36 found
Order:
See also
Cristian Timmermann
University of Chile
  1. Epistemic Ignorance, Poverty and the COVID-19 Pandemic.Cristian Timmermann - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12.
    In various responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, we can observe insufficient sensitivity towards the needs and circumstances of poorer citizens. Particularly in a context of high inequality, policy makers need to engage with the wider public in debates and consultations to gain better insights in the realities of the worst-off within their jurisdiction. When consultations involve members of traditionally underrepresented groups, these are not only more inclusive, which is in itself an ethical aim, but pool ideas and observations from a (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  42
    Reseña: LOEWE D Ética y coronavirus. [REVIEW]Cristian Timmermann - forthcoming - Acta Bioethica.
    Reseña del libro: Daniel Loewe (2020), Ética y coronavirus. Santiago de Chile: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Contributive Justice: An Exploration of a Wider Provision of Meaningful Work.Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - Social Justice Research 31 (1):85-111.
    Extreme inequality of opportunity leads to a number of social tensions, inefficiencies and injustices. One issue of increasing concern is the effect inequality is having on people’s fair chances of attaining meaningful work, thus limiting opportunities to make a significant positive contribution to society and reducing the chances of living a flourishing life and developing their potential. On a global scale we can observe an increasingly uneven provision of meaningful work, raising a series of ethical concerns that need detailed examination. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  4.  80
    Agroecology as a Vehicle for Contributive Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (3):523-538.
    Agroecology has been criticized for being more labor-intensive than other more industrialized forms of agriculture. We challenge the assertion that labor input in agriculture has to be generally minimized and argue that besides quantity of work one should also consider the quality of work involved in farming. Early assessments on work quality condemned the deskilling of the rural workforce, whereas later criticisms have concentrated around issues related to fair trade and food sovereignty. We bring into the discussion the concept of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  5.  42
    Sharing in or Benefiting From Scientific Advancement?Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):111-133.
    The intellectual property regimes we have currently in place are heavily under attack. One of the points of criticism is the interaction between two elements of article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the widely discussed issue of being able to benefit from scientific progress and the less argued for position of having a right to take part in scientific enterprises. To shine light on the question if we should balance the two elements or prioritize one of them, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  6.  97
    Ethical Issues Involving Long-Term Land Leases: A Soil Sciences Perspective.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2019 - In Eija Vinnari & Markus Vinnari (eds.), Sustainable governance and management of food systems: ethical perspectives. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 287-292.
    As populations grow and arable land becomes increasingly scarce, large-scale long- term land leases are signed at a growing rate. Countries and investors with large amounts of financial resources and a strong agricultural industry seek long-term land leases for agricultural exploitation or investment purposes. Leaders of financially poorer countries often advertise such deals as a fast way to attract foreign capital. Much has been said about the short-term social costs these types of leases involve, however, less has been said about (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Food Sovereignty and Consumer Sovereignty: Two Antagonistic Goals?Cristian Timmermann, Georges Félix & Pablo Tittonell - 2018 - Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 42 (3):274-298.
    The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty, and vice versa. The aim of this article is to examine the different sets of demands that the two ideals of sovereignty bring about, analyze in how far these different demands can stand in constructive relations with each other (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Adapting Food Production to Climate Change: An Inclusive Approach.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2015 - Climate Change and Human Rights: The 2015 Paris Conference and the Task of Protecting People on a Warming Planet.
    On why agricultural innovation from the Global South can and should be used to adapt food production to climate change. Discussed on hand of three cases studies.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Limiting and Facilitating Access to Innovations in Medicine and Agriculture: A Brief Exposition of the Ethical Arguments.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-20.
    Taking people’s longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common. -/- Since many of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  10. Fair Agricultural Innovation for a Changing Climate.Zoë Robaey & Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - In Erinn Gilson & Sarah Kenehan (eds.), Food, Environment and Climate Change. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield International. pp. 213-230.
