classical results from ergodic theory, Ramsey theory and algorithmic information theory, we show that this “philosophy” is wrong. For example, we prove that very large databases have to contain arbitrary correlations. These correlations appear only due to the size, not the nature, of data. They can be found in “randomly” generated, large enough databases, which—as we will prove—implies that most correlations are spurious. Too much information tends to behave like very little information. The scientific method can be enriched by computer mining in immense databases, but not replaced by it. (shrink)
Synchronistic or psi phenomena are interpreted as entanglement correlations in a generalized quantum theory. From the principle that entanglement correlations cannot be used for transmitting information, we can deduce the decline effect, frequently observed in psi experiments, and we propose strategies for suppressing it and improving the visibility of psi effects. Some illustrative examples are discussed.
** The primary topic of this dissertation is the study of the relationships between parts and wholes as described by particular physical theories, namely generalized probability theories in a quasi-classical physics framework and non-relativistic quantum theory. ** A large part of this dissertation is devoted to understanding different aspects of four different kinds of correlations: local, partially-local, no-signaling and quantum mechanical correlations. Novel characteristics of these correlations have been used to study how they are related and how (...) they can be discerned via Bell-type inequalities that give non-trivial bounds on the strength of the correlations. ** The study of quantum correlations has also prompted us to study a) the multi-partite qubit state space with respect to its entanglement and separability characteristics, and b) the differing strength of the correlations in separable and entangled qubit states. Results include a novel classification of multipartite (partial) separability and entanglement, strong constraints on the monogamy of entanglement and of non-local correlations, and many new entanglement detection criteria that are directly experimentally accessible. ** Because of the generality of the investigation these results also have strong foundational as well as philosophical repercussions for the different sorts of physical theories as a whole; notably for the viability of hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics, for the possibility of doing experimental metaphysics, for the question of holism in physical theories, and for the classical vs. quantum dichotomy. (shrink)
This paper argues against Papineau's claim that causal relations can be reduced to correlations and defends Cartwright's thesis that they can be nevertheless boot-strapped from them, given sufficiently rich causal background knowledge.
It is argued that the symmetry and anti-symmetry of the wave functions of systems consisting of identical particles have nothing to do with the observational indistinguishability of these particles. Rather, a much stronger conceptual indistinguishability is at the bottom of the symmetry requirements. This can be used to argue further, in analogy to old arguments of De Broglie and Schrödinger, that the reality described by quantum mechanics has a wave-like rather than particle-like structure. The question of whether quantum statistics alone (...) can give rise to empirically observable correlations between results of distant measurements is also discussed. (shrink)
One of the positive arguments for the type-identity theory of mental states is an inference-to-the-best-explanation (IBE) argument, which purports to show that type-identity theory is likely true since it is the best explanation for the correlations between mental states and brain states that we find in the neurosciences. But given the methods of neuroscience, there are other relations besides identity that can explain such correlations. I illustrate some of these relations by examining the literature on the function of (...) the hypothalamus and its correlation with sensations of thirst. Given that there are relations besides identity that can explain such correlations, the type-identity theorist is left with a dilemma: either the correlations we consider are weak, in which case we do not have an IBE to an identity claim, or else the correlations we look at are maximally strong, in which case there are too few cases for the inductive part of the strategy to work. (shrink)
In honor of Daniel Greenberger's 65th birthday, I record for posterity two superb examples of his wit, offer a proof of an important theorem on quantum correlations that even those of us over 60 can understand, and suggest, by trying to make it look silly, that invoking “quantum nonlocality” as an explanation for such correlations may be too cheap a way out of the dilemma they pose.
