43 found
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  1.  5
    Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation.Colin Aitken, Amalia Amaya, Kevin D. Ashley, Carla Bagnoli, Giorgio Bongiovanni, Bartosz Brożek, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Samuele Chilovi, Marcello Di Bello, Jaap Hage, Kenneth Einar Himma, Lewis A. Kornhauser, Emiliano Lorini, Fabrizio Macagno, Andrei Marmor, J. J. Moreso, Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor, Burkhard Schafer, Chiara Valentini, Bart Verheij, Douglas Walton & Wojciech Załuski (eds.) - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  2. The Role of Beliefs in Goal Dynamics: Prolegomena to a Constructive Theory of Intentions.Cristiano Castelfranchi & Fabio Paglieri - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):237-263.
    In this article we strive to provide a detailed and principled analysis of the role of beliefs in goal processing—that is, the cognitive transition that leads from a mere desire to a proper intention. The resulting model of belief-based goal processing has also relevant consequences for the analysis of intentions, and constitutes the necessary core of a constructive theory of intentions, i.e. a framework that not only analyzes what an intention is, but also explains how it becomes what it is. (...)
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  3.  39
    Why Argue? Towards a Cost–Benefit Analysis of Argumentation.Cristiano Castelfranchi & Fabio Paglieri - 2010 - Argument and Computation 1 (1):71-91.
    This article proposes a cost-benefit analysis of argumentation, with the aim of highlighting the strategic considerations that govern the agent's decision to argue or not. In spite of its paramount importance, the topic of argumentative decision-making has not received substantial attention in argumentation theories so far. We offer an explanation for this lack of consideration and propose a tripartite taxonomy and detailed description of the strategic reasons considered by arguers in their decision-making: benefits, costs, and dangers. We insist that the (...)
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  4. Cognitive and Social Action.Rosaria Conte & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1995
  5. Expectancy and Emotion.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The mind is a powerful anticipatory device. It frequently makes predictions about the future, telling us not only how the world might or will be, but also how it should be - or better - how we would like it to be. This book explores anticipation-based emotions - the emotions associated with the interaction between 'what is' and 'what is not '.
     
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  6.  54
    The Cognitive-Motivational Compound of Emotional Experience.Cristiano Castelfranchi & Maria Miceli - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (3):223-231.
    We present an analysis of emotional experience in terms of beliefs and desires viewed as its minimal cognitive constituents. We argue that families of emotions can be identified because their members share some of these constituents. To document this claim, we analyze one family of emotions—which includes the feeling of inferiority, admiration, envy, and jealousy—trying to show that the distinctiveness of each emotion is due to the specific compound of beliefs and desires it implies, whereas the kinship among related emotions (...)
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  7. The Cognitive Structure of Surprise: Looking for Basic Principles.Emiliano Lorini & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):133-149.
    We develop a conceptual and formal clarification of notion of surprise as a belief-based phenomenon by exploring a rich typology. Each kind of surprise is associated with a particular phase of cognitive processing and involves particular kinds of epistemic representations (representations and expectations under scrutiny, implicit beliefs, presuppositions). We define two main kinds of surprise: mismatch-based surprise and astonishment. In the central part of the paper we suggest how a formal model of surprise can be integrated with a formal model (...)
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  8.  56
    Anger and Its Cousins.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (1):13-26.
    The widespread assumption that anger is a response to wrongdoing and motivates people to sanction it, as well as the lack of distinction between resentment and indignation, obscure notable differences among these three emotions in terms of their specific beliefs, goals, and action tendencies, their nonmoral or moral character, and the kinds of moral claim implied. We provide a cognitive-motivational analysis of anger, resentment, and indignation, showing that, while sharing a common core, they are distinguishable from one another because they (...)
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  9. Thinking as the Control of Imagination: A Conceptual Framework for Goal-Directed Systems.Giovanni Pezzulo & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2009 - Psychological Research 73 (4):559-577.
    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmentalpathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internalmodeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple actionalternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of executivefunctions such as inhibition, the monitoring of progresses, and working memory, arerequired for this system to (...)
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  10. A Convention or (Tacit) Agreement Betwixt Us: On Reliance and its Normative Consequences.Luca Tummolini, Giulia Andrighetto, Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte - 2013 - Synthese 190 (4):585-618.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify what kind of normativity characterizes a convention. First, we argue that conventions have normative consequences because they always involve a form of trust and reliance. We contend that it is by reference to a moral principle impinging on these aspects (i.e. the principle of Reliability) that interpersonal obligations and rights originate from conventional regularities. Second, we argue that the system of mutual expectations presupposed by conventions is a source of agreements. Agreements stemming (...)