    Agricultural innovation happens at different scales and through different streams. In the absence of a common global research agenda, decisions on which innovations are brought to existence, and through which methods, are taken with insufficient view on how innovation affects social relations, the environment, and future food production. Mostly, innovations are considered from the standpoint of economic efficiency, particularly in relationship to creating jobs for technology-exporting countries. Increasingly, however, the realization that innovations cannot be successful on their technical prowess alone (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  7
    Pandemic Preparedness and Cooperative Justice.Cristian Timmermann - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    By examining the global public good nature of pandemic preparedness we can identify key social justice issues that need to be confronted to increase citizens’ voluntary compliance with prevention and mitigation measures. As people tend to cooperate on a voluntary basis only with systems they consider fair, it becomes difficult to ensure compliance with public health measures in a context of extreme inequality. Among the major inequalities that need to be addressed we can find major differences in the extensiveness and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Global Justice Considerations for a Proposed “Climate Impact Fund”.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):182-196.
    One of the most attractive, but nevertheless highly controversial proposals to alleviate the negative effects of today’s international patent regime is the Health Impact Fund (HIF). Although the HIF has been drafted to facilitate access to medicines and boost pharmaceutical research, we have analysed the burdens for the global poor a similar proposal designed to promote the use and development of climate-friendly technologies would have. Drawing parallels from the access to medicines debate, we suspect that an analogous “Climate Impact Fund” (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  13. Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health”, Brussels, September 2011.Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann - 2011 - Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims that the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14.  52
    Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2013 - Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47-73.
    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at all, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  15. Agrobiodiversität, das Gemeinschaftserbe-Prinzip und Marktanreize.Cristian Timmermann & Zoë Robaey - 2016 - In Barbara Brandl & Stephan Schleissing (eds.), Biopatente – Saatgut als Ware und als öffentliches Gut. Nomos. pp. 109-131.
    Die Diversität von Nahrungspflanzen, ein Ergebnis Jahrtausende langer Zuchtbemühungen, ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten dramatisch zurückgegangen. Schätzungen zufolge machen von den über 7000 Nahrungspflanzenarten ganze 103 Sorten 90% der Nahrungsmittelproduktion aus. Dieser Verlust könnte in Zukunft gewaltige negative Auswirkungen auf die Nahrungsmittelsicherheit haben, da die Biodiversität eine zentrale Rolle bei der Absorbierung biotischer und abiotischer Stressfaktoren spielt, die auf die Pflanzen wirken. Darüber hinaus stellt der Verlust eine bedeutende Verarmung nicht nur des Pools genetischer Ressourcen dar, die zukünftigen Generationen zur (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Harvesting the Uncollected Fruits of Other People’s Intellectual Labour.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - Acta Bioethica 23 (2):259-269.
    Intellectual property regimes necessarily create artificial scarcity leading to wastage, both by blocking follow-up research and hindering access to those who are only able to pay less then the actual retail price. After revising the traditional arguments to hinder access to people’s intellectual labour we will examine why we should be more open to allow free-riding of inventive efforts, especially in cases where innovators have not secured the widest access to the fruits of their research and failed to cooperate with (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  74
    Agrobiodiversity Under Different Property Regimes.Cristian Timmermann & Zoë Robaey - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):285-303.
    Having an adequate and extensively recognized resource governance system is essential for the conservation and sustainable use of crop genetic resources in a highly populated planet. Despite the widely accepted importance of agrobiodiversity for future plant breeding and thus food security, there is still pervasive disagreement at the individual level on who should own genetic resources. The aim of the article is to provide conceptual clarification on the following concepts and their relation to agrobiodiversity stewardship: open access, commons, private property, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  18.  55
    Book Review: PATEL R. & MOORE J.W. A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet. [REVIEW]Cristian Timmermann - 2019 - Acta Bioethica 25 (1):141-142.
  19.  93
    Food Security as a Global Public Good.Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - In José Luis Vivero-Pol, Tomaso Ferrando, Olivier de Schutter & Ugo Mattei (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Food as a Commons. London: Routledge. pp. 85-99.