We argue that causal decision theory is no worse off than evidential decision theory in handling entanglement, regardless of one’s preferred interpretation of quantum mechanics. In recent works, Ahmed and Ahmed and Caulton : 4315–4352, 2014) have claimed the opposite; we argue that they are mistaken. Bell-type experiments are not instances of Newcomb problems, so CDT and EDT do not diverge in their recommendations. We highlight the fact that a Causal Decision Theorist should take all lawlike correlations into account, (...) including potentially acausal entanglement correlations. This paper also provides a brief introduction to CDT with a motivating “small” Newcomb problem. The main point of our argument is that quantum theory does not provide grounds for favouring EDT over CDT. (shrink)
Two principles of locality used in discussions about quantum mechanics are distinguished. The intuitive no-action-at-a distance requirement is called physical locality. There is also a mathematical requirement of a kind of factorizability which is referred to as "locality". It is argued in this paper that factorizability is not necessary for physical locality. Ways of producing models that are physically local although not factorizable which are concerned with correlations between the behavior of pairs of particles are suggested. These models can (...) account for all the quantum mechanical single and joint probabilities. (shrink)
The use of joint distribution functions for noncommuting observables in quantum thermodynamics is investigated in the light of L. Cohen's proof that such distributions are not determined by the quantum state. Cohen's proof is irrelevant to uses of the functions that do not depend on interpreting them as distributions. An example of this, from quantum Onsager theory, is discussed. Other uses presuppose that correlations betweenp andq values depend at least on the state. But correlations may be fixed by (...) the state even though the distribution varies from one ensemble to another represented by that state. Taking covariance as a measure of correlation, it is shown that the different commonly used joint distributions yield the same correlations for a given state. A general characterization is given for a family of distributions with this same covariance. (shrink)
This article sets forth and discusses the Ithaca Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (IIQM). Section 1 presents the standard formalism of quantum mechanics and the measurement problem. Section 2 sketches Everett’s interpretation as a preamble to IIQM. Section 3 sets out IIQM’s central claim: it is possible to make sense of quantum mechanics by taking as the proper (and only) subject of physics the correlations among subsystems. Section 4 introduces a theorem of quantum mechanics, the SSC theorem, which supports this (...) claim. Section 5 contends that at least two problems exist with IIQM, and one serious objection against it. Section 6 discusses a strategy based on relational probabilities to go around the objection. (shrink)
If we apply Lewis’ theory of causation to the quantum correlations which become manifest in the Bell experiments, this theory tells us that these correlations are a case of causation. However, there are strong physical reasons (and concrete suggestions) not to treat these correlations in terms of a physical interaction. The aim of this paper is to assess this conflict. My conclusion is: one can either divorce Lewis’ causation from physical interaction, or one can take the quantum (...) case as an argument for an amendment of Lewis’ theory of causation. (shrink)
The Principle of the Common Cause is usually understood to provide causal explanations for probabilistic correlations obtaining between causally unrelated events. In this study, an extended interpretation of the principle is proposed, according to which common causes should be invoked to explain positive correlations whose values depart from the ones that one would expect to obtain in accordance to her probabilistic expectations. In addition, a probabilistic model for common causes is tailored which satisfies the generalized version of the (...) principle, at the same time including the standard conjunctive-fork model as a special case. (shrink)
Quite often the compatibility of the EPR correlations with the relativity theory has been questioned; it has been stated that “the first in time of two correlated measurements instantaneously collapses the other subsystem”; it has been suggested that a causal asymmetry is built into the Feynman propagator. However, the EPR transition amplitude, as derived from the S matrix, is Lorentz andCPT invariant; the correlation formula is symmetric in the two measurements irrespective of their time ordering, so that the link (...) of the correlations is the Feynman zigzag, and that causality isCPT invariant at the microlevel; finally, although the Feynman propagator has theP andCT symmetries, no causal asymmetry follows from that. As for Stapp's views concerning “process” and “becoming,” and his Whiteheadean concept of an advancing front, I object that they belong to “factlike macrophysics,” and are refuted at the microlevel by the EPR phenomenology, which displays direct Fokker-like space-time connections. The reason for this is a radical one. The very blending of a space-time picture and of a probability calculus is a paradox. The only adequate paradigm is one denying objectivity to space-time—but this, of course, is also required by the complementary of the x and the k pictures, which only “look” compatible at the macrolevel. Therefore, the classical “objectivity” must yield in favor of “intersubjectivity.” Only the macroscopic preparing and measuring devices have “factlike” objectivity; the “transition” of the “quantal system” takes place beyond both thex and thek 4-spaces. Then, the intrinsic symmetries between retarded and advanced waves, and statistical prediction and retrodiction, entails that the future has no less (but no more) existence than the past. It is the future that is significant in “creative process,” the “elementary” forms of which should be termed “precognition” or “psychokinesis”—respectively symmetric to the factlike taboos that “we can neither know into the future nor act into the past.” It is gratifying that Robert Jahn, at the Engineering School of Princeton University, is conducting (after others) conclusive experiments demonstrating “low level psychokinesis”—a phenomenon implied by the very symmetry of the negentropy-information transition. So, what pierces the veil of “maya” is the (rare) occurrence of “paranormal phenomena.” The essential severance between “act” and “potentia” is not a spacelike advancing front, but the “out of” and the “into” factlike space-time. Finally, I do not feel that an adequate understanding of the EPR phenomenology requires going beyond the present status of relativistic quantum mechanics. Rather, I believe that the potentialities of this formalism have not yet been fully exploited. (shrink)