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  11.  54
    The Envious Mind.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (3):449-479.
  12.  50
    Intentions in the Light of Goals.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):103-116.
    This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various steps of goal-processing and intention creation, as the final outcome of goal-driven action generation. Intention theory has to be founded on goal theory: intentions require means-end reasoning and planning, conflict resolution, coherence. The process of intention formation and intentional action execution is strictly based on specific sets of beliefs (predictions, evaluations, calculation of costs, responsibility beliefs, competence, etc.). The origin of an intention is not necessarily a “desire” (which is just a (...)
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  13.  96
    Hope: The Power of Wish and Possibility.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2010 - Theory and Psychology 20 (2):251-276.
    This work proposes an analysis of the cognitive and motivational components of hope, its basic properties, and the affective dispositions and behaviors it is likely to induce. In our view current treatments of hope do not fully account for its specificity, by making hope overlap with positive expectation or some specification of positive expectation. In contrast, we attempt to highlight the distinctive features of hope, pointing to its differences from positive expectation, as well as from a sense of successful agency, (...)
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  14.  31
    Contempt and Disgust: The Emotions of Disrespect.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2018 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 48 (2):205-229.
    Contempt and disgust share a number of features which distinguish them from other hostile emotions: they both present two distinct facets—a nonmoral facet and a moral one; they both imply a negative evaluation of the dispositional kind as well as disrespect towards the target of the feeling; and they trigger avoidance and exclusion action tendencies. However, while sharing a common core, contempt and disgust are in our view distinct emotions, qualified by different cognitive-motivational features. Contempt is felt exclusively towards human (...)
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  15.  65
    Minds as Social Institutions.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2014 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):121-143.
    I will first discuss how social interactions organize, coordinate, and specialize as “artifacts,” tools; how these tools are not only for coordination but for achieving something, for some outcome (goal/function), for a collective work. In particular, I will argue that these artifacts specify (predict and prescribe) the mental contents of the participants, both in terms of beliefs and acceptances and in terms of motives and plans. We have to revise the behavioristic view of “scripts” and “roles”; when we play a (...)
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  16.  34
    Is It a Promise or a Threat?Cristiano Castelfranchi & Marco Guerini - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):277-311.
    In this paper we analyse the concepts of Promise and Threat and their inter-relations. Our objective is to study the uses of P and T in persuasion and to shed some light on related concepts such asrequesting,ordering,giving prizes,punishing,etc.First, we show that some Ps and Ts are used for persuasion and some are conditional in nature. Using general definitions of P and T and a broad notion of persuasion, four different typologies of P and T are introduced. They are distinguished on (...)
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  17.  48
    How to Silence One's Conscience: Cognitive Defenses Against the Feeling of Guilt.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1998 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (3):287–318.
    This work presents an analysis of the feeling of guilt and in particular of the cognitive defenses against it. It shows how the need to avoid or mitigate the feeling, with the suffering implied, affects the perception and judgment of oneself and others. It is in fact claimed that to copy with their guilt people try to alter the appraisal processes implied by the emotion. Once described the main cognitive components of the feeling of guilt, an analysis is offered of (...)
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  18.  2
    The Micro-Macro Constitution of Power.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:208-265.
    Our focus is the dialectic relationship between personal, social, collective, and institutional powers; that is the Proteus-like nature of power; “how power produces power”, how one form of power founds another form of it. Even the magic, “count as”, performative power of institutional acts is given from the institution to the lay-agent, but hidden is given to the institution by the acceptance and conformity of the mass of people. We provide an ‘ontology’ of personal powers, deriving from them the most (...)
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  19.  87
    Forgiveness: A Cognitive-Motivational Anatomy.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2011 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (3):260-290.
    This work aims to identify the constituents of forgiveness in terms of the forgiver's beliefs and motivating goals. After addressing the antecedents of forgiveness—a perceived wrong—and distinguishing the notion of mere harm from that of offense, we describe the victim's typical retributive reactions—revenge and resentment—and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Then we focus on the forgiver's mind-set, pointing to the relationship between forgiveness and acceptance of the wrong, addressing the forgiver's motivating goals, and discussing both their self-interested and altruistic implications. (...)
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  20.  57
    Artificial Liars: Why Computers Will (Necessarily) Deceive Us and Each Other. [REVIEW]Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):113-119.
    In H-C interaction, computer supported cooperation andorganisation, computer mediated commerce, intelligentdata bases, teams of robots. etc. there will bepurposively deceiving computers. In particular, withinthe Agent-based paradigm we will have ``deceivingagents''''. Several kinds of deception will be present ininteraction with the user, or among people viacomputer, or among artificial agents not only formalicious reasons (war, commerce, fraud, etc.) butalso for goodwill and in our interest. Social control,trust, and moral aspects in artificial societies willbe the focus of theoretical worm as well as (...)
