Results for 'Cummins Gauthier Candace'

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  1.  20
    The Virtue of Moral Responsibility in Healthcare Decisionmaking.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (3):273-281.
    The principle of respect for autonomy is increasingly under siege as a valuable component of healthcare ethics. Its critics charge that it has been elevated to a position out of proportion to its contribution, so that the individual's wishes and rights have come to dominate healthcare decisionmaking, while obligations and responsibilities are ignored or devalued. If we are to salvage respect for autonomy we must find a way to reconnect the individual and the community, rights and responsibilities, in the way (...)
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  2.  66
    Moral Responsibility and Respect for Autonomy: Meeting the Communitarian Challenge.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (4):337-352.
    : The principle of respect for autonomy has come under increasing attack both within health care ethics, specifically, and as part of the more general communitarian challenge to predominantly liberal values. This paper will demonstrate the importance of respect for autonomy for the social practice of assigning moral responsibility and for the development of moral responsibility as a virtue. Guided by this virtue, the responsible exercise of autonomy may provide a much-needed connection between the individual and the community.
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  3.  62
    Privacy Invasion by the News Media: Three Ethical Models.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):20 – 34.
    In this article I provide an overview of philosophical conceptions of privacy and suggest 3 models to assist with the ethical analysis of privacy invasion by the news media. The models are framed by respect for persons (Kantian), the comparison of harms and benefits (Utilitarian), and the transfer of power. After describing the models, I demonstrate how they can be applied to news reporting that invades the privacy of public figures.
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  4.  24
    The Virtue of Moral Responsibility and the Obligations of Patients.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (2):153 – 166.
    The American Medical Association has provided a list of patient responsibilities, said to be derived from patient autonomy, without providing any justification for this derivation. In this article, the virtue of moral responsibility is proposed as a way to justify these kinds of limits on respect for individual autonomy. The need for such limits is explained by examining the traditional principles of health care ethics. What is missing in health care decision making, and can be provided by the virtue of (...)
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  5.  14
    Active Voluntary Euthanasia, Terminal Sedation, and Assisted Suicide.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2001 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 12 (1):43.
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  6.  14
    Philosophical Foundations of Respect for Autonomy.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 1993 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (1):21-37.
  7.  9
    Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 1992 - Idealistic Studies 22 (3):247-248.
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  8.  13
    Can Privacy and Social Networking Co-Exist?Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2012 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):157 - 159.
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 157-159, April-June.
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  9.  12
    News Media Coverage of National Tragedies.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2003 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):33-45.
    The coverage of national tragedies by the news media has come under increasing criticism. Yet, we continue to watch, listen, and read. One approach to resolving this conflict is through an understanding and recognition of the contribution the news media make to public discourse and public grieving.Themes from communication studies, political theory, and contemporary ethics are all employed to develop a new perspective on this type of news coverage. The perspective taken here is based on the ritual view of communication, (...)
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  10.  5
    The Value of Emotionally Expressive Visual Art in Medical Education.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 1996 - Journal of Medical Humanities 17 (2):73-83.
    This paper approaches the topic of visual art in medical education from a philosophical perspective, drawing on arguments from epistemology, philosophy of science, aesthetics, and contemporary ethical theory. Several medical ethicists have noted that the traditional clinical paradigm may increase the epistemic and emotional distance between patient and physician in part by focusing on the physical body and medical technology. Some of these same writers recommend a new approach to patients based on empathy and increased attention to suffering. After reviewing (...)
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  11.  2
    Michael Boylan, Ph. D., is Professor of Philosophy at Marymount University. He is the Author or Editor of ten Books in Philosophy, Including Genetic Engineering: Science and Ethics on the New Frontier. Additionally, He has Pub-Lished More Than 60 Articles on the Philosophy of Science, Ancient Philosophy, Ethics, and Literary Theory. [REVIEW]Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11:214-215.
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  12. Toward a Professional Responsibility Theory of Public Relations Ethics.Kathy Fitzpatrick & Candace Gauthier - 2001 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2):193-212.
    This article contributes to the development of a professional responsibility theory of public relations ethics. Toward that end, we examine the roles of a public relations practitioner as a professional, an institutional advocate, and the public conscience of institutions served. In the article, we review previously suggested theories of public relations ethics and propose a new theory based on the public relations professional's dual obligations to serve client organizations and the public interest.
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  13.  10
    Teaching the Virtues: Justifications and Recommendations.Candace C. Gauthier - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (3):339-.
    The current interest in and discussion of virtue ethics suggests that this approach to moral decisionmaking has several distinct advantages as applied to ethical issues in healthcare delivery. For the most part, calls to incorporate the virtues of the healthcare provider in discussions of these issues have sought to supplement rather than totally replace traditional ethical theories, such as the utilitarian focus on maximizing the best overall consequences and the Kantian concern to act on the duty of respect for persons. (...)
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  14. The Impact of Recombinant DNA Technology on Genetic Screening.Candace C. Gauthier - 1989 - Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (1):25-48.
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  15. Understanding and Respecting Privacy.Candace Gauthier - 2010 - In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press.
     