A general algorithm is given for determining whether or not a given set of pair distributions allows for the construction of all the members of a specified set of higher-order distributions which return the given pair distributions as marginals. This mathematical question underlies studies of quantum correlation experiments such as those of Bell or of Clauser and Horne, or their higher-spin generalizations. The algorithm permits the analysis of rather intricate versions of such problems, in a form readily adaptable to the (...) computer. The general procedure is illustrated by simple derivations of the results of Mermin and Schwarz for the symmetric spin-1 and spin-3/2 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen problems. It is also used to extend those results to the spin-2 and spin-5/2 cases, providing further evidence that the range of strange quantum theoretic correlations does not diminish with increasing s. The algorithm is also illustrated by giving an alternative derivation of some recent results on the necessity and sufficiency of the Clauser-Horne conditions. The mathematical formulation of the algorithm is given in general terms without specific reference to the quantum theoretic applications. (shrink)
Using three intuitive notions about causes, including Redhead's robustness condition, I formulate necessary conditions on partial causes. I then demonstrate that we cannot explain the EPR correlations in terms of partial causes unless we abandon the quantum mechanical framework and adopt a nonlocal hidden-variable theory. The argument, unlike its predecessors, does not appeal to relativity theory.
We introduce an explicit definition for “hidden correlations” on individual entities in a compound system: when one individual entity is measured, this induces a well-defined transition of the “proper state” of the other individual entities. We prove that every compound quantum system described in the tensor product of a finite number of Hilbert spaces can be uniquely represented as a collection of individual entities between which there exist such hidden correlations. We investigate the significance of these hidden correlation (...) representations within Aerts' creation-discovery approach and in particular their compatibility with the hidden measurement formalism. This leads us to the introduction of the notions of “soft” and “hard” “acts of creation” and to the observation that our approach can be seen as a theory of individuals when it is compared to the standard quantum theory. (shrink)
Certain properties of the Bell-type correlations and, in particular, the impossibility of using them to transmit signals faster than light, are investigated from the point of view of the conceptual structure of quantum mechanics and of Whitehead's process philosophy. The collapses of quantum states are shown to correspond to perspectives of different frames of reference on a Whiteheadian process of self-creation of actual entities. The analysis suggests a fundamental limitation on the capacity to describe the propagation of influences among (...) the results of measurements at space-like separation. It is further shown that, if Whitehead's framework is modified in a specific way, it accounts very well for the apparent existence of superluminal influences, and for the impossibility of using them for superluminal communication. (shrink)
Being formalized inside the S-matrix scheme, the zigzagging causility model of EPR correlations has full Lorentz and CPT invariance. EPR correlations, proper or reversed, and Wheeler's smoky dragon metaphor are respectively pictured in spacetime or in the momentum-energy space, as V-shaped, A-shaped, or C-shaped ABC zigzags, with a summation at B over virtual states |B〉 〈B|. An exact “correspondence” exists between the Born-Jordan-Dirac “wavelike” algebra of transition amplitudes and the 1774 Laplace algebra of conditional probabilities, where the intermediate (...) summations |B) (B| were over “real hidden states.” While the latter used conditional (or transition) probabilities (A|C) = (C|A), the former uses transition (or conditional) amplitudes 〈A|C〉 = 〈C|A〉*. The formal parrallelism breaks down at the level of interpretation because (A|C) = |〈A|C〉|2. CPT invariance implies the Fock and Watanabe principle that, in quantum mechanics, retarded (advanced) waves are used for prediction (retrodiction), an expression of which is 〈Ψ| U |Φ〉 = 〈Ψ| UΦ〉 = 〈ΦU|Φ〉, with |Φ〉 denoting a preparation, |Ψ〉 a measurement, and U the evolution operator. The transformation |Ψ〉 = |UΦ〉 or |Φ〉 = |U−1Ψ〉 exchanges the “preparation representation” and the “measurement representation” of a system and is ancillary in the formalization of the quantum chance game by the “wavelike algebra” of conditional amplitude. In 1935 EPR overlooked that a conditional amplitude 〈A|C〉 = Σ 〈A|B〉〈B|C〉 between the two distant measurements is at stake, and that only measurements actually performed do make sense. The reversibility 〈A|C〉 = 〈C|A〉* implies that causality is CPT-invariant, or arrowless, at the microlevel. Arrowed causality is a macroscopic emergence, corollary to wave retardation and probability increase. Factlike irreversibility states repression, not suppression, of “blind statistical retrodiction”—that is, of “final cause.”. (shrink)
The structure of maximal violators of Bell’s inequalities for Jordan algebras is investigated. It is proved that the spin factor V 2 is responsible for maximal values of Bell’s correlations in a faithful state. In this situation maximally correlated subsystems must overlap in a nonassociative subalgebra. For operator commuting subalgebras it is shown that maximal violators have the structure of the spin systems and that the global state (faithful on local subalgebras) acts as the trace on local subalgebras.
