Results for 'Criteria'

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  1.  98
    Identity Criteria: An Epistemic Path to Conceptual Grounding.Massimiliano Carrara & Ciro De Florio - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Are identity criteria grounding principles? A prima facie answer to this question is positive. Specifically, two-level identity criteria can be taken as principles related to issues of identity among objects of a given kind compared with objects of a more basic kind. Moreover, they are grounding metaphysical principles of some objects with regard to others. In the first part of the paper we criticise this prima facie natural reading of identity criteria. This result does not mean that (...)
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  2.  85
    Set-Theoretical Invariance Criteria for Logicality.Solomon Feferman - 2010 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (1):3-20.
    This is a survey of work on set-theoretical invariance criteria for logicality. It begins with a review of the Tarski-Sher thesis in terms, first, of permutation invariance over a given domain and then of isomorphism invariance across domains, both characterized by McGee in terms of definability in the language L∞,∞. It continues with a review of critiques of the Tarski-Sher thesis, and a proposal in response to one of those critiques via homomorphism invariance. That has quite divergent characterization results (...)
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  3.  65
    Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison.Clément Vidal - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each (...)
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  4. Privacy at Work – Ethical Criteria.Anders J. Persson & Sven Ove Hansson - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (1):59 - 70.
    New technologies and practices, such as drug testing, genetic testing, and electronic surveillance infringe upon the privacy of workers on workplaces. We argue that employees have a prima facie right to privacy, but this right can be overridden by competing moral principles that follow, explicitly or implicitly, from the contract of employment. We propose a set of criteria for when intrusions into an employee''s privacy are justified. Three types of justification are specified, namely those that refer to the employer''s (...)
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  5. Some Empirical Criteria for Attributing Creativity to a Computer Program.Graeme Ritchie - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):67-99.
    Over recent decades there has been a growing interest in the question of whether computer programs are capable of genuinely creative activity. Although this notion can be explored as a purely philosophical debate, an alternative perspective is to consider what aspects of the behaviour of a program might be noted or measured in order to arrive at an empirically supported judgement that creativity has occurred. We sketch out, in general abstract terms, what goes on when a potentially creative program is (...)
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  6.  52
    Political Theory and Linguistic Criteria in Han Feizi’s Philosophy.Aloysius P. Martinich - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):379-393.
    Han Feizi’s 韓非子 thought, I argue, contains a political theory that justifies principled, law-governed government. A key element of his theory is a solution to the problem of rectifying names. He recognized that the same word can have varying criteria of application depending on the purpose of the practice that requires a criterion. Some criteria for a practice are good and some bad. A wise ruler knows which criteria are good and appropriate to ruling. His view is (...)
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  7.  18
    Causal Criteria and the Problem of Complex Causation.Andrew Ward - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):333-343.
    Nancy Cartwright begins her recent book, Hunting Causes and Using Them, by noting that while a few years ago real causal claims were in dispute, nowadays “causality is back, and with a vengeance.” In the case of the social sciences, Keith Morrison writes that “Social science asks ‘why?’. Detecting causality or its corollary—prediction—is the jewel in the crown of social science research.” With respect to the health sciences, Judea Pearl writes that the “research questions that motivate most studies in the (...)
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  8.  34
    Semantic Criteria of Correct Formalization.Timm Lampert - 2010 - In Proceedings of Gap Conference.
    This paper compares several models of formalization. It articulates criteria of correct formalization and identifies their problems. All of the discussed criteria are so called “semantic” criteria, which refer to the interpretation of logical formulas. However, as will be shown, different versions of an implicitly applied or explicitly stated criterion of correctness depend on different understandings of “interpretation” in this context.
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  9.  15
    How to Be Real and Conventional: A Discussion of the Quality Criteria of Official Statistics.Alain Desrosières - 2009 - Minerva 47 (3):307-322.
    Are the categories used to study the social world and acting on it real or conventional ? An empirical answer to that question is given by an analysis of the debates about the quality of statistics produced by the European National Institues of statistics in the 1990s. Six criteria of quality were then specified: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, accessibility, comparability and coherence. How do statisticians and users of statistics deal with the tension produced by their objects being both real (they (...)
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  10.  38
    Reflections on Peer Review Practices in Committees Selecting Laureates for Prestigious Awards and Prizes: Some Relevant and Irrelevant Criteria.Ashok K. Vijh - 1996 - Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):389-394.
    An important function in all scholarly and academic activities is the participation in the peer review system. One aspect of this peer review evaluation is service on committees judging candidates for important awards, prizes and fellowships. Some reflective observations on this process are made in which a number of factors determining the final choice are identified. It is pointed out that the decisions of such committees are based not only on relevant and objective criteria but are also influenced by (...)
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  11.  54
    Free Will, Determinism, and the Theory of Important Criteria.Michael A. Slote - 1969 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 12 (1-4):317-38.
    The Theory of Important Criteria is used to argue that the age?old problem of the compatibility of free will and determinism turns on the question of the importance of causal indeterminacy of choice as a criterion of being able to do otherwise. One's answer to this question depends in turn on one's evaluation of certain moral issues and of the force and significance of certain similes, analogies and diagrams in terms of which one can ?depict? a deterministic universe. It (...)
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  12.  23
    OFSTED, Criteria and the Nature of Social Understanding: A Wittgensteinian Critique of the Practice of Educational Judgement.Peter Gilroy & Brian Wilcox - 1997 - British Journal of Educational Studies 45 (1):22-38.
    Since their inception in 1993 OFSTED inspections have generated considerable controversy amongst teachers and educationists generally, Much of the criticism to date has centred on the effects which such inspections have had on schools and their staffs. In contrast little sustained concern has been shown about the underlying assumptions of the OFSTED inspection process. This article identifies as the central feature of that process a particular but tacit conception of judgement. This conception is examined from an essentially Wittgensteinian perspective and (...)
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  13.  29
    Dominance Criteria for Welfare Comparisons: Using Equivalent Income to Describe Differences in Needs. [REVIEW]Udo Ebert - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (1):55-67.
    The article demonstrates that the dominance approach—often used for the measurement of welfare in a population in which there are different household types (see e.g., Atkinson and Bourguignon, Arrow and the foundations of the theory of economic policy, 350–370, 1987)—can be based on explicit value judgments on the households’ living standard. We define living standard by equivalent income (functions) and consider classes of inequality averse social welfare functions: Welfare increases if the inequality of living standard is decreased. In this framework, (...)
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  14.  29
    The Relative Importance of Ethics, Environmental, Social and Governance Criteria.Krüger J. Viviers S. - 2012 - African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):120.
    Responsible investing (RI) is a growing phenomenon in the international investment arena. This article investigates the level of knowledge of members of South African pension/provident funds with regard to RI and the importance with which they view various ethical, environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Respondents ( n = 281) indicated a relatively low level of understanding of the concept of RI. Significant differences were noted in the perceptions of respondents about the relative importance of ethical and ESG (...) based on their gender and level of education. The findings could assist asset owners in reformulating their investment mandates, which in turn, will enable fund managers to invest in a more responsible manner. (shrink)
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  15.  20
    The Relative Importance of Ethics, Environmental, Social and Governance Criteria.S. Viviers, J. Krüger & D. J. Venter - 2012 - African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):120.
    Responsible investing (RI) is a growing phenomenon in the international investment arena. This article investigates the level of knowledge of members of South African pension/provident funds with regard to RI and the importance with which they view various ethical, environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Respondents (_n_ = 281) indicated a relatively low level of understanding of the concept of RI. Significant differences were noted in the perceptions of respondents about the relative importance of ethical and ESG criteria (...)
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  16. Criteria of Personal Identity and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis.Theodore Sider - 2001 - Philosophical Perspectives 15 (s15):189-209.
    When is there no fact of the matter about a metaphysical question? When multiple candidate meanings are equally eligible, in David Lewis's sense, and fit equally well with ordinary usage. Thus given certain ontological schemes, there is no fact of the matter whether the criterion of personal identity over time is physical or psychological. But given other ontological schemes there is a fact of the matter; and there is a fact of the matter about which ontological scheme is correct.
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  17.  26
    Research Across the Disciplines: A Road Map for Quality Criteria in Empirical Ethics Research.Marcel Mertz, Julia Inthorn, Günter Renz, Lillian Geza Rothenberger, Sabine Salloch, Jan Schildmann, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):17.
    Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE (...)
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  18.  19
    Criteria for Patient Decision Making (in)Competence: A Review of and Commentary on Some Empirical Approaches. [REVIEW]Sander P. K. Welie - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):139-151.
    The principle of autonomy presupposes Patient Decision Making Competence (PDMC). For a few decades a considerable amount of empirical research has been done into PDMC. In this contribution that research is explored. After a short exposition on four qualities involved in PDMC, different approaches to assess PDMC are distinguished, namely a negative and a positive one. In the negative approach the focus is on identifying psychopathologic conditions that impair sound decision making; the positive one attempts to assess whether a patient (...)
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  19.  28
    A Review of the Definitional Criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. [REVIEW]Yvonne Christley, Tim Duffy & Colin R. Martin - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):25-31.
  20.  89
    Wittgenstein on Criteria and Other Minds.Jack Temkin - 1990 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):561-593.
  21.  58
    Criteria and Necessity.Richard Rorty - 1973 - Noûs 7 (4):313-327.
  22.  80
    Criteria and Other Minds.Alec Hyslop - 1973 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):105-14.
  23.  8
    Monitoring Outcomes in Routine Practice: Defining Appropriate Measurement Criteria.Andrew F. Long & Paul Dixon - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (1):71-78.
  24.  81
    Promoting Peace in Engineering Education: Modifying the ABET Criteria.George D. Catalano - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (2):399-406.
    Modifications to the ABET Criterion 3 are suggested in support of the effort to promote the pursuit of peace in engineering education. The proposed modifications are the result of integrating the United Nations’ sponsored “Integral Model of Education for Peace, Democracy and Sustainable Development” into the modern engineering curriculum. The key elements of the model are being at peace with oneself, being at peace with others, and being at peace with the planet. In addition to proposing modifications, specific classroom activities (...)
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  25.  12
    Clarifying Efficiency-Equity Tradeoffs Through Explicit Criteria, with a Focus on Developing Countries.Chris James, Guy Carrin, William Savedoff & Piya Hanvoravongchai - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (1):33-51.
  26.  39
    Our Criteria for Third-Person Psychological Sentences.Carl Wellman - 1961 - Journal of Philosophy 58 (May):281-93.
  27.  75
    Malcolm on Criteria.Charles Sayward - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):349-358.
    Consider the general proposition that normally when people pain-behave they are in pain. Where a traditional philosopher like Mill tries to give an empirical proof of this proposition (the argument from analogy), Malcolm tries to give a transcendental proof. Malcolm’s argument is transcendental in that he tries to show that the very conditions under which we can have a concept provide for the application of the concept and the knowledge that the concept is truly as well as properly applied. The (...)
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  28.  39
    Multiple Criteria and Trade-Offs in Environmental Ethics.Sahotra Sarkar - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):533-537.
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  29.  36
    Criteria, Perception and Other Minds.Harrison B. Hall - 1976 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (June):257-274.
    The paper uses thompson clark's theory of the relation of perceptual parts and wholes to illuminate certain aspects of our knowledge of other minds. The thesis is that the traditional problem can be usefully broken down into two parts--One of which calls for a better understanding of the logic of perceptual concepts; the other, For a closer look at what happens when we try to take the epistemological skeptic seriously.
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  30.  23
    The Identification of Risk Factors for Infectious Patients with Acute Fever and Formulation of Activation Criteria to Alert Outpatient Clinic Doctors.Hongli Xiao, Haiyu Qi, Xingwang Li, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Suxia Ma, Zongli Diao, Yan Wang, Fangfang Sun & Chenghong Yin - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1248-1253.
  31.  6
    Success Criteria for Different Forms of Dialogue.Vittorio Hösle - 2018 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 60 (1):1-20.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 60 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-20.
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  32.  19
    Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Criteria for Identifying Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure: Cross‐Sectional Study.Ana Maestre, Vicente Gil, Javier Gallego, José Aznar, Antonia Mora & Alberto Martín-Hidalgo - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (1):55-61.
  33.  17
    The Identification of Risk Factors for Critically Ill Patients with Acute Fever and Formulation of Activation Criteria to Alert Outpatient Clinic Doctors.Hongli Xiao, Haiyu Qi, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Suxia Ma, Zongli Diao, Yan Wang, Fangfang Sun & Chenghong Yin - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):721-726.
  34.  17
    Consensus on 'Core/Essential' and 'Ideal World' Criteria of a Pre‐Discharge Occupational Therapy Home Assessment.Sarah Barras, Karen Grimmer-Somers & Esther May - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1295-1300.
  35.  24
    Theories, Analogies, and Criteria.William Hasker - 1971 - American Philosophical Quarterly 8 (3):242-256.
  36.  10
    Italian or Foreigner? Concerning Student Classification Criteria in Social Research.Debora Mantovani - 2011 - Polis: Research and studies on Italian society and politics 25 (1):65-98.
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  37.  10
    Effects of Attribute Probability on Response Criteria Adjustments in a Memory Retrieval Task.Joseph Dumas & Elaine Gross - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):307.
