The metamemory approach to memory confidence was extended and elaborated to deal with semantic memory tasks. The metamemory approach assumes that memory confidence is based on the products and processes of a completed memory task, as well as metamemory beliefs that individuals have about how their memory products and processes relate to memory accuracy. In two experiments participants were asked deceptive and nondeceptive questions involving geographical information. In both experiments, as predicted by the metamemory approach to memory confidence, there was (...) a positive confidence/ accuracy relationship for nondeceptive items and a negative relationship for deceptive items. Experiment 2 used items that constrained the memory strategies (e.g., hierarchical reasoning about spatial location) used by the participants. The results supported the hypothesis that the participants were aware of the levels of memory accuracy associated with the different strategies and used that information to generate their memory confidence judgments. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to think about the possibility of political philosophy, taking Leo Strauss's work as a point of departure. It examines why contemporary nihilism - in its most widespread and sometimes hidden personifications - prevents the achievement, and even the existence, of a reflection on the nature of political things. Assuming that Strauss's reflections on "natural right" are as much the key to understanding "the central problem of political philosophy" as to confronting Strauss's principal opponents, this (...) article analyzes the meaning and the plausibility of Strauss's critique of the motives that lead us to nihilism and, if these prove to be appropriate, to indicate how a "rebirth of classical political philosophy" could reconduct us to a philosophical meditation on the good life, what is good, the best society, and "how man must live".Trata-se de pensar a possibilidade da filosofia política. Para tanto, procura-se situar a questão a partir da obra de Leo Strauss, objetivando-se mostrar por que o niilismo contemporâneo - em suas mais difundidas e às vezes insuspeitas manifestações - impede a realização e mesmo a existência de uma reflexão sobre a natureza das coisas políticas. Tendo-se a retomada por parte de Strauss do "direito natural" como chave de leitura tanto para o "problema central da filosofia política" quanto para o enfrentamento de seus principais opositores, espera-se investigar o sentido e a plausibilidade das críticas aos motivos que nos conduzem ao niilismo e, caso estas se mostrem apropriadas, apontar como um proposto "renascimento do racionalismo político clássico" pode reconduzir à interrogação filosófica acerca do que é bom, da boa vida, da melhor sociedade, de "como deve o homem viver". (shrink)
Trata-se de pensar a possibilidade da filosofia política. Para tanto, procura-se situar a questão a partir da obra de Leo Strauss, objetivando-se mostrar por que o niilismo contemporâneo – em suas mais difundidas e às vezes insuspeitas manifestações – impede a realização e mesmo a existência de uma reflexão sobre a natureza das coisas políticas. Tendo-se a retomada por parte de Strauss do “direito natural” como chave de leitura tanto para o “problema central da filosofia política” quanto para o enfrentamento (...) de seus principais opositores, espera-se investigar o sentido e a plausibilidade das críticas aos motivos que nos conduzem ao niilismo e, caso estas se mostrem apropriadas, apontar como um proposto “renascimento do racionalismo político clássico” pode reconduzir à interrogação filosófica acerca do que é bom, da boa vida, da melhor sociedade, de “como deve o homem viver”. (shrink)
The main theme of this paper is Kierkegaard´s understanding of the imagination and the structure of dialectic of imagination in aesthetic and religious dimensions.O tema principal deste trabalho é a compreensão kierkegaardiana da imaginação e a estrutura da dialética da imaginação nos estádios estético e religioso.
In this paper, we thoroughly investigate the various solutions proposed to solve the problems of transplantation system in Romania. Three types of solutions are especially envisaged: legislative ones, institutional ones and cultural/religious ones. We carefully analyze the main ethical and logistical arguments on presumed consent and its alternatives in Romania: family consent provided by the relatives and mandated choice. Special attention is dedicated both to institutional solutions (organizational, educational and information issues) and to religious arguments and motivations, for there were (...) several indicators of their importance for Romanian bioethical discourse in general and for their prevalence in transplantation debates in particular. . (shrink)
A proposta deste estudo é investigar, a partir de três estudos de caso relacionados às eleições de 2010 no Brasil (o Eleitor 2010, o 10Perguntas e o Ficha Limpa), em que medida tais iniciativas de democracia digital de fato contribuíram para ampliar a capacidade do cidadão de exercer algum controle ou influência sobre o processo eleitoral. Para tanto, analisamos o funcionamento de cada site, as ferramentas de ação e de consulta, assim como ganhos de visibilidade, transparência, controle social e empowerment (...) do cidadão. Conclui-se que, apesar de possuírem propostas consistentes, as iniciativas geraram mínimo impacto em relação às campanhas (e aos candidatos), além de atraírem a contribuição de poucos eleitores. (shrink)
Using an economic bargaining game, we tested for the existence of two phenomena related to social norms, namely norm manipulation – the selection of an interpretation of the norm that best suits an individual – and norm evasion – the deliberate, private violation of a social norm. We found that the manipulation of a norm of fairness was characterized by a self-serving bias in beliefs about what constituted normatively acceptable behaviour, so that an individual who made an uneven bargaining offer (...) not only genuinely believed it was fair, but also believed that recipients found it fair, even though recipients of the offer considered it to be unfair. In contrast, norm evasion operated as a highly explicit process. When they could do so without the recipient's knowledge, individuals made uneven offers despite knowing that their behaviour was unfair. (shrink)
Barcelona has become one of the most touristic cities in the world, with more than 18 million visitors per year, coming to a city with only 1.7 million inhabitants. The model of tourism is depredatory, destroying old neighborhoods and pushing Catalans out of the city. At the same time, people from the Global South come to the city, but in more precarious conditions. They find a city that does not welcome them and that puts them in the worst conditions. I (...) want to focus on two movies that present Barcelona as an ill city. On the one hand, we have Woody Allen’s Vicky, Cristina, Barcelona, a movie that shows the upper-class American tourism in a European city. On the other hand, Alejandro González Iñárritu’s Biutiful, also starred by Javier Bardem, shows us another story about Barcelona. This is a movie that pays attention to the bottom of the well, Spanish lower-class workers struggling shoulder to shoulder with lower class migrants, people who will never enjoy the life that Allen`s characters have. In this paper I want to show how film can represent illness in different ways. To do so, I first explain, very briefly, the Barcelona model, a model of inclusive, modern city that Vicky and Cristina enjoy. But, this model insofar as it includes people, it excludes them. I will show the construction of the City from 1888 to 1992/2004 and how it has created spaces of inclusion and exclusion. In the second part, I will analyze the right to housing and the housing crisis that is currently affecting the city. In this part, I want to focus both in the crisis and in the social mobilization that it has brought about. After constructing this context, I will analyze the two movies, as instruments to show/hide the diseases of the city. (shrink)
In the dialogue between Timothy F. Murphy and Cristina Richie about queer bioethics and queer reproduction in this journal, significant points of the emergent and extremely important discussions on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer bioethics are raised. Richie specifies correctly that queer bioethics can either complement or contradict LGBT bioethics and the queer standpoint against heteroconformity and heterofuturity is decisive here. As the field of queer bioethics is such a recent and essential part of consideration for bioethics and (...) as it is still evolving, the objective of this intervention is to provide both an overview of important milestones of queer bioethics and to highlight that queer bioethics is not mono-logic and monolithic. To exemplify queer bioethic's ‘many-headed monsters’, queer reproduction is revisited and complemented by a European viewpoint. It is central to my argument and here I disagree with Richie that to be against heterofuturity does not necessarily mean to be against queer reproduction. However, I also argue that there are other reasons why queer reproduction should not be pursued at all costs. Finally, I discuss the most recent debates on race, class and citizenship, for example, queer necropolitics. These points still need to be addressed in queer bioethical agendas. (shrink)
This article looks at two sorts of conceptual work in Cristina Rocha’s John of God: The Globalization of Brazilian Faith Healing : theoretical appliqué and comparative contextualization. The first involves using an ad hoc set of concepts to set out series of partial interpretations. Despite not offering one unified interpretation, this approach has the advantages of respecting the complexity of the case and indicating a range of relevant interpretative pathways. The second involves the standard work, in the study of (...) religion, of placing the religious movement or other object of study in relation to its religious landscape, influences and competitors, by comparing and contrasting beliefs and practices. Though the book would be better if both of these dimensions of conceptual work had been pushed further, Rocha’s theoretical appliqué is worth considering for its value as a model for other work. The goal of this article is to highlight the value of theoretical appliqué and to suggest how it could be done effectively. (shrink)
O ensaio tem como objeto o estudo das estratégias ficcionais presentes na correspondência da poetisa, missivista e tradutora Ana Cristina César, com o intuito de dar visibilidade aos espaços públicos e privados na literatura da contemporaneidade. Como fonte de pesquisa dos novos limiares existentes entre esses espaços foi escolhida a obra Correspondência incompleta, de 1999. De uma perspectiva historicizada, o ensaio traça o percurso teórico-crítico de definição desses espaços. Analisa alguns exemplos, tomados das cartas, para apresentar o entrecruzamento desses (...) espaços, oferecendo o ponto de vista da literatura. (shrink)
In her article “Human Rights and the Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions” published in this volume of RLPF, Cristina Lafont argues that in order to impose human rights obligations to global governance institutions, the state-centric conception of human rights that pervades current international politics must be replaced by an alternative, pluralist account. In this response I claim that, when properly interpreted, the state-centric conception is not only perfectly compatible with imposing on global governance institutions the kind of obligations Lafont (...) has in mind, but may also lead us to a better understanding of the nature of these responsibilities in a globalized world. (shrink)
O propósito deste artigo é mostrar como a carta de Galileu a Cristina de Lorena procura compatibilizar o sistema copernicano com o texto bíblico. Para isso, ela obedece aos cânones da arte de escrever cartas ( ars dictaminis ) codificados desde a Idade Média, cujas partes tradicionais são: saudação, captatio benevolentiae, exposição, petição e conclusão.
Through an analysis of the interconnections or lack thereof between gender and epistemology, I present Cristina García's The Agüero Sisters as a text of Latina feminist philosophy. First, I use the works of Linda Alcoff and Walter Mignolo to illustrate the political nature of epistemology and how women and people of color in particular are disenfranchised from such a political endeavor. Then I examine the connections among the concepts of origin, absence, inheritance, and knowledge-construction in García's novel to further (...) a critique of standard epistemology and point to an emphasis on reconnection with feminine and maternal knowledge for this text's female characters. Moreover, a depiction and elaboration of María Lugones's ideas of the “coloniality of gender” and “decolonial feminism” in this novel augments this critical examination of epistemology and places emphasis on women as knowledge-producers. (shrink)
In this new publication, Cristina Cormos professionally addresses a sensitive issue, complex and difficult in the same time, and ambitiously manages to give us a picture of international migration viewed through identity change. Starting from the hypothesis that "migration is a change that simultaneously occurs in both physical and socio-cultural realms, which implies not only movement from one community to another, but also the disintegration of structural bonds in the departure area, paralleled by a cultural assimilation of the destination (...) environment", the author analyzes identity changes of the emigrants throughout the entire migration process, the factors underlying these changes, as well as the consequences and implications of these factors in the return migration. The issues addressed within this book also cover the changes occurred in the family and community of origin as a result of the absence of one of its members and of the manifestation of identity changes respectively. (shrink)
The paper aims at analysing the fundamental theoretical aspects of the latest book by Maria Cristina Bartolomei, La dimensione simbolica and at showing some possible paths of research it suggests in the direction of a hermeneutical perspective opened to the metaphysics. After reflecting about what the author of the book affirms regarding the vision of the symbol from ‘high’ and from ‘low’ and the relation which it has with interpretation and concept, the suggested symbolic character of thought is analyzed (...) in connection with the themes of analogy and paradox. On one hand, it is pointed out that analogy is related both to symbol (Ricoeur) and to concept (Gadamer) and it is inquired how it is possible to describe the relationship between proportion and proportionality implied with analogy. On the other hand, it is underlined how the original principle can be thought in our fallen situation not only by means of symbol and analogy (Bartolomei), but also in the light of symbol and paradox, understood as form of thought which recomposes the break between finite and infinite without removing the signs of it (Ciancio). Finally, it is inquired if analogy and paradox, conceived as critical and conceptual forms of symbol, can light up the relationship among mystical, symbolic and common experience which seems to characterize our existence. (shrink)
In her book Rationality and coordination (Cambridge University Press, 1994) Cristina Bicchieri brings together (and adds to) her own contributions to game theory and the philosophy of economics published in various journals in the period 1987-1992. The book, however, is not a collection of separate articles but rather a homogeneous unit organized around some central themes in the foundations of non-cooperative game theory. Bicchieri’s exposition is admirably clear and well organized. Somebody with a good knowledge of game theory would (...) probably benefit mainly from reading the second part of Chapter 3 (from Section 3.6 onward) and Chapter 4. On the other hand, those who have had little exposure to game theory, would certainly benefit from reading the entire book. I shall begin with an overview of the content of the book and then offer some critical comments on what I consider to be the most important part of it. (shrink)
El presente artículo muestra los esfuerzos realizados por Cristina de Pizán a la hora de combatir el discurso misógino. En este contexto de lucha por el reconocimiento de las mujeres, Pizán se sirve de dos armas: el dominio del propio cuerpo femenino para contrarrestar los ataques masculinos y el discurso como herramienta para configurar performativamente una identidad flexible, abierta y en constante proceso de construcción.
Los caminos espinosos en la construcción del conocimiento son un cometido al que solo el animal humano se ha enfrentado. El uso de un lenguaje proposicional le ha permitido iniciar construcciones racionales, que dan origen a las teorías más complejas en pos de comprender los enigmas del universo, y con ello iniciar la separación tajante entre episteme y doxa. Los discursos más enmarañados, rígidos y rigurosos convocan a científicos y epistemólogos. Enunciados con términos que, en ocasiones, se tornan oscuros y (...) poco comprensibles a quienes inician sus procesos formativos en el campo de la ciencia y la filosofía. Tal vez por ello se presenta un contraste actual en la enseñanza de las ciencias: por una parte, quienes apuestan por enseñar la rigidez de los enunciados científicos, y la conciben bajo un lenguaje unívoco, neutral y de carácter lógico-deductivo; y por otro lado, quienes la humanizan desde dinámicas móviles y cimentaciones semánticas artificiosas, las cuales, se alejan —como lo expone Héctor Palma en el prólogo del libro Bestiario epistemológico. Metáforas zoomórficas y de otras entidades en la enseñanza de las ciencias y la epistemología– de los enunciados depurados y se valen de nuevos discursos desde el ámbito literario, en los que abundan las metáforas. (shrink)