The reality of physical properties is divided into two types: “relatively” and “absolutely” real. Concerning the reality of spatial observables, it is proposed to drop the concept of an absolute reality of spatial observables. The resulting relative reality then isnot the observer-dependent reality of the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, but rather the reference frame-dependent reality implied by the principle of relativity. Within the frame of this relative reality, it is then shown that a local explanation for the existence of (...) EPR correlations can be found when two-valued discrete spatially directed observables (like the spin-1/2 components of electrons, or the polarization states of photons) are assumed. The new explanation is formally analogous to the standard explanation of classical correlations at a distance. Sufficient assumptions to obtain this result are the isotropy of space and the existence of two-valued discrete spatially directed observables. Thus, the possibility to find a both local and realistic explanation of correlations at a distance is extended to quantum variables violating Bell's inequality. (shrink)
After briefly presenting Ronald Giere's (1979, 1980) recent counterfactual characterization of population-level causation, I present two counterexamples to the characterization. The difficulty discussed stems from nonaccidental correlations that can obtain between causally effective and causally neutral factors.
Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory that embodies notoriously striking correlations, stronger than any that classical theories allow but not as strong as those of hypothetical ‘super-quantum’ theories. This raises the question ‘Why the quantum?’—whether there is a handful of principles that account for the character of quantum probability. We ask what quantum-logical notions correspond to this investigation. This project isn’t meant to compete with the many beautiful results that information-theoretic approaches have yielded but rather aims to complement that (...) work. (shrink)
Some statistical questions that arise in studies of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations are given precise and complete answers for a very simple but artificial set of pair distributions. Some recent results and conjectures about hidden variable representations of the more complex distributions that describe the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment are examined in the light of the behavior of the simple model.
The contribution argues that causal interpretations of empirical correlations between neural and conscious events are meaningful even if not fully verifiable and that there are reasons in favour of an epiphenomenalist construction of psychophysical causality. It is suggested that an account of causality can be given that makes interactionism, epiphenomenalism and Leibnizian parallelism semantically distinct interpretations of the phenomena. Though neuroscience cannot strictly prove or rule out any one of these interpretations it can be argued that methodological principles favour (...) a causal interpretation on epiphenomenalist lines, both for reasons of metaphysical parsimony and for reasons of coherence with established physical principles such as the conservation of energy. In the concluding chapter, some of the philosophical and the empirical challenges following from this model are outlined, the most important being closer scrutiny of the neurophysiological processes accompanying conscious volition. (shrink)
The requirement of gauge invariance for the Schwinger-DeWitt equations, interpreted as a manifestly covariant quantum theory for the evolution of a system in spacetime, implies the existence of a five-dimensional pre-Maxwell field on the manifold of spacetime and “proper time” τ. The Maxwell theory is contained in this theory; integration of the field equations over τ restores the Maxwell equations with the usual interpretation of the sources. Following Schwinger's techniques, we study the Green's functions for the five-dimensional hyperbolic field equations (...) for both signatures ± [corresponding to O(4, 1) or O(3, 2) symmetry of the field equations] of the proper time derivative. The classification of the Green's functions follows that of the four-dimensional theory for “massive” fields, for which the “mass” squared may be positive or negative, respectively. The Green's functions for the five-dimensional field are then given by the Fourier transform over the “mass” parameter. We derive the Green's functions corresponding to the principal part ΔP and the homogeneous function Δ 1 ; all of the Green's functions can be expressed in terms of these, as for the usual field equations with definite mass. In the O(3, 2) case, the principal part function has support for x2⩾τ2, corresponding to spacelike propagation, as well as along the light cone x2=0 (for τ=0). There can be no transmission ofinformation in spacelike directions, with this propagator, since the Maxwell field, obtained by integration over τ, does not contain this component of the support. Measurements are characterized by such an integration. The spacelike field therefore can dynamically establish spacelike correlations. (shrink)