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  16.  9
    Moral Dealing: Contract, Ethics, and Reason.Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement.Rex Martin, David Gauthier & Peter Vallentyne - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (172):373.
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  17.  1
    Le Promeneur Solitaire: Rousseau and the Emergence of the Post-Social Self*: David Gauthier.David Gauthier - 1990 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (1):35-58.
    1. The portrait and the man – each is unique. “Here is the only portrait of a man, painted exactly from nature and completely true to it.” And this man, “it will be myself…. Myself alone…. I am different.” And yet this unique portrait of this unique man, “may be used as the first comparative work in the study of man, which is certainly yet to be begun.”.
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  18. Comments on Smith on Cummins.Robert Cummins - 2002 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Philosophy of Mental Representation. Clarendon Press.
     
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  19.  77
    Representations, Targets, and Attitudes.Robert C. Cummins - 1996 - MIT Press.
  20. Rationality, Justice and the Social Contract Themes From Morals by Agreement.David P. Gauthier & Robert Sugden - 1993
  21.  49
    Right to Know, Press Freedom, Public Discourse.Cummins Gauthier Candace - 1999 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (4):197-212.
    The people's right to know and press rights to gather and publish information remain dominant justifications for controversial media activities. Yet, the power of the media to set the agenda for public discourse in our country warrants a careful analysis of these rights, their corresponding responsibilities, and their moral limits. This article examines the right to know and press freedom from the perspective of their shared purpose, facilitation of informed decision making. This article also demonstrates moral justification of limits on (...)
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  22. Morals by Agreement.David P. Gauthier - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
    Is morality rational? In this book Gauthier argues that moral principles are principles of rational choice. He proposes a principle whereby choice is made on an agreed basis of cooperation, rather than according to what would give an individual the greatest expectation of value. He shows that such a principle not only ensures mutual benefit and fairness, thus satisfying the standards of morality, but also that each person may actually expect greater utility by adhering to morality, even though the (...)
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  23. Reply to Fairley and Manktelow's Comment on “Naive Theories and Causal Deduction”.Denise Dellarosa Cummins - unknown
    Fairley and Manktelow (1997) have mistaken an error of presentation for an error of substance. My causal the- ory remains the same: Causal reasoning scenarios that require the reasoner to decide whether or not an effect will occur in the presence of a viable cause trigger considera- tion of disabling conditions—that is, factors that could prevent the effect from occurring in the presence of a vi- able cause. Scenarios that require the reasoner to decide whether or not a particular cause (...)
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  24.  21
    What Systematicity Isn't.Robert C. Cummins, James Blackmon & David Byrd - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:405-408.
    In “On Begging the Systematicity Question,” Wayne Davis criticizes the suggestion of Cummins et al. that the alleged systematicity of thought is not as obvious as is sometimes supposed, and hence not reliable evidence for the language of thought hypothesis. We offer a brief reply.
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  25.  53
    Hobbes on Demonstration and Construction.David P. Gauthier - 1997 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (4):509-521.
    Hobbes on Demonstration and Construction DAVID GAUTHIER 1~ IN 1656 Hobbes published Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics, with an Epistle Dedicatory to the Marquis of Dorchester, Lord Pierrepont. In this Epistle, Hobbes distinguishes the demonstrable from the indemonstrable arts: "demonstrable are those the construction of the subject whereof is in the power of the artist himself, who, in his demonstration, does no more but deduce the consequences of his own operation" . Although this passage, with the explication (...)
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  26. Haugeland on Representation and Intentionality.Robert C. Cummins - 2002 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Philosophy of Mental Representation. Oxford University Press.
    Haugeland doesn’t have what I would call a theory of mental representation. Indeed, it isn’t clear that he believes there is such a thing. But he does have a theory of intentionality and a correlative theory of objectivity, and it is this material that I will be discussing in what follows. It will facilitate the discussion that follows to have at hand some distinctions and accompanying terminology I introduced in Representations, Targets and Attitudes (Cummins, 1996; RTA hereafter). Couching the (...)
     