    Food security brings a number of benefits to humanity from which nobody can be excluded and which can be simultaneously enjoyed by all. An economic understanding of the concept sees food security qualify as a global public good. However, there are four other ways of understanding a public good which are worthy of attention. A normative public good is a good from which nobody ought to be excluded. Alternatively, one might acknowledge the benevolent character of a public good. Others have (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. An Assessment of Prominent Proposals to Amend Intellectual Property Regimes Using a Human Rights Framework.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - la Propiedad Inmaterial 18:221-253.
    A wide range of proposals to alleviate the negative effects of intellectual property regimes is currently under discussion. This article offers a critical evaluation of six of these proposals: the Health Impact Fund, the Access to Knowledge movement, prize systems, open innovation models, compulsory licenses and South-South collaborations. An assessment on how these proposals target the human rights affected by intellectual property will be provided. The conflicting human rights that will be individually discussed are the rights: to benefit from one’s (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21. Food Sovereignty and the Global South.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2016 - In Paul B. Thompson & David M. Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer.
    Farmers’ organizations all over the world are very well aware that in order to build and retain a critical mass with sufficient bargaining power to democratically influence local governments and international organizations they will have to unite by identifying common goals and setting aside their differences. After decades of local movements and struggles, farmers’ organizations around the globe found in the concept of “food sovereignty” the normative framework they were long searching for. The broadness of the concept has had a (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  34
    The Precautionary Principle and the Social Institution of Blood Donation.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (3):52-54.
    As a policy instrument that is deeply rooted in technology assessment, the precautionary principle examines the effects of a given object on humans and the environment. In practice the principle is rarely used to analyze the effects of our safety measures on the object itself or the way it is produced. Yet it is exactly in the effect on the blood procurement system that blood safety regulations based on the precautionary principle have to be particularly careful, as the vast majority (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  80
    The Health Impact Fund and the Right to Participate in the Advancement of Science.Cristian Timmermann - 2012 - European Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1).
    Taking into consideration the extremely harsh public health conditions faced by the majority of the world population, the Health Impact Fund (HIF) proposal seeks to make the intellectual property regimes more in line with human rights obligations. While prioritizing access to medicines and research on neglected diseases, the HIF makes many compromises in order to be conceived as politically feasible and to retain a compensation character that makes its implementation justified solely on basis of negative duties. Despite that current global (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  89
    Registro de variedades según el modelo de creative commons.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - la Jornada Ecológica 212:18-19.
    Hoy en día, el fuerte consagramiento y la expansión de la propiedad privada ha llevado al olvido a muchos métodos de gobernar recursos que no están basados en la exclusividad. Frecuentemente se escucha hablar de la propiedad como un derecho de dominio absoluto, algo inviolable que no conlleva obligaciones. Sin embargo, desde los inicios de la historia jurídica podemos observar que los derechos de propiedad han estado habitualmente acompañados de obligaciones y limitaciones, además de un mandato moral solicitando que el (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  59
    Pesticides and the Patent Bargain.Cristian Timmermann - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (1):1-19.
    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be able to make free use of the publicly available knowledge described in the patent document, which is deemed useful. Resistance to pesticides destroys however the usefulness of information listed in patent documents over time. The invention, here pesticides, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26.  26
    A Latin American Perspective to Agricultural Ethics.Cristian Timmermann - 2019 - In Eduardo Rivera-López & Martin Hevia (eds.), Controversies in Latin American Bioethics. Cham: Springer. pp. 203-217.
    The mixture of political, social, cultural and economic environments in Latin America, together with the enormous diversity in climates, natural habitats and biological resources the continent offers, make the ethical assessment of agricultural policies extremely difficult. Yet the experience gained while addressing the contemporary challenges the region faces, such as rapid urbanization, loss of culinary and crop diversity, extreme inequality, disappearing farming styles, water and land grabs, malnutrition and the restoration of the rule of law and social peace, can be (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - Dissertation, Wageningen University
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28.  80
    Addressing a Duty to Preserve Biodiversity, Not Genetic Integrity.Cristian Timmermann - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):262-264.
