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Cristina Richie [24]Cristina S. Richie [1]
  1.  42
    Environmental sustainability and the carbon emissions of pharmaceuticals.Cristina Richie - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    The US healthcare industry emits an estimated 479 million tonnes of carbon dioxide each year; nearly 8% of the country’s total emissions. When assessed by sector, hospital care, clinical services, medical structures, and pharmaceuticals are the top emitters. For 15 years, research has been dedicated to the medical structures and equipment that contribute to carbon emissions. More recently, hospital care and clinical services have been examined. However, the carbon of pharmaceuticals is understudied. This article will focus on the carbon emissions (...)
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  2.  15
    “Green informed consent” in the classroom, clinic, and consultation room.Cristina Richie - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (4):507-515.
    The carbon emissions of global health care activities make up 4–5% of total world emissions, placing it on par with the food sector. Carbon emissions are particularly relevant for health care because of climate change health hazards. Doctors and health care professionals must connect their health care delivery with carbon emissions and minimize resource use when possible as a part of their obligation to do no harm. Given that reducing carbon is a global ethical priority, the informed consent process in (...)
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  3.  17
    Reimagining research ethics to include environmental sustainability: a principled approach, including a case study of data-driven health research.Gabrielle Samuel & Cristina Richie - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (6):428-433.
    In this paper we argue the need to reimagine research ethics frameworks to include notions of environmental sustainability. While there have long been calls for healthcareethics frameworks and decision-making to include aspects of sustainability, less attention has focused on howresearchethics frameworks could address this. To do this, we first describe the traditional approach to research ethics, which often relies on individualised notions of risk. We argue that we need to broaden this notion of individual risk to consider issues associated with (...)
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  4.  21
    Environmentally sustainable development and use of artificial intelligence in health care.Cristina Richie - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (5):547-555.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 5, Page 547-555, June 2022.
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  5.  15
    Environmentally sustainable development and use of artificial intelligence in health care.Cristina Richie - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (5):547-555.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 5, Page 547-555, June 2022.
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  6.  17
    Carbon Emissions from Overuse of U.S. Health Care: Medical and Ethical Problems.Cassandra Thiel & Cristina Richie - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (4):10-16.
    The United States health care industry is the second largest in the world, expending an estimated 479 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide per year, nearly 8 percent of the country's total emissions. The importance of carbon reduction in health care is slowly being accepted. However, efforts to “green” health care are incomplete since they generally focus on buildings and structures. Yet hospital care and clinical service sectors contribute the most carbon dioxide within the U.S. health care industry, with (...)
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  7.  56
    Voluntary Sterilization for Childfree Women.Cristina Richie - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):36-44.
    Approximately 47 percent of women ages fifteen to forty‐four are currently without children, and slightly more than 20 percent of white women in America will never bear children, the highest percentage in modern history. Many fertile women who are childless are voluntarily so. Although any competent person twenty‐one years or older is legally eligible for voluntary sterilization, many doctors refuse to sterilize childfree women. This essay explores various reasons a woman would want to continue in her childfree lifestyle, evaluates the (...)
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  8.  17
    Can United States Healthcare Become Environmentally Sustainable? Towards Green Healthcare Reform.Cristina Richie - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (4):643-652.
    In 2014, the United States health care industry produced an estimated 480 million metric tons of carbon dioxide ; nearly 8% of the country's total emissions. The importance of sustainability in health care — as a business reliant on fossil fuels for transportation, energy, and operational functioning — is slowly being recognized. These efforts to green health care are incomplete, since they only focus on health care structures. The therapeutic relationship is the essence of health care — not the buildings (...)
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  9.  12
    What would an environmentally sustainable reproductive technology industry look like?Cristina Richie - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):383-387.
  10.  54
    Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.Cristina Richie - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (5):365-371.
    ‘Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people’ writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof. It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I (...)
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  11.  14
    Environmental ethics beyond conferences: A response to the WCB bioethics in Qatar.Cristina Richie - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (7):728-730.
    Rieke van der Graaf, Karin Jongsma, Martine de Vries, Suzanne van de Vathorst, and Ineke Bolt have done well to voice ethical concerns over the decision of the IAB to host the next WCB in Qatar. Conferences should be more sustainable. Yet, attention to the carbon impact of conferences—and, perhaps, any country that a person might travel to for business or pleasure—are only one small part of environmentally responsible citizenship, especially for those trained in ethics and committed to health. Both (...)
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  12.  13
    Principles of green bioethics: sustainability in health care.Cristina Richie - 2019 - East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
    Health care is ubiquitous in the industrialized world. Yet, every medical development, technique, and procedure impacts the environment. Green bioethics synthesizes environmental ethics and biomedical ethics, thus creating an interdisciplinary approach to sustainable health care. Notably, green bioethics addresses not the structure of environmental sustainability in health-care institutions but the sustainability of individual health-care offerings. It parallels traditional biomedical ethics by providing four principles for ethical guidance: distributive justice, resource conservation, simplicity, and ethical economics. Through these four principles, green bioethics (...)
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  13.  19
    Guest Editorial: Sustainability and bioethics: where we have been, where we are, where we are going.Cristina Richie - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (2):82-90.
    Volume 26, Issue 2, June 2020, Page 82-90.
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  14.  11
    Introduction.Cristina Richie - 2022 - Global Bioethics 33 (1):1-3.
    Every day from the moment we wake up until the moment we sleep, we have the option to look outward or look inward. This is more than an outlook; it is also a metaphor. As we – citizens, ethicists,...
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  15.  56
    Not Sick: Liberal, Trans, and Crip Feminist Critiques of Medicalization.Cristina S. Richie - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (3):375-387.