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  21.  34
    From Conventions to Prescriptions. Towards an Integrated View of Norms.Rosaria Conte & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (4):323-340.
    In this paper, a model of norms as cognitive objects is applied to establish connections between social conventions and prescriptions. Relevant literature on this issue, especially found in AI and the social sciences, will be shown to suffer from a dychotomic view: a conventionalistic view proposed by rationality and AI scientists; and a prescriptive view proposed by some philosophers of law (Kelsen 1934/1979, Hart 1961, Ross, 1958).In the present work, the attempt is made to fill the gap between these views (...)
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  22.  53
    A Cognitive Approach to Values.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1989 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (2):169–193.
  23.  64
    Alan Turing’s “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):293-299.
  24.  26
    The Mental Path of Norms.Rosaria Conte & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2006 - Ratio Juris 19 (4):501-517.
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  25.  29
    Trust, Relevance, and Arguments.Fabio Paglieri & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2014 - Argument and Computation 5 (2-3):216-236.
    This paper outlines an integrated approach to trust and relevance with respect to arguments: in particular, it is suggested that trust in relevance has a central role in argumentation. We first distinguish two types of argumentative relevance: internal relevance, i.e. the extent to which a premise has a bearing on its purported conclusion, and external relevance, i.e. a measure of how much a whole argument is pertinent to the matter under discussion, in the broader dialogical context where it is proposed. (...)
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  26.  6
    Arguments as Belief Structures: Towards a Toulmin Layout of Doxastic Dynamics?Fabio Paglieri & Cristiano Castelfranchi - unknown
    Argumentation is a dialogical attempt to bring about a desired change in the beliefs of another agent – that is, to trigger a specific belief revision process in the mind of such agent. However, so far formal models of belief revision widely neglected any systematic comparison with argumentation theories, to the point that even the simplest argumentation structures cannot be captured within such models. In this essay, we endeavour to bring together argumentation and belief revision in the same formal framework, (...)
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  27.  19
    Cognition, Joint Action and Collective Intentionality.Luca Tummolini & Cristiano Castelfranchi - unknown
  28.  15
    Formalising the Informal?Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2003 - Journal of Applied Logic 1 (1-2):47-92.
  29.  37
    Through the Agents' Minds: Cognitive Mediators of Social Action.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2000 - Mind and Society 1 (1):109-140.
    Thesis: Macro-level social phenomena are implemented through the (social) actions and minds of the individuals. Without an explicit theory of the agents' minds that founds, agents' behavior we cannot understand macro-level social phenomena, and in particular how they work. AntiThesis: Mind is not enough: the theory of individual (social) mind and action is not enough to explain several macro-level social phenomena. First, there are pre-cognitive, objective social structures that constrain the actions of the agents; second, there are emergent, unaware or (...)
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  30. Commentary on "Towards a Design-Based Analysis of Emotional Episodes&Quot.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):129-133.
  31.  29
    Emergent Functionality Among Intelligent Systems: Cooperation Within and Without Minds. [REVIEW]Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte - 1992 - AI and Society 6 (1):78-87.
    In this paper, the current AI view that emergent functionalities apply only to the study of subcognitive agents is questioned; a hypercognitive view of autonomous agents as proposed in some AI subareas is also rejected. As an alternative view, a unified theory of social interaction is proposed which allows for the consideration of both cognitive and extracognitive social relations. A notion of functional effect is proposed, and the application of a formal model of cooperation is illustrated. Functional cooperation shows the (...)
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  32.  39
    Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Social Science: Critical Issues.Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte - 1996 - In N. Jennings & G. O'Hare (eds.), Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Wiley.
  33.  30
    Prescribed Mental Attitudes in Goal-Adoption and Norm-Adoption.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1):37-50.
    The general aim of this work is to show the importance of the adressee's mind as planned by the author of a speech act or of a norm; in particular, how important are the expected motivations for goal adoption. We show that speech acts differ from one another for the different motivations the speaker is attempting to obtain from the hearer. The description of the participants' social positions is not sufficient. Important conflicts can arise which are not relative to what (...)
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  34.  68
    Acceptance as a Positive Attitude.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2001 - Philosophical Explorations 4 (2):112 – 134.
    We argue in favor of the adaptive value of acceptance and that it deserves a definite status within the 'positive paradigm'. Acceptance currently suffers from ambiguous connotations because of its lack of optimistic biases and its similarity to resignation. We endeavor to show that acceptance and resignation are distinct attitudes by exploring their relationships with various phenomena-frustration, disappointment, expectation, positive thinking, replanning, and accuracy. The resulting distinguishing features of acceptance-thriving versus returning to baseline; realistic optimism versus hopelessness; persistence and flexible (...)
