24 found
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  1. Scientific Collaboration: Do Two Heads Need to Be More Than Twice Better Than One?Thomas Boyer-Kassem & Cyrille Imbert - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):667-688.
    Epistemic accounts of scientific collaboration usually assume that, one way or another, two heads really are more than twice better than one. We show that this hypothesis is unduly strong. We present a deliberately crude model with unfavorable hypotheses. We show that, even then, when the priority rule is applied, large differences in successfulness can emerge from small differences in efficiency, with sometimes increasing marginal returns. We emphasize that success is sensitive to the structure of competing communities. Our results suggest (...)
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  2.  56
    Unfolding in the Empirical Sciences: Experiments, Thought Experiments and Computer Simulations.Rawad El Skaf & Cyrille Imbert - 2013 - Synthese 190 (16):3451-3474.
    Experiments (E), computer simulations (CS) and thought experiments (TE) are usually seen as playing different roles in science and as having different epistemologies. Accordingly, they are usually analyzed separately. We argue in this paper that these activities can contribute to answering the same questions by playing the same epistemic role when they are used to unfold the content of a well-described scenario. We emphasize that in such cases, these three activities can be described by means of the same conceptual framework—even (...)
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  3. Can Simulations Be Explanatory an Why Do They Seem Not to Be?Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Computer simulations are usually considered to be non-explanatory because, when a simulation reveals that a property is instantiated in a system, it does not enable the exact identification of what it is that brings this property out (relevance requirement). Conversely, analytical deductions are widely considered to yield explanations and understanding. In this paper, I emphasize that explanations should satisfy the relevance requirement and argue that the more they do so, the more they have explanatory value. Finally, I show that this (...)
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  4. Models, Simulations, and Representations.Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.) - 2011 - Routledge.
    Although scientific models and simulations differ in numerous ways, they are similar in so far as they are posing essentially philosophical problems about the nature of representation. This collection is designed to bring together some of the best work on the nature of representation being done by both established senior philosophers of science and younger researchers. Most of the pieces, while appealing to existing traditions of scientific representation, explore new types of questions, such as: how understanding can be developed within (...)
     
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  5.  24
    Relevance, Not Invariance, Explanatoriness, Not Manipulability: Discussion of Woodward’s Views on Explanatory Relevance.Cyrille Imbert - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):625-636.
    According to Woodward’s causal model of explanation, explanatory information is relevant for manipulation purposes and indicates by means of invariant causal relations how to change the value of certain target explanandum variables by intervening on others. Therefore, the depth of an explanation is evaluated through the size of the domain of invariance of the generalization involved. In this article, I argue that Woodward’s account of explanatory relevance is still unsatisfactory and claim that the depth of an explanation should be explicated (...)
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  6. Models and Simluations.Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3).
    Special issue. With contributions by Anouk Barberouse, Sarah Francescelli and Cyrille Imbert, Robert Batterman, Roman Frigg and Julian Reiss, Axel Gelfert, Till Grüne-Yanoff, Paul Humphreys, James Mattingly and Walter Warwick, Matthew Parker, Wendy Parker, Dirk Schlimm, and Eric Winsberg.
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  7.  17
    Une objectivité kaléidoscopique : construire l'image scientifique du monde.Pierre-Alain Braillard, Alexandre Guay, Cyrille Imbert & Thomas Pradeu - 2011 - Philosophie 110 (3):46-71.
    Dans Science, Perception and Reality, Sellars distingue l’image manifeste de l’homme et l’image scientifique de l’homme. La première est obtenue à partir de la façon dont nous prenons conscience de nous-mêmes comme humains dans le monde. La seconde correspond à ce que les différentes sciences nous amènent à postuler sur la manière dont l’homme est constitué. Van Fraassen, lui, étend au monde ces concepts...
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  8.  17
    Inferential Power, Formalisms, and Scientific Models.Vincent Ardourel, Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Scientific models need to be investigated if they are to provide valuable information about the systems they represent. Surprisingly, the epistemological question of what enables this investigation has hardly been investigated. Even authors who consider the inferential role of models as central, like Hughes or Bueno and Colyvan, content themselves with claiming that models contain mathematical resources that provide inferential power. We claim that these notions require further analysis and argue that mathematical formalisms contribute to this inferential role. We characterize (...)
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  9.  18
    New Mathematics for Old Physics: The Case of Lattice Fluids.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):231-241.
    We analyze the effects of the introduction of new mathematical tools on an old branch of physics by focusing on lattice fluids, which are cellular automata -based hydrodynamical models. We examine the nature of these discrete models, the type of novelty they bring about within scientific practice and the role they play in the field of fluid dynamics. We critically analyze Rohrlich's, Fox Keller's and Hughes' claims about CA-based models. We distinguish between different senses of the predicates “phenomenological” and “theoretical” (...)
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  10.  19
    Explication Et Pertinence : Du Sel Ensorcelé À la Loi des Aires.Cyrille Imbert - 2011 - Dialogue 50 (4):689-723.
    ABSTRACT: Whereas relevance in scientific explanations is usually discussed as if it was a single problem, several criteria of relevance will be distinguished in this paper. Emphasis is laid upon the notion of intra-scientific relevance, which is illustrated using explanation of the law of areas as an example. Traditional accounts of explanation, such as the causal and unificationist accounts, are analyzed against these criteria of relevance. Particularly, it will be shown that these accounts fail to indicate which explanations fulfill the (...)
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  11. Cellular Automata, Modeling, and Computation.Anouk Barberousse, Sara Franceschelli & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Cellular Automata (CA) based simulations are widely used in a great variety of domains, fromstatistical physics to social science. They allow for spectacular displays and numerical predictions. Are they forall that a revolutionary modeling tool, allowing for “direct simulation”, or for the simulation of “the phenomenon itself”? Or are they merely models "of a phenomenological nature rather than of a fundamental one”? How do they compareto other modeling techniques? In order to answer these questions, we present a systematic exploration of (...)