    Rohwer and Marris (2015) question the existence of a prima facie duty to preserve genetic integrity leaving open the question of what we should preserve. Many of the arguments used to justify their position could set the platform to defend a duty to preserve the diversity of both wild and domesticated species. In times where agricultural land covers a third of world’s land area and major efforts are undertaken to green urban areas a defense of biodiversity could benefit hugely by (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  18
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property Rights and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2012 - In Thomas Potthast & Simon Meisch (eds.), Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Ethical Perspectives on Land Use and Food Production. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 75-79.
    International negotiations on anthropogenic climate change are far from running smoothly. Opinions are deeply divided on what are the respective responsibilities of developed and developing countries with regard to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the alleviation of the negative effects of global warming. A major bone of contention concerns the role of intellectual property rights (especially patents) in the development and diffusion of climate-friendly technologies. While developing countries consider IPRs as a formidable barrier to the rapid transfer and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30.  10
    Citizen Science for Biomedical Research and Contributive Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (8):60-62.
    Engaging citizens in science projects has a number of epistemic benefits in terms of improving scientific out- comes and adjusting research to develop innovative solu- tions that are likelier to be used. Yet the emphasis on the epistemic benefits of citizen science projects and its risks, such as exploitation and a lack of benefit-sharing, a fail- ure to sufficiently inform participants of possible hazards and privacy issues, and unacknowledged authorship, which we can find in Wiggins and Wilbanks (2019), should not (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  17
    Climate-Ready GM Crops, Intellectual Property and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann, Henk van den Belt & Michiel Korthals - 2010 - In Carlos Maria Romeo Casabona, Leire Escajedo San Epifanio & Aitziber Emaldi Cirión (eds.), Global food security: ethical and legal challenges. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 153-158.
    So-called climate-ready GM crops can be of great help in adapting to a changing climate. Climate change, caused in great part by anthropogenic greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution by the developed world, is felt much stronger in the developing world, causing unexpected droughts and floods that will cause large harvest loss, leading to more hunger and malnutrition, rising death tolls and disease vulnerability. The current intellectual property regime (IPR) strikes an unfair balance between profit oriented (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32.  37
    Language Impairment and Legal Literacy: Is a Degree of Perfectionism Unavoidable?Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (1):43-45.
    Wszalek offers a detailed examination of the challenges involved in assisting people with language and communication impairments in the comprehension of legal language and concepts (LLC). If we settle for a minimum threshold of LLC comprehension, we are likely to observe that some people will not meet this threshold due to personal choices, such as not having practiced reading sufficiently or having avoided intellectually stimulating social interactions.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  28
    Embracing the Nature of Complex Interactions: Climate Change and Human Survival: Anthony McMichael with Alistair Woodward and Cameron Muir: Climate Change and the Health of Nations: Famines, Fevers, and the Fate of Populations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 392pp, £29.99 HB. [REVIEW]Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - Metascience 27 (1):155-157.
  34.  28
    Justifying Pro-Poor Innovation in the Life Sciences: A Brief Overview of the Ethical Landscape.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - In Helena Röcklinsberg & Per Sandin (eds.), The Ethics of Consumption. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 341-346.
    An idea is a public good. The use of an idea by one person does not hinder others to benefit from the same idea. However in order to generate new life-saving ideas, e.g. inventions in the life sciences, a huge amount of human and material resources are needed. Powerful, but highly criticized tools to speed up the rate of innovation are exclusive rights, most prominently the use of patents and plant breeders’ rights. Exclusive rights leave by nature a number of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems: Ethical Perspectives.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - forthcoming - Wageningen Academic Publishers.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  9
    Social Justice and Agricultural Innovation.Cristian Timmermann - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    Employing a social justice framework, this book examines the effects of innovation incentives and policies in agriculture. It addresses access to the objects of innovation, the direction of science and the type of innovations that are available, opportunities to participate in research and development, as well as effects on future generations. The book examines the potential value of preventive and reconciliatory measures, drawing on concepts from procedural and restorative justice. As such it offers a comprehensive analysis of the main social (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark