A completeness theorem is established for logics with congruence endowed with general semantics. As a corollary, completeness is shown to be preserved by fibring logics with congruence provided that congruence is retained in the resulting logic. The class of logics with equivalence is shown to be closed under fibring and to be included in the class of logics with congruence. Thus, completeness is shown to be preserved by fibring logics with equivalence and general semantics. An example is provided showing that (...) completeness is not always preserved by fibring logics endowed with standard semantics. A categorial characterization of fibring is provided using coproducts and cocartesian liftings. (shrink)
Fibring is recognized as one of the main mechanisms in combining logics, with great signicance in the theory and applications of mathematical logic. However, an open challenge to bring is posed by the collapsing problem: even when no symbols are shared, certain combinations of logics simply collapse to one of them, indicating that bring imposes unwanted interconnections between the given logics. Modulated bring allows a ner control of the combination, solving the collapsing problem both at the semantic and deductive levels. (...) Main properties like soundness and completeness are shown to be preserved, comparison with bring is discussed, and some important classes of examples are analyzed with respect to the collapsing problem. (shrink)
Satisfaction systems and reductions between them are presented as an appropriate context for analyzing the satisfiability and the validity problems. The notion of reduction is generalized in order to cope with the meet-combination of logics. Reductions between satisfaction systems induce reductions between the respective satisfiability problems and (under mild conditions) also between their validity problems. Sufficient conditions are provided for relating satisfiability problems to validity problems. Reflection results for decidability in the presence of reductions are established. The validity problem in (...) the meet-combination is proved to be decidable whenever the validity problem for the components are decidable. Several examples are discussed, namely, involving modal and intuitionistic logics, as well as the meet-combination of modal logic and intuitionistic logic. (shrink)
Motivated by applications in software engineering, we propose two forms of combination of logics: synchronization on formulae and synchronization on models. We start by reviewing satisfaction systems, consequence systems, one-step derivation systems and theory spaces, as well as their functorial relationships. We define the synchronization on formulae of two consequence systems and provide a categorial characterization of the construction. For illustration we consider the synchronization of linear temporal logic and equational logic. We define the synchronization on models of two satisfaction (...) systems and provide a categorial characterization of the construction. We illustrate the technique in two cases: linear temporal logic versus equational logic; and linear temporal logic versus branching temporal logic. Finally, we lift the synchronization on formulae to the category of logics over consequences systems. (shrink)
The novel notion of importing logics is introduced, subsuming as special cases several kinds of asymmetric combination mechanisms, like temporalization [8, 9], modalization  and exogenous enrichment [13, 5, 12, 4, 1]. The graph-theoretic approach proposed in  is used, but formulas are identified with irreducible paths in the signature multi-graph instead of equivalence classes of such paths, facilitating proofs involving inductions on formulas. Importing is proved to be strongly conservative. Conservative results follow as corollaries for temporalization, modalization and exogenous (...) enrichment. (shrink)
A new technique is presented for proving that a consequence system enjoys Craig interpolation or Maehara interpolation based on the fact that these properties hold in another consequence system. This technique is based on the existence of a back and forth translation satisfying some properties between the consequence systems. Some examples of translations satisfying those properties are described. Namely a translation between the global/local consequence systems induced by fragments of linear logic, a Kolmogorov-Gentzen-Gödel style translation, and a new translation between (...) the global consequence systems induced by full Lambek calculus and linear logic, mixing features of a Kiriyama-Ono style translation with features of a Kolmogorov-Gentzen-Gödel style translation. These translations establish a strong relationship between the logics involved and are used to obtain new results about whether Craig interpolation and Maehara interpolation hold in that logics . (shrink)
Arrow and turnstile interpolations are investigated in UCL [introduced by Sernadas et al. ], a logic that is a complete extension of classical propositional logic for reasoning about connectives that only behave as expected with a given probability. Arrow interpolation is shown to hold in general and turnstile interpolation is established under some provisos.
The essential structure of proofs is proposed as the basis for a measure of complexity of formulas in FOL. The motivating idea was the recognition that distinct theorems can have the same derivation modulo some non essential details. Hence the difficulty in proving them is identical and so their complexity should be the same. We propose a notion of complexity of formulas capturing this property. With this purpose, we introduce the notions of schema calculus, schema derivation and description complexity of (...) a schema formula. Based on these concepts we prove general robustness results that relate the complexity of introducing a logical constructor with the complexity of the component schema formulas as well as the complexity of a schema formula across different schema calculi. (shrink)
The main objective of this paper is to define a logic for reasoning about distributed time-stamped claims. Such a logic is interesting for theoretical reasons, i.e. as a logic per se, but also because it has a number of practical applications, in particular when one needs to reason about a huge amount of pieces of evidence collected from different sources, where some of the pieces of evidence may be contradictory and some sources are considered to be more trustworthy than others. (...) We introduce the time-stamped claim logic including a sound and complete sequent calculus. In order to show how time-stamped claim logic can be used in practice, we consider a concrete cyber-attribution case study. (shrink)
We give an axiomatization of first‐order logic enriched with the almost‐everywhere quantifier over finitely additive measures. Using an adapted version of the consistency property adequate for dealing with this generalized quantifier, we show that such a logic is both strongly complete and enjoys Craig interpolation, relying on a (countable) model existence theorem. We also discuss possible extensions of these results to the almost‐everywhere quantifier over countably additive measures.
We introduce a general recipe for presenting non-classical logics in a modular and uniform way as labelled deduction systems. Our recipe is based on a labelling mechanism where labels are general entities that are present, in one way or another, in all logics, namely truth-values. More specifically, the main idea underlying our approach is the use of algebras of truth-values, whose operators reflect the semantics we have in mind, as the labelling algebras of our labelled deduction systems. The “truth-values as (...) labels” approach allows us to give generalized systems for multiple-valued logics within the same formalism: since we can take multiple-valued logics as meaning not only finitely or infinitely many-valued logics but also power-set logics, i.e. logics for which the denotation of a formula can be seen as a set of worlds, our recipe allows us to capture also logics such as modal, intuitionistic and relevance logics, thus providing a first step towards the fibring of these logics with many-valued ones. (shrink)
Fibring is defined as a mechanism for combining logics with a first-order base, at both the semantic and deductive levels. A completeness theorem is established for a wide class of such logics, using a variation of the Henkin method that takes advantage of the presence of equality and inequality in the logic. As a corollary, completeness is shown to be preserved when fibring logics in that class. A modal first-order logic is obtained as a fibring where neither the Barcan formula (...) nor its converse hold. (shrink)