'Correlations without correlata' is an influential way of thinking of quantum entanglement as a form primitive correlation which nonetheless maintains locality of quantum theory. A number of arguments have sought to suggest that such a view leads either to internal inconsistency or to conflict with the empirical predictions of quantum mechanics. Here wew explicate and provide a partial defence of the notion, arguing that these objections import unwarranted conceptions of correlation properties as hidden variables. A more plausible account sees (...) the properties in terms of Everettian relative states. The ontological robustness of entanglement is also defended from recent objections. (shrink)
One diagnosis of Bell's theorem is that its premise of Outcome Independence is unreasonably strong, as it postulates one common screener system that purports to explain all the correlations involved. This poses a challenge of constructing a model for quantum correlations that is local, non-conspiratorial, and has many separate screener systems rather than one common screener system. In particular, the assumptions of such models should not entail Bell's inequalities. We prove that the models described do not exist, and (...) hence, the diagnosis above is incorrect. (shrink)
The failure to recognize a correlation as spurious can lead people to adopt strategies to bring about a specific outcome that manipulate something other than a cause of the outcome. However, in a 2008 paper appearing in the journal Analysis, Bert Leuridan, Erik Weber and Maarten Van Dyck suggest that knowledge of spurious correlations can, at least sometimes, justify adopting a strategy aiming at bringing about some change. This claim is surprising and, if true, throws into question the claim (...) of Nancy Cartwright and others that knowledge of laws of association is insufficient for distinguishing effective and ineffective strategies. This paper examines the nature of spurious correlations and their value in crafting strategies for change. The conclusion of the paper is that while knowledge of a spurious correlation may have practical value, the value depends on either having knowledge of the causal structure underlying the correlation or it depends on the use of ‘causal criteria’. (shrink)
This paper argues that there is no conflict between quantum theory and relativity, and that quantum theory itself helps us explain puzzling “non-local” correlations in a way that contradicts neither Bell’s intuitive locality principle nor his local causality condition. The argument depends on understanding quantum theory along pragmatist lines I have outlined elsewhere, and on a more general view of how that theory helps us explain. The key counterfactuals that hold in such cases manifest epistemic rather than causal connections (...) between distant events. Quantum theory exploits the possibility of private informational links between an agent and events he neither observes nor brings about, in ways that are strikingly independent of the spatiotemporal relations between them. This possibility has interesting implications for theories of chance in a relativistic world. (shrink)
In any theory satisfying the no-signaling principle correlations generated among spatially separated parties in a Bell-type experiment are subject to certain constraints known as monogamy relations. Recently, in the context of the black hole information loss problem it was suggested that these monogamy relations might be violated. This in turn implies that correlations arising in such a scenario must violate the no-signaling principle and hence can be used to send classical information between parties. Here, we study the amount (...) of information that can be sent using such correlations. To this aim, we first provide a framework associating them with classical channels whose capacities are then used to quantify the usefulness of these correlations in sending information. Finally, we determine the minimal amount of information that can be sent using signaling correlations violating the monogamy relation associated to the chained Bell inequalities. (shrink)
In a bipartite quantum system, quantum states are classified as classically correlated and quantum correlated states, the later are important resources of quantum information and computation protocols. Since correlations of quantum states may vary under a quantum channel, it is necessary to explore the influence of quantum channels on correlations of quantum states. In this paper, we discuss CC-preserving, QC-breaking and strongly CC-preserving local quantum channels of the form \ and obtain the structures of these three types of (...) local quantum channels. Moreover, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a quantum state to be transformed into a CC state by a specific local channel \ in terms of the structure of the input quantum state. Lastly, as applications of the obtained results, we present a classification of local quantum channels \ and describe the quantum states which are transformed as CC ones by the corresponding local quantum channel. (shrink)