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  27.  51
    Cognitive Evolutionary Psychology Without Representational Nativism.Denise D. Cummins, Robert C. Cummins & Pierre Poirier - 2003 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 15 (2):143-159.
    A viable evolutionary cognitive psychology requires that specific cognitive capacities be (a) heritable and (b) ‘quasi-independent’ from other heritable traits. They must be heritable because there can be no selection for traits that are not. They must be quasi-independent from other heritable traits, since adaptive variations in a specific cognitive capacity could have no distinctive consequences for fitness if effecting those variations required widespread changes in other unrelated traits and capacities as well. These requirements would be satisfied by innate cognitive (...)
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  28.  34
    Sequencing and Optimization Within an Embodied Task Dynamic Model.Juraj Simko & Fred Cummins - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (3):527-562.
    A model of gestural sequencing in speech is proposed that aspires to producing biologically plausible fluent and efficient movement in generating an utterance. We have previously proposed a modification of the well-known task dynamic implementation of articulatory phonology such that any given articulatory movement can be associated with a quantification of effort (Simko & Cummins, 2010). To this we add a quantitative cost that decreases as speech gestures become more precise, and hence intelligible, and a third cost component that (...)
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  29. Morality and Rational Self-Interest.David P. Gauthier - 1970 - Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
    Reason, egoism, and utilitarianism, by H. Sidgwick.--Is egoism reasonable? By G. E. Moore.--Ultimate principles and ethical egoism, by B. Medlin.--In defense of egoism, by J. Kalin.--Virtuous affections and self-love, by F. Hutcheson.--Our obligation to virtue, by D. Hume.--Duty and interest, by H. A. Prichard.--The natural condition of mankind and the laws of nature, by T. Hobbes.--Why should we be moral? By K. Baier.--Morality and advantage, by D. P. Gauthier.--Bibliographical essay (p. 181-184).
     
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  30.  8
    Constituting Democracy.David Gauthier - unknown
    This is the text of The Lindley Lecture for 1989, given by David Gauthier, a Canadian philosopher.
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  31.  1
    Guy BORDIN, On dansait seulement la nuit. Fêtes chez les Inuit du nord de la Terre de Baffin.François Gauthier - forthcoming - Rhuthmos.
    Ce compte rendu a déjà paru dans les Archives de sciences sociales des religions 164 | 2013. Nous remercions beaucoup François Gauthier et les ASSR de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. G. Bordin, On dansait seulement la nuit. Fêtes chez les Inuit du nord de la Terre de Baffin, Nanterre, Publications de la Société d'ethnologie, coll. « Anthropologie de la nuit », 2011, 116 p. Ce beau petit livre publié par la Société d'ethnologie de Nanterre s'inscrit dans (...)
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  32.  20
    The World in the Head.Robert Cummins - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    Robert Cummins presents a series of essays motivated by the following question: Is the mind a collection of beliefs and desires that respond to and condition our feeling and perceptual experiences, or is this just a natural way to talk about it? What sort of conceptual framework do we need to understand what is really going on in our brains?
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  33.  67
    Rousseau: The Sentiment of Existence.David Gauthier - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Rousseau is often portrayed as an educational and social reformer whose aim was to increase individual freedom. In this volume David Gauthier examines Rousseau's evolving notion of freedom, where he focuses on a single quest: can freedom and the independent self be regained? Rousseau's first answer is given in Emile, where he seeks to create a self-sufficient individual, neither materially nor psychologically enslaved to others. His second is in the Social Contract, where he seeks to create a citizen who (...)
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  34.  80
    Meaning and Mental Representation.Robert C. Cummins - 1989 - MIT Press.
  35.  73
    The Nature of Psychological Explanation.Robert C. Cummins - 1983 - MIT Press.
  36. Functional Analysis.Robert C. Cummins - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (November):741-64.
  37. "How Does It Work" Versus "What Are the Laws?": Two Conceptions of Psychological Explanation.Robert C. Cummins - 2000 - In F. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (eds.), Explanation and Cognition, 117-145. MIT Press.
    In the beginning, there was the DN (Deductive Nomological) model of explanation, articulated by Hempel and Oppenheim (1948). According to DN, scientific explanation is subsumption under natural law. Individual events are explained by deducing them from laws together with initial conditions (or boundary conditions), and laws are explained by deriving them from other more fundamental laws, as, for example, the simple pendulum law is derived from Newton's laws of motion.
     