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  35.  32
    More Than Control Freaks: Evaluative and Motivational Functions of Goals.Fabio Paglieri & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):35-36.
    True to its sensorimotor inspiration, Hurley's shared circuits model (SCM) describes goal-states only within a homeostatic mechanism for action control, neglecting to consider other functions of goals control freaks.”.
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  36.  18
    Augmented Societies with Mirror Worlds.Alessandro Ricci, Luca Tummolini & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):745-752.
    Computing systems can function as augmentation of individual humans as well as of human societies. In this contribution, we take mirror worlds as a conceptual blueprint to envision future smart environments in which the physical and the virtual layers are blended into each other. We suggest that pervasive computing technologies can be used to create a coupling between these layers, so that actions or, more generally, events in the physical layer would have an effect in the virtual layer and viceversa. (...)
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  37.  50
    Symposium on ''Cognition and Rationality: Part I'' Relationships Between Rational Decisions, Human Motives, and Emotions. [REVIEW]Cristiano Castelfranchi, Francesca Giardini & Francesca Marzo - 2006 - Mind and Society 5 (2):173-197.
    In the decision-making and rationality research field, rational decision theory (RDT) has always been the main framework, thanks to the elegance and complexity of its mathematical tools. Unfortunately, the formal refinement of the theory is not accompanied by a satisfying predictive accuracy, thus there is a big gap between what is predicted by the theory and the behaviour of real subjects. Here we propose a new foundation of the RDT, which has to be based on a cognitive architecture for reason-based (...)
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  38.  50
    The Plausibility of Defensive Projection: A Cognitive Analysis.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2003 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (3):279–301.
    This paper provides an analysis of the cognitive processes implied in the ego defense known as projection. Projection is first placed in the context of the general cognitive processes of attribution and ascription. Then we address defensive projection, and identify its distinctive features. In particular, whereas general projection consists in the ascription of one's own mental attitudes to others, defensive projection implies one's rejection of the ascribed mental states, and ascription is a means for supporting this rejection. We try to (...)
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  39.  14
    Pretense as Deceptive Behavioral Communication.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2016 - Pragmatics and Cognition 23 (1):16-52.
    Our claim in this paper is that a theory of “pretense” (in all its crucial uses in human society and cognition) can be built only if it is grounded on the general theory of “behavioral implicit communication” (BIC), which is not to be confused with non-verbal communication (with distinct notions being frequently conflated, such as “signs” vs. “messages”, or goal as “intention” vs. goal as “function”). Pretense presupposes some BIC-based human interaction, where a normal, practical behavior is used for signifying (...)
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  40.  20
    Consciousness or Consciousnesses? Modeling for Disentangling.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):27-30.
  41.  1
    Augmented societies with mirror worlds.Alessandro Ricci, Luca Tummolini & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2017 - Ai and Society 34 (4):745-752.
    Computing systems can function as augmentation of individual humans as well as of human societies. In this contribution, we take mirror worlds as a conceptual blueprint to envision future smart environments in which the physical and the virtual layers are blended into each other. We suggest that pervasive computing technologies can be used to create a coupling between these layers, so that actions or, more generally, events in the physical layer would have an effect in the virtual layer and viceversa. (...)
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  42. Healing Social Sciences’ Psycho-Phobia: Founding Social Action and Structure on Mental Representations.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 1st ed. 2015 - In Emiliano Lorini & Andreas Herzig (eds.), The Cognitive Foundations of Group Attitudes and Social Interaction. Springer Verlag.
  43. The Goals of Norms.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2018 - In Colin Aitken, Amalia Amaya, Kevin D. Ashley, Carla Bagnoli, Giorgio Bongiovanni, Bartosz Brożek, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Samuele Chilovi, Marcello Di Bello, Jaap Hage, Kenneth Einar Himma, Lewis A. Kornhauser, Emiliano Lorini, Fabrizio Macagno, Andrei Marmor, J. J. Moreso, Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor, Burkhard Schafer, Chiara Valentini, Bart Verheij, Douglas Walton & Wojciech Załuski (eds.), Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation. Springer Verlag. pp. 173-190.
    Norms are tools for manipulating human conduct through the manipulation of our goals and choices. It is impossible to understand the efficacy and working of norms without a modeling of how Ns work in our mind and how do they cut or give us goals. They are built for that. Thus, a sophisticated ontology of goals is necessary. Ns also have goals and have “functions”: a different kind of goal. We do not understand and intend all the functions of Ns. (...)
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