Generalized Quantum Theory seeks to explain and predict quantum-like phenomena in areas usually outside the scope of quantum physics, such as biology and psychology. It draws on fundamental theories and uses the algebraic formalism of quantum theory that is used in the study of observable physical matter such as photons, electrons, etc. In contrast to quantum theory proper, GQT is a very generalized form that does not allow for the full application of formalism. For instance neither a commutator, such as (...) Planck’s constant, nor any additive operations are defined, which precludes the usage of a full Hilbert-space formalism. But it is a formalized phenomenological theory that is applicable whenever the core element of a quantum theory needs to be captured, namely in the presence of incompatible or non-commuting operations. As a consequence, it also predicts nonlocal, generalized entanglement correlations in systems other than proper quantum systems. In this paper we summarize the specific scientific evidence relating to the quantum-like mental, behavioral and physiological nonlocal correlations. Such non-local, generalized entanglement correlations are expected, both in space and time, between subsystems of a larger system, whenever observables pertaining to the global system are incompatible or complementary to observables pertaining to subsystems, as predicted by GQT. The result is a coherent explanation of a significant amount of controversial and seemingly weird occurrences that cannot be explained by classical physical laws. This review also offers a new perspective of the human mind’s potential. (shrink)
For about four decades data suggestive of correlations between functional states of two separated brains, not mediated by sensory or other known mechanisms, were reported, but the experimental evidence is still scarce and controversial. In this paper we briefly review studies in which one member of a pair of human subjects was physically stimulated and synchronous correlates were searched for in the brain electrical activity of the other, non-stimulated subject. We give a comprehensive account of our study of dyadic (...) EEG correlations, discussing pros and contras of its design, and we review parallel and follow-up studies on the same topic carried out elsewhere. Possible directions of future research are discussed and novel experimental paradigms are proposed. (shrink)
The difficulty of making reliable interpretation from a dense cloud of unreliable correlations means that the grounds for making a testable or brain-based, theory of intelligence remain very shaky. We briefly discuss the conceptual and methodological problems that arise and suggest one possible alternative interpretation of the data.
This article sets forth and discusses the Ithaca Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Section 1 presents the standard formalism of quantum mechanics and the measurement problem. Section 2 sketches Everett's interpretation as a preamble to IIQM. Section 3 sets out IIQM's central claim: it is possible to make sense of quantum mechanics by taking as the proper subject of physics the correlations among subsystems. Section 4 introduces a theorem of quantum mechanics, the SSC theorem, which supports this claim. Section 5 (...) contends that at least two problems exist with IIQM, and one serious objection against it. Section 6 discusses a strategy based on relational probabilities to go around the objection. /// Este artículo presenta y discute la Interpretación de la Mecánica Cuántica de Ithaca. La sección 1 expone el formalismo estándar de la mecánica cuántica y el problema de la medición. La sección 2 bosqueja la interpretación de Everett como preámbulo a la IIQM. La sección 3 plantea la tesis central de la IIQM: es posible dar sentido a la mecánica cuántica tomando como sujeto propio de la física las correlaciones entre subsistemas. La sección 4 expone el teorema SSC de la mecánica cuántica que sustenta esta tesis. En la sección 5 se sostiene que existen al menos dos problemas con la IIQM, y una seria objeción en su contra. Para sortear esta objeción, la sección 6 discute una estrategia basada en probabilidades relacionales. (shrink)
Corresponding correlations is a method that allows us to infer formal causation from correlational data. In this paper, causal terms are traced to their philosophical and etymological roots. It is argued that causes are parts of their mutual whole . Nominalism, normal distributions and disjunctive causes are linked. Causal manifolds and sampling by potential are used to model conjunctive causes. Corresponding correlations are then demonstrated through simulations, in which causal relations are differentiated from spurious correlations. An algebraic (...) method for unraveling confounded variables is presented. Distinctions between laws and causes are made and related to corresponding correlations. The conclusion is that corresponding correlations should be a significant advance in causal inference. (shrink)