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  12.  9
    Le sophiste et ses images : épistémologie du temps simulé.Cyrille Imbert - 2008 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 133 (3):309-318.
    Les simulations donnent l’impression de ressembler aux systèmes qu’elles représentent, au point d’en être peut-être des analogues. Dans cet article, je discute d’abord les différentes notions de temps qu’il faut distinguer pour bien analyser les simulations puis je montre sur cette base que, pour être de bonnes représentations scientifiques, les simulations ne doivent pas en général ressembler du point de vue temporel aux objets qu’elles représentent.Simulations often give the impression of being similar to the systems they represent. In this paper, (...)
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  13.  32
    Why Diachronically Emergent Properties Must Also Be Salient.Cyrille Imbert - 2005 - In Carlos Gershenson, Diederik Aerts & Bruce Edmonds (eds.), Worldviews, Science, and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific. pp. 99--116.
    In this paper, I criticize Bedau's definition of `diachronically emergent properties', which says that a property is a DEP if it can only be predicted by a simulation and is nominally emergent. I argue at length that this definition is not complete because it fails to eliminate trivial cases. I discuss the features that an additional criterion should meet in order to complete the definition and I develop a notion, salience, which together with the simulation requirement can be used to (...)
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  14.  6
    Explaining Scientific Collaboration: A General Functional Account.Thomas Boyer-Kassem & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    For two centuries, collaborative research has become increasingly widespread. Various explanations of this trend have been proposed. Here, we offer a novel functional explanation of it. It differs from ac- counts like that of Wray by the precise socio-epistemic mech- anism that grounds the beneficialness of collaboration. Boyer-Kassem and Imbert show how minor differences in the step-efficiency of collaborative groups can make them much more successful in particular configurations. We investigate this model further, derive robust social patterns concerning the general (...)
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  15.  5
    Improving Deliberations by Reducing Misrepresentation Effects.Cyrille Imbert, Thomas Boyer-Kassem, Vincent Chevrier & Christine Bourjot - forthcoming - Episteme:1-17.
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  16.  5
    Simulations, Explication, Compréhension : Essai D’Analyse critiqueSimulations, Explanation, Understanding: An Analytical Overview.Cyrille Imbert - 2017 - Philosophia Scientae 21:49-109.
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  17.  28
    Realism About the Complexity of Physical Systems Without Realist Commitments to Their Scientific Representations: How to Get the Advantages of Theft Without Honest Toil.Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    This paper shows that, under certain reasonable conditions, if the investigation of the behavior of a physical system is difficult, no scientific change can make it significantly easier. This impossibility result implies that complexity is then a necessary feature of models which truly represent the target system and of all models which are rich enough to catch its behavior and therefore that it is an inevitable element of any possible science in which this behavior is accounted for. I finally argue (...)
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  18.  32
    Introduction, SI of Synthese “The Collective Dimension of Science”.Cyrille Imbert, Ryan Muldoon, Jan Sprenger & Kevin Zollman - 2014 - Synthese 191 (1):1-2.
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  19. Cellular Automata in Fluid Dynamics: Not so Different.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
  20.  9
    Simulations, explication, compréhension : essai d’analyse critique.Cyrille Imbert - 2017 - Philosophia Scientiæ. Travaux d'Histoire Et de Philosophie des Sciences 21:49-109.
    J’analyse dans cet article la valeur explicative que peuvent avoir les simulations numériques. On rencontre en effet souvent l’affirmation selon laquelle les simulations permettent de prédire, de reproduire ou d’imiter des phénomènes, mais guère de les expliquer. Les simulations rendraient aussi possible l’étude du comportement d’un système par la force brute du calcul mais n’apporteraient pas une compréhension réelle de ce système et de son comportement. Dans tous les cas, il semble que, à tort ou à raison, les simulations posent, (...)
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  21.  17
    Relevance, Not Invariance, Explanatoriness, Not Manipulability: Discussion of Woodward on Explanatory Relevance.Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    In Woodward's causal model of explanation, explanatory information is information that is relevant to manipulation and control and that affords to change the value of some target explanandum variable by intervening on some other. Accordingly, the depth of an explanation is evaluated through the size of the domain of invariance of the generalization involved. In this paper, I argue that Woodward's treatment of explanatory relevance in terms of invariant causal relations is still wanting and suggest to evaluate the depth of (...)
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  22.  19
    Preface.Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert - 2011 - Synthese 180 (1):1-2.
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  23.  13
    Recurring Models and Sensitivity to Computational Constraints.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):259-279.
    Why are some models, like the harmonic oscillator, the Ising model, a few Hamiltonian equations in quantum mechanics, the poisson equation, or the Lokta-Volterra equations, repeatedly used within and across scientific domains, whereas theories allow for many more modeling possibilities? Some historians and philosophers of science have already proposed plausible explanations. For example, Kuhn and Cartwright point to a tendency toward conservatism in science, and Humphreys emphasizes the importance of the intractability of what he calls “templates.” This paper investigates more (...)
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  24.  8
    Getting the Advantages of Theft Without Honest Toil: Realism About the Complexity of Physical Systems Without Realist Commitments to Their Scientific Representations.Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    This paper shows that, under certain reasonable conditions, if the investigation of the behavior of a physical system is difficult, no scientific change can make it significantly easier. This impossibility result implies that complexity is then a necessary feature of models which truly represent the target system and of all models which are rich enough to catch its behavior and therefore that it is an inevitable element of any possible science in which this behavior is accounted for. I finally argue (...)
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