  38.  16
    Criteria of the Physical.Herb Yarvin - 1978 - Metaphilosophy 9 (April):122-132.
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  39. Elementary Teacher Candidates' Construction of Criteria for Selecting Social Studies Lesson Plans for Electronic Portfolios.Cynthia Szymanski Sunal, Theresa McCormick, Dennis W. Sunal & Craig Shwery - 2005 - Journal of Social Studies Research 29 (1):7-17.
     
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  40. Criteria and Entailment.Robert L. Arrington - 1979 - Ratio (Misc.) 21 (June):62-72.
     
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  41.  15
    Ethical Criteria for Health-Promoting Nudges: A Case-by-Case Analysis.Bart Engelen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):48-59.
    Health-promoting nudges have been put into practice by different agents, in different contexts and with different aims. This article formulates a set of criteria that enables a thorough ethical evaluation of such nudges. As such, it bridges the gap between the abstract, theoretical debates among academics and the actual behavioral interventions being implemented in practice. The criteria are derived from arguments against nudges, which allegedly disrespect nudgees, as these would impose values on nudgees and/or violate their rationality and (...)
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  42. Identity Criteria and Ground.Kit Fine - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (1):1-19.
    I propose formulating identity criteria as generic statements of ground, thereby avoiding objections that have been made to the more usual formulations.
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  43. Criteria of Identity and Structuralist Ontology.Hannes Leitgeb & James Ladyman - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):388-396.
    In discussions about whether the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles is compatible with structuralist ontologies of mathematics, it is usually assumed that individual objects are subject to criteria of identity which somehow account for the identity of the individuals. Much of this debate concerns structures that admit of non-trivial automorphisms. We consider cases from graph theory that violate even weak formulations of PII. We argue that (i) the identity or difference of places in a structure is not to (...)
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  44.  69
    Explaining Evolutionary Innovations and Novelties: Criteria of Explanatory Adequacy and Epistemological Prerequisites.Alan C. Love - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):874-886.
    It is a common complaint that antireductionist arguments are primarily negative. Here I describe an alternative nonreductionist epistemology based on considerations taken from multidisciplinary research in biology. The core of this framework consists in seeing investigation as coordinated around sets of problems (problem agendas) that have associated criteria of explanatory adequacy. These ideas are developed in a case study, the explanation of evolutionary innovations and novelties, which demonstrates the applicability and fruitfulness of this nonreductionist epistemological perspective. This account also (...)
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  45. Stabilizing Constructs Through Collaboration Across Different Research Fields as a Way to Foster the Integrative Approach of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project.Jacqueline Sullivan - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (00):00.
    In this article, I explain why stabilizing constructs is important to the success of the Research Domain Criteria Project and identify one measure for facilitating such stability.
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  46. Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent? [REVIEW]Kenneth Einar Himma - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these well-settled (...)
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  47.  52
    Constructing the Death Elephant: A Synthetic Paradigm Shift for the Definition, Criteria, and Tests for Death.D. A. Shewmon - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):256-298.
    In debates about criteria for human death, several camps have emerged, the main two focusing on either loss of the "organism as a whole" (the mainstream view) or loss of consciousness or "personhood." Controversies also rage over the proper definition of "irreversible" in criteria for death. The situation is reminiscent of the proverbial blind men palpating an elephant; each describes the creature according to the part he can touch. Similarly, each camp grasps some aspect of the complex reality (...)
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  48.  20
    Biological Criteria of Disease: Four Ways of Going Wrong.John Matthewson & Paul E. Griffiths - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (4).
    We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four “ways of (...)
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  49. On the Very Idea of Criteria for Personhood.Timothy Chappell - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (1):1-27.
    I examine the familiar criterial view of personhood, according to which the possession of personal properties such as self-consciousness, emotionality, sentience, and so forth is necessary and sufficient for the status of a person. I argue that this view confuses criteria for personhood with parts of an ideal of personhood. In normal cases, we have already identified a creature as a person before we start looking for it to manifest the personal properties, indeed this pre-identification is part of what (...)
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  50. Principles of Composition and Criteria of Identity.Katherine Hawley - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):481 – 493.
    I argue that, despite van Inwagen’s pessimism about the task, it is worth looking for answers to his General Composition Question. Such answers or ‘principles of composition’ tell us about the relationship between an object and its parts. I compare principles of composition with criteria of identity, arguing that, just as different sorts of thing satisfy different criteria of identity, they may satisfy different principles of composition. Variety in criteria of identity is not taken to reflect ontological (...)
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