    Medicalization occurs when an aspect of embodied humanity is scrutinized by the medical industry, claimed as pathological, and subsumed under medical intervention. Numerous critiques of medicalization appear in academic literature, often put forth by bioethicists who use a variety of “lenses” to make their case. Feminist critiques of medicalization raise the concerns of the politically disenfranchised, thus seeking to protect women—particularly natal sex women—from medical exploitation. This article will focus on three feminist critiques of medicalization, which offer an alternative narrative (...)
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  16.  12
    Environmental sustainability and the paradox of prevention.Cristina Richie - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    The carbon emissions of global healthcare activities make up 4%–5% of total world emissions, with the majority coming from industrialised countries. The solution to healthcare carbon reduction in these countries, ostensibly, would be preventive healthcare, which is less resource intensive than corrective healthcare in itself and, as a double benefit, reduces carbon by preventing diseases which may require higher healthcare carbon to treat. This leads to a paradox: preventive healthcare is designed to give humans longer, healthier lives. But, by extending (...)
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  17.  19
    A Queer, Feminist Bioethics Critique of Facial Feminization Surgery.Cristina Richie - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (12):33-35.
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  18.  6
    The eco-ethical contribution of Menico Torchio – a forgotten pioneer of European Bioethics.Iva Rincic, Amir Muzur & Cristina Richie - 2023 - Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine 18 (1):1-6.
    Background In 1926, Fritz Jahr described bio-ethics (German: bio-ethik) as “the assumption of moral obligations not only towards humans, but towards all forms of life.” Jahr summarized his philosophy by declaring, “Respect every living being on principle as an end in itself and treat it, if possible, as such!.” Bioethics was thus originally an ethical system concerned with the “problems of interference with other living beings… and generally everything related to the balance of the ecosystem” according to the 1978 Encyclopedia (...)
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  19.  14
    Individual emergency-preparedness efforts: A social justice perspective.Charleen C. McNeill, Cristina Richie & Danita Alfred - 2020 - Nursing Ethics 27 (1):184-193.
    Background:Since 2010, the United States has experienced 228 disasters, affecting over 86 million people. Because of population shifts, the growing number of people living with chronic conditions or disabilities, and the growing number of older citizens living independently, access and service gaps often exist for those without money or other transferable resources. There is a lack of evidence regarding individual community members’ capacity to prepare for emergencies.Research objective:The purpose of this study is to highlight participant experiences in becoming better prepared (...)
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  20.  3
    Harmonising green informed consent with autonomous clinical decision-making: a reply to Resnik and Pugh.Eva Sayone Cohen, Dionne Sofia Kringos, Wouter Johan Karel Hehenkamp & Cristina Richie - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Resnik and Pugh recently explored the ethical implications of routinely integrating environmental concerns into clinical decision-making. While we share their concern for the holistic well-being of patients, our response offers a different clinical and bioethical stance on green informed consent and patient autonomy. Contrary to the authors’ lack of data to support their concerns about provider and patient willingness to engage in climate-related conversations, we provide evidence supporting their sustainability engagement and stress the importance of a proactive, anticipatory approach in (...)
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  21.  89
    An argument against the use of the word ‘homosexual’ in English translations of the bible.Cristina Richie - 2010 - Heythrop Journal 51 (5):723-729.
  22.  11
    An Evangelical Environmental Bioethic: A Proposal.Cristina Richie - 2020 - Ethics and the Environment 25 (2):29.
    Abstract:Increasing attention to climate change and health has re-centered environmental ethics on the medical industry and biomedical ethics on the environment. Yet, without a belief in climate change, there is little reason for sustainability in medicine. In the United States, about one-quarter of all adults self-identify as Evangelical Christians, with a sizable subset of "climate change deniers." In order for millions of Evangelicals to be persuaded about the importance of sustainability in medicine, there must be a theological justification. This article (...)
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  23.  22
    Global Health Care Justice, Delivery Doctors and Assisted Reproduction: Taking a Note From Catholic Social Teachings.Cristina Richie - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):179-190.
    This article will examine the Catholic concept of global justice within a health care framework as it relates to women's needs for delivery doctors in the developing world and women's demands for assisted reproduction in the developed world. I will first discuss justice as a theory, situating it within Catholic social teachings. The Catholic perspective on global justice in health care demands that everyone have access to basic needs before elective treatments are offered to the wealthy. After exploring specific discrepancies (...)
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  24.  14
    Reading between the lines: Infertility and current health insurance policies in the US.Cristina Richie - 2014 - Clinical Ethics 9 (4):127-134.
    This article will examine current US health insurance policies for providing fertility services and Assisted Reproductive Technologies and analyze the open-ended policies of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This state in particular will be discussed in depth, as there are virtually no limits on infertility provision or coverage. However, tightening up Massachusetts’s health insurance policies by putting parameters on provision and coverage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies will allow the infertile to continue to access paid-for treatment while ensuring that the goal of (...)
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  25.  10
    The Augustinian Legacy of the Procreative Marriage: Contemporary Implications and Alternatives.Cristina Richie - 2014 - Feminist Theology 23 (1):18-36.
    Augustine’s legacy, particularly his view of marriage as being primarily procreative and the sin of mutually desired non-procreative sex, has had a lasting impact on sexual theology and ethics in the Catholic Church. Yet indulging in the Augustinian legacy without reflection and regarding children as the end goal of marriage has led to the unchallenged assumption that children are needed in every marriage. I will examine the problematic concept of matrimony as a necessary producer of children through a variety of (...)
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