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  38. Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology.Andre Ariew, Robert C. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
  39. Programs in the Explanation of Behavior.Robert C. Cummins - 1977 - Philosophy of Science 44 (June):269-87.
    The purpose of this paper is to set forth a sense in which programs can and do explain behavior, and to distinguish from this a number of senses in which they do not. Once we are tolerably clear concerning the sort of explanatory strategy being employed, two rather interesting facts emerge; (1) though it is true that programs are "internally represented," this fact has no explanatory interest beyond the mere fact that the program is executed; (2) programs which are couched (...)
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  40.  11
    Teaching Business Ethics in UK Higher Education: Progress and Prospects.Christopher J. Cowton & Julian Cummins - 2003 - Teaching Business Ethics 7 (1):37-54.
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  41. Conditional Reasoning and Causation.Denise D. Cummins & Todd Lubart - unknown
    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative contributions of syntactic form and content to conditional reasoning. The content domain chosen was that of causation. Conditional statements that described causal relationships (if (cause>, then (effect>) were embedded in simple arguments whose entailments are governed by the rules -oftruth-functional logic (i.e., modus ponens, modus tollens, denying the antecedent, and affirming the consequent). The causal statements differed in terms ofthe number of alternative causes and disabling conditions that characterized the causal relationship. (A (...)
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  42.  31
    Beyond Faces and Modularity: The Power of an Expertise Framework.Cindy M. Bukach, Isabel Gauthier & Michael J. Tarr - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):159-166.
  43. Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification?Napoleon Katsos, Clara Andrés Roqueta, Rosa Ana Clemente Estevan & Chris Cummins - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):43-57.
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  44.  67
    Assure and Threaten.David Gauthier - 1994 - Ethics 104 (4):690-721.
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  45. Inexplicit Representation.R. Cummins - 1986 - In Myles Brand (ed.), The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
     
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  46.  5
    Improving Fairness in Coverage Decisions: Performance Expectations for Quality Improvement.Matthew K. Wynia, Deborah Cummins, David Fleming, Kari Karsjens, Amber Orr, James Sabin, Inger Saphire-Bernstein & Renee Witlen - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):87-100.
    Patients and physicians often perceive the current health care system to be unfair, in part because of the ways in which coverage decisions appear to be made. To address this problem the Ethical Force Program, a collaborative effort to create quality improvement tools for ethics in health care, has developed five content areas specifying ethical criteria for fair health care benefits design and administration. Each content area includes concrete recommendations and measurable expectations for performance improvement, which can be used by (...)
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  47. Reflection on Reflective Equilibrium.Robert C. Cummins - 1998 - In Michael DePaul & William Ramsey (eds.), Rethinking Intuition. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 113-128.
    As a procedure, reflective equilibrium is simply a familiar kind of standard scientific method with a new name. A theory is constructed to account for a set of observations. Recalcitrant data may be rejected as noise or explained away as the effects of interference of some sort. Recalcitrant data that cannot be plausibly dismissed force emendations in theory. What counts as a plausible dismissal depends, among other things, on the going theory, as well as on background theory and on knowledge (...)
     
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  48. Inexplicit Information.Robert C. Cummins - 1986 - In Myles Brand & Robert M. Harnish (eds.), The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. University of Arizona Press.
    A discussion of a number of ways that information can be present in a computer program without being explicitly represented.
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  49. Neo-Teleology.Robert C. Cummins - 2002 - In Andre Ariew, Robert E. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Oxford University Press.
    Neo-teleology is the two part thesis that, e.g., (i) we have hearts because of what hearts are for: Hearts are for blood circulation, not the production of a pulse, so hearts are there--animals have them--because their function is to circulate the blood, and (ii) that (i) is explained by natural selection: traits spread through populations because of their functions. This paper attacks this popular doctrine. The presence of a biological trait or structure is not explained by appeal to its function. (...)
     
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  50. Representation and Unexploited Content.James Blackmon, David Byrd, Robert C. Cummins, Alexa Lee & Martin Roth - 2006 - In Graham F. Macdonald & David Papineau (eds.), Teleosemantics. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper, we introduce a novel difficulty for teleosemantics, viz., its inability to account for what we call unexploited content—content a representation has, but which the system that harbors it is currently unable to exploit. In section two, we give a characterization of teleosemantics. Since our critique does not depend on any special details that distinguish the variations in the literature, the characterization is broad, brief and abstract. In section three, we explain what we mean by unexploited content, and (...)
     
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